English for Specific by 2X0Z9Gt


									                 Presentations and Presenters, NFEAP 5th Annual Seminar

Eva Braidwood and Suzy McAnsh, ’From an Error Typology towards Support for Finnish
University Students Writing in their Disciplines’

Our study investigates the writing in English of Finnish university students engaged in
producing academic course work. First, we survey and categorise the recurrent errors found
in the writing of students from two English for Specific/Academic Purposes (ESP/EAP)
courses: students of architecture writing an architectural review and students of
biochemistry writing a mock research article. Next we establish a typology of the most
salient errors on various levels, ranging from concerns with appropriacy of content and
textual organisation to selection of suitable lexis for academic discourse in the relevant
discipline. Using this typology, we systematically analyse a sample of the work to determine
the relative frequency of errors and their impact on the effectiveness of the text. Through
this work, our intention is to pinpoint the issues in particular need of attention during the
respective courses.

Eva Braidwood has an MA in English and Hungarian philology from KLTE University,
Debrecen, and a PhD focusing on Wordsworth and the Romantic Movement from ELTE
University, Budapest. Eva teaches courses in EAP/ESP for architecture students, scientific
writing for biochemistry, and literature and linguistics for English philology students at the
University of Oulu, Finland.

Suzy McAnsh holds Master's degrees in Art History from St. Andrews University and Applied
English Linguistics from the University of Birmingham. She is a lecturer at the University of
Oulu, where she teaches courses on scientific writing for biochemistry, ESP for engineering
and TCE for university teachers.

Lynell Chvala, ‘Assessment of Speaking Skills in Higher Education: A Case Study from
Teacher Education’

The formal assessment of oral skills is a challenging and demanding enterprise. The
assessment of speaking skills in the Teacher Education Programme at Oslo University College
happens in “real time”. In other words, the assessment of students’ spoken production and
interaction are conducted during the “speaking” where the examiners are involved in the
context of the communication. As a reflection of current practice in lower second school,
grades are assigned shortly thereafter.

This presentation focuses on changes made in the assessment of speaking skills as a result of
a complex, dynamic understanding of language (Larsen-Freeman, 2008) and a consideration
of what constitutes effective assessment practice (Hattie, 2009). This case study examines
not only the practice itself, but also the reflections and reactions of examiner(s) and
students documented in follow-up interviews.

Lynell Chvala has an MA in Applied Linguistics for Teaching English as a Second Language
(TESL) from Iowa State University, USA. She currently works in the Faculty of Education and
International Studies at Oslo University College in the Teacher Education Programme. She
has worked as an English teacher in lower and upper secondary schools, in higher education
and in various ESP engagements in the private sector for the past 17 years. In addition, she
is currently involved in the Putuo Oral English Project, a cooperation project with Putuo
Independent School District and Ningbo University in China. Her current research focuses
on teacher competence in the assessment of pupils’ productive language skills.

Nancy Lea Eik-Nes, ‘Assessment to facilitate students’ thriving and surviving in academic

Assessment and evaluation have always been challenging for those of us who teach English
for Academic Purposes as we seek to prepare our students to use the medium of English to
both thrive and survive in their academic careers. We have long worked with the
discrepancies between students’ mastery of English and their goals – and the goals of our
institutions. These discrepancies have become even more pronounced as we welcome
continually more international students from a greater diversity of backgrounds in language,
culture and language education. How do we teach and assess academic English writing with
such complex situations?

The purpose of my presentation is two-fold. The first purpose is to shed light on some of the
practical challenges in teaching and assessing in academic writing courses for students who
have only one thing in common: a wish to improve their writing in English. The second
purpose is to consider some classroom practices that have been successful at NTNU. These
practices are founded in a social-interactive approach to learning, and include ways of
providing feedback and facilitating self-assessment in a variety of activities. The presentation
is not “The Answer”, but will hopefully inspire a discussion of practices and possibilities.

Nancy Lea Eik-Nes is associate professor at the Dept. of Language and Communication
Studies at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, where
she teaches academic and scientific writing, as well as applied linguistics. The focus of her
research has been on writing as a means of developing disciplinary identity and on academic
genres. In addition to having English as her mother tongue, she has degrees in psychology,
English and applied linguistics.

Glenn Ole Hellekjær, ‘‘We ain't as good as we think’: English Use and Needs in Norwegian
Business and Government’

In this talk I will present the findings from two needs analyses of occupational English use
and needs. The first is a survey of Norwegian business, the second a mixed-methods needs
analysis combining a survey of staff in Norwegian ministries with a qualitative, follow-up
study of employees in Norwegian directorates. They show that inadequate English
proficiency in occupational contexts is a problem in both domains, and is indicative of
general quality problems in Norwegian EFL instruction. I argue that Norwegian schools as
well as institutions of higher education must take their students’ need for advanced English
proficiency far more seriously than they do at present.

Glenn Ole Hellekjær is an Associate Professor of Teaching English as a Foreign Language at
the Department of Teacher Education and School Research at the University of Oslo. He
teaches courses at the undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate levels. Prior to his joining
the department in 2006 he worked at Østfold University College in Halden and at Spjelkavik
Upper Secondary School in Ålesund. While at Spjelkavik Upper Secondary School Hellekjær
taught Norway’s first CLIL Modern History course in 1993, and has continued with research
on CLIL in secondary and tertiary education. Other research areas are academic reading in
English, assessment, and analyses of English and foreign language use and needs in business
and the public sector. His current research focuses on comparing the reading proficiency and
strategy use of senior upper secondary level students who have had CLIL instruction with
those who have had ordinary English instruction.

Daniel Lees Fryer, ‘Engaging with the Literature, Engaging with the Reader: Evaluation in
Academic Writing’

The way in which authors engage with other voices in academic research discourse is an
integral part of the social practice of communicating research. Evaluation and evaluative
language play an important role in how authors engage with the literature and the putative
reader, and how they position themselves and their own research within a wider disciplinary
context. In this presentation, I will examine the role of evaluation in academic research
writing, and discuss its potential application to EAP, including some of my own experiences
from an academic writing course for researchers.

Daniel Lees Fryer is a PhD fellow in linguistics, at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. He
teaches at Oslo University College and the University of Oslo, Norway.

Hua-Li Jian, ‘Experiences of Teaching Norwegian Engineering Students English from a
South-East Asian Perspective’

Experiences and observations of a Taiwanese scholar teaching engineering students for one
semester in Norway are presented. Many important cultural differences were found both in

terms of student behaviours and academic practices. This qualitative study focuses in
particular on the teacher’s formal meeting with the students in the classroom, informal
meetings with the students outside the classroom and examination practices.

 Hua-Li Jian received a Ph.D. in linguistic science from the University of Reading, U.K. She has
more than 10 years of university-level teaching experience from Taiwan, including many
years as Associate Professor with the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature at
National Cheng Kung University. She is currently an Associate Professor in the Faculty of
Engineering, Oslo University College, Norway. Her research interests include English
language learning, computer-assisted pedagogy, Western and Taiwanese phonetics, and

Simon Kinzley, ‘A Framework for Evaluating Feedback in Academic Writing: A
Presentation and Workshop’

Logically, the key criterion for determining whether tutor feedback on academic writing is
effective should be its likelihood of improving the chances of students succeeding in
authentic academic study. This, however, raises further questions, two of which are: how
do we determine which areas of writing it is most effective to give feedback on, and how can
that feedback be given ways that maximise the chances of students actually implementing
In this presentation I provide findings of research into this area that are derived from a
wider investigation into the link between EAP academic writing programmes and future
academic success on actual degree programmes. My hope is that by demonstrating the
methods used in this research, I can provide colleagues with ideas as to how they might be
able to undertake similar investigations in their own teaching contexts.

Simon Kinzley has just submitted a Ph.D. in applied linguistics at Lancaster University and is
currently working as a lecturer in EAP at UCL. His thesis considers the extent to which a pre-
sessional EAP writing course has impacted on the writing behaviours and academic
outcomes of overseas students once they have actually started studying for their degrees.
Consequently, he has considerable interest in the development of research methods for
tracking studies. Simon taught, managed and designed materials for ELT and EAP
programmes in Japan, China and the UK and has been directly involved preparing students
for study at BANA universities since 2001. He is currently joint coordinator of the BALEAP
Tracking Studies Working Party with Dr. Diana Ridley.

Fiona Nimmo, ‘The challenges involved in re-aligning a Pre Masters programme - A Case

This session will focus on a Pre Masters programme at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.
The Pre-Masters programme discussed is the Graduate Diploma in English for Postgraduate
Study (GDEPS).

The GDEPS programme, which was implemented in academic session 2005/2006, is a full-
time nine-month University accredited (Level 4) Pre Masters programme intended for
students wishing to study Master and PhD courses at Strathclyde Business School.

Following an External Examination Board meeting in 2009, with a newly appointed external
examiner, it became evident that the GDEPS programme had drifted substantially from its
original design. Furthermore, the programme had begun to attract students from all subject
disciplines which rendered the original course design, aimed at business students, no longer
relevant. Subsequently, the Board advised that the GDEPS programme be re-designed to
take account of the new student cohort and re-aligned to reflect University regulations and
procedures. It also advised that new assessment descriptors be written to reflect learning
outcomes, CEFR, UCLES, IELTS and University of Strathclyde assessment descriptors. This
session will focus on the challenges involved in carrying out this re-alignment.

Fiona has a Bachelor of Education Degree and a Master in TESOL from the University of
Edinburgh. She has worked in Scotland, Greece, Italy and China and has designed and
implemented a number of EFL, ESP, EAP and teacher training courses both at home and
abroad. Fiona currently holds the post of Programme Co-ordinator at the University of
Strathclyde, Glasgow.

Charlotte Rosen Svensson has worked in English language teaching and educational
publishing. She currently works for Pearson Longman ELT in the Nordic region.

Hanne Tange, ‘Parallel Languages or English Only? Reflections on the Linguistic Situation in
Danish Higher Education’

The presentation looks at the questions of language policy and testing from the position of
lecturers, who do not have English as their first language, but who are now encouraged, if
not compelled, to teach in this medium. Motivated by the rapid growth in the number of
English-medium programs in Denmark, I have performed a total of 36 interviews with
university employees, asking what internationalisation means for teachers' ability to act and
interact in the classroom. This has enabled me to identify three types of linguistic
organisation: single course, parallel languages, and English Only. In relation to the question
of language assessment and testing, parallel languages and English Only are particularly
important, highlighting the differences between a policy that acknowledges the co-existence
of English and Danish, and one that establishes English as the default medium of instruction.
Having looked at some of the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches, I end with a
reflection on the question: what happens when we introduce language testing into these

Associate Professor Hanne Tange, Ph.D., Aarhus University School of Business and Social
Science. Her research interests include intercultural communication, internationalisation,
social interaction and linguistic practice. She is currently involved in a project on Danish
university lecturers' experiences with a multilingual and multicultural classroom.

Robert Wilkinson, ‘English-medium instruction at a Dutch university: what have we
learned from a quarter-century of experience?’

Maastricht University started a first-degree programme taught through the medium of
English a quarter of a century ago. The programme initially was taught trilingually (French
and German too), but these instructional languages did not survive. Success in the English-
medium instruction (EMI) led to all faculties emulating the experience, and to other Dutch
universities to follow suit. In some cases teaching through Dutch ceased.

EMI can be seen from at least three perspectives: the natural response to issues of
globalization and demographics; the risk of domain loss in the first language (Dutch L1); and
the application of trading practices to higher education. All three perspectives have a
bearing on the prospects for the international university.

However, EMI has been subject to much criticism, including from its proponents, particularly
regarding the quality of both the content learning and the language. Quality concerns also
surround the teaching staff and their roles in the learning process, in particular where both
teachers and students are using English as a second language.

Using Maastricht University as an example, this presentation focuses the lessons learned so
far from EMI, and suggest recommendations for the future. In particular, the talk looks at
the challenges to curriculum and course design, collaboration between content staff and
EAP support staff, and the impact on quality. Conclusions emphasize the EAP aspects of EMI.

Robert Wilkinson, MSc, helped establish the first trilingual undergraduate programme at the
School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University, in the mid-1980s. Since then, he
was involved in setting up many of the subsequent English-medium-of-instruction
programmes at the university, as well as staff training. His teaching interests concern mainly
academic writing as well as writing for professional academic purposes (for masters and PhD
students). Research interests concern the integration of content and language in higher
education (ICLHE), and university language/multilingual policy. He has co-edited five books
on ICLHE and/or multilingualism.


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