Information for Principal Investigator by 33GRVMI

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 21

									                ACHARYA N.G.RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
   DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, RAJENDRANAGAR,
                        HYDERABAD-500 030, A.P.

From                                                To
Dr. T. Raman Goud                                   The Dean of Agriculture
Professor and Head                                  ANGRAU, Rajendranagar
Department of Entomology                            Hyderabad-30
College of Agriculture
ANGRAU, Rajendranagar
Hyderabad – 30

                                Through propel channel

              L.No. 1/ Prof. And Head Ento/ KSU/ 2007 dated 14.08.2007

Sir,

       Sub: Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar- Project
            Proposal on low cost grain protection during storage- Submitted – Reg.

       Ref: 1)U.O. Note No. 5507/IP/ A1/2007 dtd. 12.04.2007 of Director of
              International programmes, ANGRAU, Rajendranagar,Hyd-500030
            2)Project presentation on 04.05.2007 at Office of the Director of Research,
             ANGRAU, Rajendranagar,Hyderabad-500030

       With reference to the above, the revised project proposal entitled “Low cost grain
protection during storage” is here with submitted from the Department of Entomology,
College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar for collaboration with Kansas State Universities,
USA for further action.



                                                                   Yours faithfully



                                                                   (T. Raman Goud)

Copy to the Director, International Programmes, ANGRAU, Rajendranagar
Copy to the Director of Research, ANGRAU, Rajendranagar
Copy to the Associate Dean, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar
Information for Principal Investigator
First           : Telugu
Middle          : Uma
Last            : Maheswari
List / Names of other individuals on :         Dr. K. Dharma Reddy
Project and primary responsibility             Professor
                                               Department of Entomology

                                               Dr. K. Vijaya Lakshmi
                                               Associate Professor
                                               Department of Entomology

Mailing Address         :Dept. of Entomology, College of Agriculture
                        Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University
                           Rajendranagar, Hyderabad- 500 030
City                    :Hyderabad
State                   :Andhra Pradesh
E. Mail Address         : uma_ento@yahoo.co.in
Phone                   : 040-24015161-163 Ext:377
Fax                     :040-24015318
Current employer        : Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University
Highest degree earned : Ph.D.
Institution             : Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University


List five relevant publications in last five years:
      1. K. Pramod Kumar Reddy B.V. Singh and K. Dharma Reddy, 2002 Sorghum,
                resistance to the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.): Antixenosis Insect
                Science Application 22(1): 9-19
      2. Srinivas V, Dharma Reddy K and Sridhar Y, 2003 Management of Sitophilus
              zeamaize in stored maize using grain protectants. Indian Journalof
              Entomology. 65(4): 492-495
      3. Srinivas V and Dharma Reddy K, 2004 Evaluation of various products of grain
            protectants against rice moth in maize. Journal of Research, ANGRAU.
            32(4): 24-33
   4. Sandhya Rani Ch, Vijaya Lakshmi K and Arjuna Rao P, 2000 Vegetable oils as
           surface protectants against bruchid, Callosobruchus chinensis infestation on
           chick pea. Indian journal of Plant Protection 30(1): 81-83
   5. Ramakrishna D, Vijaya Lakshmi K and Ratna sudhakar T, 2003 Friendly
           approaches in management of Sitophilus oryzae in maize. Proc. of National
           Symposium on Frontier areas of Entomological Research Nov. 5-7, New
           Delhi
   6. Sandhya Rani Ch and Vijaya Lakshmi K, 2004. Reaction of chick pea varieties
           to pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis         on the basis of biological
           parameters and physicochemical characters. Pest Management and Economic
           Zoology 12(2)): 123-129


Title of Proposal     :
LOW COST GRAIN PROTECTION DURING STORAGE
A) Project Description:
a) Introduction       : long term goals of the proposed project
       Insect pest management for stored grains has long history as a traditional
approach in which good husbandary is the primary requirement. However, the current
emphasis upon IPM is, in effect, a reassertation of the need to put traditional good
husbandary in places as the fundamental basis of pest control. In grain storage, as with
other durable agricultural products, a good commodity management and good store
management are more important and form the pre requisites for good insect reduction
during storage.
       Control of grain quality before storage i.e., by reducing intake of heavily infested
and badly damaged and unclean grain is always preferable. However, some times on
farm, grain stocks with relatively little insect damage, after several months of storage at
ambient conditions, allow rapid increase of insect population.
       Hence developing a scientific approach for grain storage pest management as a
part of food production and distribution management system needs understanding of
stored grain ecosystem.
       Integration of various control techniques that can fit in to frame work of IPM
focuses the importance of a multidisciplinary approach i.e., Entomology, Mycology, Seed
Physiology, Food science and Engineering etc. Development of environmentally friendly
measures by use of suitable contact insecticides or fumigants always help to minimize the
cost of insect pest control, taking in to account all costs and benefits. However,
determination of measurable losses of quantity and quality parameters will provide useful
information subject to the need for modification of methodology and technology for pest
management in particular situation.
       By evaluating the various management techniques like grain admixture treatment
with grain protectants, insecticide treatment to bulk grain, surface and bag /stacks,
insecticide treatment on fabric, space/floor etc. at farm level as well as bulk storage level,
a most cost effective recommendation can be made for wide spread use.
       Improvements made in large scale storage or bulk storage by identifying and
analyzing the problems, will have more merit and potential for general application. These
procedures need most cost effective timing for pest control (Hainer et al., 1990) and any
development of this type of approach can be proved to be beneficial.
b) Need for the proposed project:
       The insect species of most importance in the tropics as pests of stored grains
especially the cereals and pulses include majority of Coleopterans and Lepidopterans.
These damage grains mainly as primary and secondary pests. However, the status of pest
vary between different commodities, different varieties of same commodity, different
climatic regions and agro- industrial system and also different socio-economic groups.
Mainly grain is affected in storage by the form in which the commodity is stored i.e.,
during handling and processing, environmental conditions and by consumer attitudes.
The pest status also vary due to biotypes of the same insect species and also differences
in the capacity to cause grain damage (Mc Farlane, 1990) and also due to adaptations to
other food stuffs. In India, the total post harvest losses were estimated as 9.33 per cent
where infestation of grain has resulted in both qualitative and quantitative losses affecting
the nutritive value of the crop, due to which million tones of grain worth of several
hundred crores of rupees are lost. This has provoked the scientists to develop scientific
methods of pest management. The research in grain technology in the country like grain
admixture treatments, insecticide deposits on bulk grain, surfaces and bags /stacks,
insecticide deposits on fabric of grain stores, space treatment etc. has however lead to a
reduction in the pest status level. The emerging problems like development of insecticide
resistance (Rajendran, 1992) hazards to human health, persistence of chemical on treated
surface to a short period and their toxicity to natural enemies made the scientists to
rethink and research for a pest management programme that will be safer, economical
and justifiable.
        As such the development of a sound scientific knowledge control over both store
climate and storage insect infestation pressure can be achieved by technically developing
acceptable practical method that will be cost effective and can easily fit in to the system.
For this purpose there is a every need to develop a low cost technology for the
management of insect pests in storage.
c) Completed and on going significant activities relative to the proposed
work:
        As a part of academic activity, course is offered regularly to post graduate
students on pests of grain storage and their management. Training will be given
postgraduate students for pest identification, estimation of losses and their management.
        As a part of research, work was carried out in evaluating various grain protectants
for insect pest control, getting information on health status of seed saved by farmers from
areas of different climatic conditions and evaluation of different methods like grain
treatment, stack treatment or fabric treatment or floor treatment for pest management.
Emphasis will be given for evaluation as well as feasibility of using any of the above
mentioned techniques in reducing the storage losses in major food crops like cereals
(Rice, Maize, Jowar) and pulses or legumes (Pigeon pea and Black gram)
        Maize, Zea mays being one of the important cereal crop grown in Andhra Pradesh
to an extent of 3.77 lakh ha is damaged by six insect pests during storage among which
Sitophilus zeamais causes severe damage to the kernels to the extent of 31.0 per cent.
Studies carried out on efficacy of grain protectants including ABC dust, Lufenuron,
Flufenoxuron, Diflubenjuron and Malathion revealed that ABC dust @ 5g per kg seed
was found effective in reducing the pest to an extent of 100 per cent followed by
Malathion (Srinivas and Dharma Reddy, 2004). Seed hardness, color of the pericarp and
thickness showed the resistance against infestation of Sitophilus oryzae in sorghum
( Pramodkumar Reddy and Dharma Reddy, 1996).
Pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan is one of the important pulse crop grown in Andhra Pradesh.
The pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis was reported to cause loss in seed weight as
well as protein content. Studies made on the use of vegetable oils as surface protectants
against infestation of C. chinensis revealed that neem oil @ 3 ml per kg seed totally
repelled the adult beetles from egg laying and no adult emergence was observed followed
by rice bran oil (Sandhya Rani and Vijayalakshmi, 1999). Observations made on
mechanism of resistance or varietal preference by C. chinensis on pulses revealed that
size of the seed, weight of the seed, protein, ash, potassium and silica contents play major
role in influencing the development of the insect pest on seeds.


d) Issues and relevance to stake holders:
       By knowing the reasons or circumstances that lead to on-farm storage losses,
attempts will be made to encourage farmers to grow and plant variety with increased
resistance to damage by storage insects. By getting a relatively effective grain protectant,
safe grain storage period can be extended at reasonable prices to the farmers.
       At bulk storage level, adoption of improved technologies like vaccum creation
and fumigation with safe insecticides and also pest monitoring through traps help to
measure pest population levels at regular intervals as a parameter for estimating grain
damage and quality loss. Evaluation of vaccum creation during grain storage help to
achieve enhancement of insecticidal efficacy in reducing the pest.
       Knowledge and information generated due to research exemplify the possible
refinements of insect control procedures that improve storage pest management by farmer
both at house hold level and bulk storage level on large scale.
e) Role of stake holders in problem identification and implementation of the
proposal:
       To have clear idea with regard to the store climate as well as store commodity,
there is a need to have an understanding about the pest, its behaviour, stored community
as well as store conditions and store management which are the pre requisites.
       Emphasis will be given to collect information about various insect pests infesting
major food crops from farmers as well as bulk storage handling people or godowns. Data
will be collected on quantitative loss due to pest infestation, qualitative parameter
stability before and after infestation through surveys in different agro climatic areas of
Andhra Pradesh. Information will be obtained on the level of pest incidence, type of pest/
disease, the extent of damage, source of infestation, type of infestation, time of
infestation and method of available management techniques.
       During the research work, evaluation of the proven technology will be carried out
both at farm level and bulk storage level. Treatments will be imposed as per the schedule
and the best technology will be taken out.
f) Objectives:
   1) Documentation of pest intensity and losses due to insects and diseases in
       storage :
            a) Estimation of qualitative and quantitative losses due to insect pests
            b) Estimation of qualitative and quantitative losses due to diseases
   2) Stored grain insect pest Management :
            a) Management of stored grain pests with low risk grain protectants
            b) Management of stored grain pests with vaccum fumigation
   3) Transformation of the proven elite technology to the end users
1. Documentation of pest intensity and losses due to insects and diseases in
storage :
a) Losses due to insects in storage :
Protocol: For estimating the qualitative and quantitative losses due to insect pests and
moulds, survey will be made in six selected districts of Andhra Pradesh having more
cropped area under cultivation both in Maize and Pigeonpea. Samples of grain /seed will
be collected from both farmers for small scale storage and from godowns for large scale
storage. Samples from 30 godowns and 60 villages will be collected and observed for
seed health status.
Data will be collected on insect damaged kernels, brokens and wrinkled seeds, type of
pest infestation, level of pest infestation. Observations will also be recorded on effect of
seed infestation on quality parameters, variation in godown condition as well as due to
seasonal conditions.
The pest populations collected from both small scale storage and large scale storage of
seed will be cultured and maintained to study any variation with geographical
distribution.
The pest populations in bulk storage conditions will be monitored by setting of the probe
traps or pheromone traps or bait traps or dome traps( Mohan et al., 2004). Pest
populations will be monitored at regular intervals.
Other information including meteorological data, data from Directorate of Economics
and Statistics, data on storage structures will be collected and incorporated where ever
necessary.
Validity: Approved sampling procedures will be followed for analysis of data.
    Time line:
       One to three months- Selection of godowns, stake holders, preparation of data
        sheets etc.,
       Fourth to ten months- Collection of data from stake holders through sampling.
        Statistical analysis of the data
       Eleven and twelve months - documentation of the losses
b) Losses due to diseases in storage :
Protocol: For estimating the qualitative and quantitative losses due to moulds, survey
will be made in six selected districts of Andhra Pradesh having more cropped area under
cultivation both in Maize and Pigeonpea. Samples of grain /seed will be collected from
both farmers for small scale storage and from godowns for large scale storage. Samples
from 30 godowns and 60 villages will be collected and observed for seed health status.
Data will be collected on discoloured and shrivelled seeds, brokens and wrinkled seeds.
Observations will also be recorded on effect of seed infestation on quality parameters,
variation in godown condition as well as due to seasonal conditions.
The diseases collected from both small scale storage and large scale storage of seed will
be cultured and maintained to study any variation with geographical distribution.
Other information including meteorological data, data from Directorate of Economics
and Statistics, data on storage structures will be collected and incorporated where ever
necessary.
Validity: Approved sampling procedures will be followed for analysis of data.
 Isolation of mycoflora from the stored seeds will be analysed by employing the standard
techniques recommended by the International Seed testing Association(1966).
The blotter technique:      Pieces of sterile blotting paper will be placed in sterilized
petridishes and moistened with sterlilized distilled water. The non disinfected seeds,
surface disinfected seeds will be placed on the water soaked blotters and incubated under
controlled conditions at 20oc with alternating cycles of 12h ultraviolet light. The fungi
growing on the seeds were examined after eight days of inoculation and the data were
recorded.
Agar Plate Method: The standard agar plate method following International Rules for
Seed Testing (1966) will be followed. Non disinfected seeds, surface disinfected seeds
will be placed on the nutrient medium. The petridishes will be incubated for 7 days at
25+ 2 0C and fungi growing in association with each seed were isolated on Czapek’s
medium and identified. The percentage infection of fungal species screened from the
seeds during the course of investigation will be calculated.
   Time line:
      One to three months- Selection of godowns, stake holders, preparation of data
       sheets etc.,
      Four to ten months- Collection of data from stake holders through sampling.
       Statistical analysis of the data
      Eleven and twelve months - documentation of the losses


2. Stored grain insect pest Management :
a) Management of stored grain pests with low risk grain protectants:
    Maize Weevil, Sitophilus ziamaise on maize and Callosobruchus chinensis on pigeon
pea were found to have wide geographic distribution through out Andhra Pradesh. These
two pests are reported to be causing severe or huge losses to the respective crops during
storage. Several insecticides were used for application including inorganic as well as
organic insecticides. However to protect the environment and to be safe to human, usage
of botanical pesticides and insect growth regulators also became popular (Subramanyam
et al., 1993).
    However application of insecticides either to grain or to the surfaces, cracks or
crevices should leave a pesticide residue that is enough to kill the insects infesting the
grain or those crawling as treated surfaces. As the susceptibility of a storage insect pest
vary with the type of insect, surface to be treated, degree of insecticide coverage on the
treated surface as well as insecticide used, duration of exposure to the insecticide ,etc
(Michael tower et al., 2003). There is a every need to test different groups of insecticides
that are safer for human consumption and lethal to insect pests in reducing the pest
population.
Protocol:
    Insects: Adults of Sitophilus ziamaise and         Callosobruchus chinensis will be
collected from different areas showing infestation from 10 locations. Insects collected
from the store houses or the infested grain will be reared in glass or polythene jars of
30cm diameter and 30cm height at ambient temperature and relative humidity under
laboratory conditions.
    Insecticides: Insecticides of different groups including Spinosad, Abamectin,
Emamectin Benzoate, Malathion 50EC, Deltamethrin 2.8 EC and Azadirachtin 1500ppm
will be collected and stored under cool conditions. Insecticide dilutions will be made as
per the required concentration by using distilled water.
    Grain: Grains of maize and seeds of pigeon pea will be obtained from departmental
stores, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Damaged or broken seeds will be screened by
manual sieving over a aluminium sieve. Cleaned seed will be frozen for one week at low
temperature of –10 to –13 oC to kill any residual insect infestation. Both maize and
pigeon pea seed was calibrated to 10-11 % moisture content by drying and maintained at
temperature of 28oC and 65% relative humidity.
    Bioassays: Both seeds of maize and pigeon pea will be treated with the insecticides at
required doses. For this, 100g of seed will be placed in separate glass jars of 10-15 cm
diameter treated with 0.1ml of all insecticide solutions. Seed treated with liquids of
distilled water will serve as treated control (0 %). Seeds will be well mixed with the
insecticides by uniform trumbling. Then in to each jar 10 pairs of adults will be released
or introduced in to all treated and un treated grains. Infested jars will be closed with cloth
and will be incubated at 25oC and 65% RH after 25-30 days of inoculation, seed infested
with insects will be sieved and examined for recording number of egg plugs on pigeon
pea, no. of seeds infested , number of grubs/larvae infesting the seeds and also number of
live and dead adults. Each treatment with insecticides will be replicated five times. The
studies will be carried out under bulk storage by treating the stacks as well as the surfaces
like cement or concrete floor and gunny or jute bags of 1X1 1 . Treatment with different
group of insecticides at desired concentrations will be given to jute bags which are shade
dried and then used for storing the grains. The surface will be treated with insecticides
and left for drying. These bags will be filled with grains and stored as stacks in
comparison with untreated bags. Similarly experiments will be conducted in both surface
treated or untreated godowns.
Sampling will be done for every 15 days to record any insect infestation by using
sampling tools like probe traps/ dome traps. 10 samples will be taken from each bag at 3
heights for monitoring pest infestation levels. These will be five replications for
estimating pest population on treated surface of godowns, number of insects resulting in
an unit area will be counted and recorded. Observation on number of insects on both
treated and untreated surfaces will be recorded at weekly intervals.
Data Analysis: Analysis will be carried out to detect differences among different
insecticides in reducing the pest infestations or multiplication. The mean insect mortality
in treated grains will be calculated by following Abbott’s formula. Corrected dose and
mortality data will be subjected to probit analysis for determining LD50 and LD 95
values for the pests. Significant difference among insecticides in bringing about variation
in efficacy or in reducing the population will be verified.
Validity: Experiments will be carried out by following the bioassay methods (Pingale,
1976).
Time line:
      One to two months- Procurement of insecticides and other material like traps,
       temperature/ pressure gauges, storage bags or tins etc.,
      Three to four months- Procurement of grain/ seed material
      Five to ten months- Experimentation
      Eleven and twelve months- Statistical analysis of the data
b) Management of stored grain pests with vaccum fumigation:
       In vaccum fumigation, most of the air in grain storage chamber or cocoon is
removed before the fumigant is introduced. Nowadays this technique is mainly used for
fumigating storage material such as jute, wax and also the grain with hidden infestation.
Protocol: Effective of vaccum fumigation will be studied against two major pests i.e.,
Sitophilus zeamaize and Callosobruchus chinensis infesting maize and pigeon pea
respectively.
       To carry out studies on effect of vaccum fumigation in reducing the seed
infestation, air tight structures or cocoons which are provided with pump to evacuate the
chamber and also facility for introduction and exhaustion of the fumigant will be used.
With these cocoons, observations on effect of vaccum, phosphene and sulphuryl floride
on grain infestation as well as the effect of fumigation on insect pest behaviour and
mortality will be recorded.
Treatments:
   1. Vaccum @ 50 mg Hg for 24 hours
   2. Fumigation with PH3 @ 3g a.i/ ton/ 7 days
   3. Fumigation with SF3 @ a.i/ ton/ 7 days
   4. Vaccum @ 50 mg Hg for 24 hours followed by Fumigation with PH3 @ 3g a.i/
       ton/ 3 days
   5. Vaccum @ 50 mg Hg for 24 hours followed by Fumigation with SF3 @             a.i/ ton/
       days
   6. Untreated check
The chemical fumigants will be used at uniform concentration alone as well as in
combination.
       Experiment will be carried out on separate stacks of maize and red gram by
following above mentioned treatments with 5 replications. Studies will be made for a
period of 2 years in both Kharif and Rabi seasons of the year.
       For carrying studies, entire seed lot is covered with gas proof sheets or cocoons.
Initial vaccum will be tested at low oxygen pressure of 50mm mercury and the vaccum
will be created by using a vaccum pump which will be monitored with the help of
pressure guage. Then the fumigant will be allowed to remain in the cocoon for 24 hours
and later brought normal condition by opening the cocoon.
       For carrying bioassay studies both the larval and adult stages of the two test
insects will be kept with in the cocoon in mesh cages before initiation of experiment.
       Sampling will be carried out by drawing samples from bottom, middle and top
layers of the grain stacks before and after the treatment. Data will be recorded on the
number of live, moribund and dead insects due to fumigation. The same insects exposed
to treatments will be maintained in incubators for 1 week to 10 days to record
information on insect behavior.
Validity: Fumigation as standards outlined by Ministry of food and civil supplies, Govt.
of India (save grain campaign manual, 1990)
Time line:
      One to three months – Procurement of materials like cocoons, monitoring devices,
       chemicals, pressure gauges etc.,
      Fourth to ten months- Execution of the experiment in Kharif and Rabi seasons
      Eleven and twelve months- Statistical analysis of the data.


Stored grain disease management:
Management of diseases in stored grains:
       Among the various microorganisms associated with seeds, fungi play an
important role in determining the quality of grains and seeds (Mirocha et al., 1976;
Dennis, 1977). Fungi which contaminate grain and seed have been broadly classified into
field and storage fungi. The former attack the seeds before the harvest, while the latter
grow on a variety of organic and inorganic substrates. These fungi are present in the
atmosphere and thus serve as a source of contamination in stored seeds and grain. The
storage fungi which include predominantly species of Aspergillus and Pencillium are
abundantly present in atmosphere, serving as a source of contamination for grain and
seed. These fungi do not attack the seed in standing crops. Sinha and Wallace 1973,
reported an inter relationship among temperatures, moisture, viability of grain mites and
fungi. During storage moulds and other microbes establish over seeds by utilizing their
contents and deteriorate their quality. Because of the restriction on the use of synthetic
fungicides on food there is currently a need for less toxic, disease controlling compounds
for post harvest application. Hence it is necessary to test different fungicides to reduce
the storage fungi.
Protocol:
Fungi : Fusarium of maize and Alternaria of redgram Aspergillus and Penicillium are
the common fungi associated with the crops.
 Isolation of mycoflora from the stored seeds will be analyzed by employing the standard
techniques recommended by the International Seed testing Association (1966).
The blotter technique:   Pieces of sterile blotting paper will be placed in sterilized Petri
dishes and moistened with sterilized distilled water. The non disinfected seeds, surface
disinfected seeds will be placed on the water soaked blotters and incubated under
controlled conditions at 20oc with alternating cycles of 12h ultraviolet light. The fungi
growing on the seeds were examined after eight days of inoculation and the data were
recorded.
Agar Plate Method: The standard agar plate method following International Rules for
Seed Testing (1966) will be followed. Non disinfected seeds, surface disinfected seeds
will be placed on the nutrient medium. The Petri dishes will be incubated for 7 days at
25+ 2 0C and fungi growing in association with each seed were isolated on Czapek’s
medium and identified. The percentage infection of fungal species screened from the
seeds during the course of investigation will be calculated.
Fungicides: Fungicides like Manocozeb, Thiram, Carbendazim, Azadirachtin will be
used as per the required concentration.
Seed : Grains of maize and seeds of pigeon pea will be obtained from departmental
stores, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Damaged or broken seeds will be screened by
manual sieving over a aluminium sieve. Cleaned seed will be frozen for one week at low
temperature of –10 to –13 oC to kill any residual insect infestation. Both maize and
pigeon pea seed was calibrated to 10-11 % moisture content by drying and maintained at
temperature of 28oC and 65% relative humidity.


Bioassays: Both seeds of maize and pigeon pea will be treated with insecticides at
required doses. For this the seeds will be treated with different fungicides and placed in
the petriplate of assayed medium. The size and shape of the inhibition zone is relate to
the quantity and uniformity of dressing on the seed. Only the presence of an entire clear
cut zone of inhibition is considered as evidence of a treatment.
Data analysis: The zone of inhibition will be analyzed the size and shape of the
inhibition zone is relate to the quantity and uniformity of dressing on the seed. Only the
presence of an entire clear cut zone of inhibition is considered as evidence of a treatment.
Validity: Experiments will be carried out by following Bioassay methods
Time line:
      One to two months- Procurement of fungicides and other material like glass ware
       temperature/ pressure gauges, storage bags or tins etc.,
      Three to four months- Procurement of grain/ seed material
      Five to ten months- Experimentation
      Eleven and twelve months- Statistical analysis of the data
3. Transformation of the proven elite technology to the end users:
    A clear perception of the need is the most important requirement for finding a
solution that can be integrated in to the management system, should always meet the
business objectives as well as can fit with in the existing management capabilities. In this
context a correlation has been found between the grain holding capacity and adoption of
improved storage practices among the farmers in India (Thakre and Bansode, 1990)
   After carrying through studies on the management of the two test insects Sitophilus
oryzae infesting maize and Callosobruchus chinensis infesting pigeon pea with both
chemical and non chemical methods, the effective treatments or the techniques will be
demonstrated and evaluated both at small and large scale storage.
    a) At small domestic storage conditions or farm level storage:
    The elite technology will be transferred to the stake holders for evaluation of the
efficacy in reducing the pest infestation during storage. Around 60 villages will be
selected in three districts for each crop for evaluation of the technology.
    Observations will be made for a period of 3 months and data will be recorded on the
extent of pest infestation, behaviour and mortality of the pest.
    b) At large scale storage conditions or bulk storage:
Technical information about the proven effective technology will be given to the end
users carrying grain storage in large quantities like godowns. About 10 godowns will be
selected for demonstration and evaluation of the proven technology.
        Observations will be made for a period of 3 months and data will be recorded on
the extent of pest infestation, behaviour and mortality of the pest.
g) Expected out come:
       Both qualitative and quantitative losses during storage of maize and pigeon pea
        will be documented.
       Effective management technology including the grain protectants and the vaccum
        fumigation will be evolved.
       Transfer of technology to the end users
h) Cooperation from other Departments:
    1. Ministry of Food and Civil supplies, Food Corporation of India and Central Ware
        Housing Corporation
    2. Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University, USA
i) Facilities and resources:          The infrastructure available in the Departments of
Entomology, Pathology, Agricultural Research Institute and National Seed Project will be
utilized for carrying the studies.
j) References:
Dennis C, 1977 Susceptability of stored crops to microbial infection Annals of Applied
        Biology 85:430
Haines CP. Rees, D, Ryder, K Sistyanto, S and Cahyana, Y (1990) Brown rice bait bags
       for monitoring insect populations in bag stacks of milled rice as an aid to pest
       control decision making. In: Proceedings of the fifth International Working
       Conference on Stored Product protection, Bordeaux, France, September 9-14,
       1990 Pp: 1351-1358
Mc Farlane, JA (1990) Differences between some strains of stored grain beetles in their
       capacity to cause grain damage: Possible implications for the management of
       pesticide resistance. Tropical Science, 30: 357-371
Michael D, Toews, Bhadriraju Subramanyam and Jaclyn M Rowan, 2003 Knock
       down and mortality of adults of eight species of stored product beetles exposed to
       four surfaces treated with spinosad. Journal of Economic Entomology 96(6):
       1967-1973
Mirocha C J, Pathre, SV, Bethsehauerhamer and Christensen C.M , 1976 Natural
       occurrence of Fusarium toxins in feed stuff Applied Microbiology 32: 553
Mohan S, Palani Swamy S, Sugandhy M and Thiruselvan S, 2004 TNAU gadgets for the
       management of stored product insects in food grains. Pestology 28(9)
Pingale S, 1976 Handling of stored food grains. Indian Council of Agricultural Research,
       New Delhi
Pramod Kumar Reddy K and Dharma Reddy K, 1996 Genotypic resistance to major
       storage pests in sorghum. Thesis submitted to Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural
       University
Sandhya Rani Ch, Vijaya Lakshmi K, 1998 Reaction of chick pea varieties to pulse
       beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L and control with vegetable oils Thesis
       submitted to Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University
Subramanyam, Bh., J. Heaps and P. Harein 1993       Insecticide recommendations for
       food processing plants. University of Minnesota Extension service FS- 3921-A
Srinivas V and Dharma Reddy K, 2004        Evaluation of various    products of grain
           protectants against rice moth in maize. Journal of Research, ANGRAU.
           32(4): 24-33
Veeranki Srinivas, 1998 Relative abundance of stored grain pests of maize (Zea
       mays, L.) and their management, M.Sc. (Ag.) thesis submitted to Acharya N.G.
       Ranga Agricultural University
Biodata of investigators:
   1. Principal Investigator:
   a) Name                          : Dr. T. Uma Maheswari
                                    uma_ento@yahoo.co.in
                                    040-24015161-163 ext 377 (O)
                                    91- 9949818949 (M)
   b) Designation                   : Associate Professor
   c) Date of Birth                 : 28.05.1964
   d) Institution                   : College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad
   e) Qualification                 : Ph. D. in Agricultural Entomology
   f) Professional Experience       : 14 years
   g) Number of Publications        : 25
   h) Number of PG students guided: 8
   i) Present area of Research      : Biological Control of crop pests
   j) Relevant and recent publications:    Worked     as    Senior   Scientist   –   Seed
Entomology at National Seed Project, Rajendranagar and submitted report on efficacy of
grain protectants in the management of stored grain pests namely Rhizopertha dominica,
Sitophilus oryzae, Sitotraga cereallela and Callosobruchus chinensis infesting millets
and pulses. Studies were carried out on the efficacy of the biopesticide, Spinosad on R.
dominica in rice and Callosobruchus chinensis in black gram and red gram.
   2. Co- Principal Investigators:
   a) Name                           : Dr. K. Dharma Reddy
                                     kdharmareddy_6@ yahoo.com
                                     040-24015161-163 ext 377 (O)
                                     91- 9441258473 (M)
   b) Designation                    : Professor
   c) Date of Birth                  : 02.01.1956
   d) Institution                    : College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad
   e) Qualification                  : Ph. D. in Agricultural Entomology
   f) Professional Experience        : 21 years
   g) Number of Publications         : 49
   h) Number of PG students guided: 16
   i) Present area of Research       : Pest Management
   j) Relevant and recent publications:
V. Srinivas K. Dharma Reddy and Y. Sreedhar, 2001 Study on food consumption and
      utilization parameters of rice Corcyra cephalonica SHASHPA (A Journal of
      Entomological Research) 8(1): 51-53
K. Pramod Kumar Reddy B.V. Singh and K. Dharma Reddy, 2002 Sorghum, resistance
      to the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.): Antixenosis Insect Science Application
      22(1): 9-19
Srinivas Veeranki K. Dharma Reddy and Y. Sridhar, 2003 Management of Sitophilus
      zeamais in stored maize using grain protectants Indian J. Ent. 65(4): 492-495
K. Pramod Kumar Reddy K. Dharma Reddy andB.W. Singh, 2003 Components of
      resistance in sorghum to the rice weevil Indian J. Ent. 64(3): 262-274
S. Veeranki and K. Dharma Reddy, 2004 Evaluation of various products of grain
   Protectants against rice moth in maize J. Research, ANGRAU 32(4): 24-33
3. Co- Principal Investigators:
a) Name                           : Dr. K. Vijaya Lakshmi


                                  040-24015161-163 ext 377 (O)
                                  91- 9 (M)
b) Designation                    : Associate Professor
c) Date of Birth                  : 01.05.1965
d) Institution                    : College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad
e) Qualification                  : Ph. D. in Agricultural Entomology
f) Professional Experience        : 14 years
g) Number of Publications         : 30
h) Number of PG students guided: 8
i) Present area of Research       : Pest Management
j) Relevant and recent publications:
1. Sandhya Rani Ch, Vijaya Lakshmi K and Arjuna Rao P, 2000 Vegetable oils as
       surface protectants against bruchid, Callosobruchus chinensis infestation on
       chick pea. Indian journal of Plant Protection 30(1): 81-83
2. Ramakrishna D, Vijaya Lakshmi K and Ratna sudhakar T, 2003 Friendly
       approaches in management of Sitophilus oryzae in maize. Proc. of National
       Symposium on Frontier areas of Entomological Research Nov. 5-7, New
       Delhi
3. Sandhya Rani Ch and Vijaya Lakshmi K, 2004 Reaction of chick pea varieties to
       pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis on the basis of biological parameters
       and physicochemical characters. Pest Management and Economic Zoology
       12(2)): 123-129
Information for Principal Investigator
First          : Telugu
Middle         : Uma
Last           : Maheswari
List / Names of other individuals on :       Dr. K. Dharma Reddy
Project and primary responsibility           Professor
                                             Department of Entomology

                                             Dr. K. Vijaya Lakshmi
                                             Associate Professor
                                             Department of Entomology

                                            Dr.K.Bala Swamy,
                                            Principal scientist (Agronomy)
                                            ARI,Rajendranagar,Hyderabad.

                                             Dr. K.V. Rao
                                             Associate Professor
                                             EEI, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad

                                             Dr. G. Uma Devi
                                             Senior Scientist (Path.)
                                             Rice Research Institute
                                             Rajendranagar, Hyderabad

                                             Dr. A. Ankaiah
                                             Professor
                                             Department of Seed Science & Technology

                                             Dr. Ratnaker
                                             Professor
                                             EEI, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad

                                             Dr. D. V. Subba Rao
                                             Professor,
                                             Dept.of E conomics,,CA,Rajendranagar.

Mailing Address        :Dept. of Entomology, College of Agriculture
                       Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University
                          Rajendranagar, Hyderabad- 500 030
City                   :Hyderabad

								
To top