RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL

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					RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL




    Revision 6. 16 June 2009
                                    Contents


                                                                        Page
    Introduction                                                        3


1   General                                                             4


2   Normal Operating Procedures                                         5

    2.1    Basic Principles of Control                                  5
    2.2    General Procedures for Working with Radioactive Materials    5
    2.3    Methods of Protection                                        5
           2.3.1 The External Radiation Hazard                          6
           2.3.2 The Internal Radiation Hazard                          7
    2.4    Procedure for the Procurement and Use of Radioactive         8
    2.5    Scanning Electron Microscopes – MST Department               9
    2.6    PHILIPS X-Ray Diffraction Spectroscope – MST and CES Dept.   9
    2.7    Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometer DXA                         10
    2.8    Sealed Radioactive Sources – Physics Department              10
    2.9    Unsealed Radioactive Sources – CES Dept.                     11
    2.10   Security and Safety of Licensed Items                        12




3   Emergency Operating Procedures                                      13

    3.1    Personal Contamination                                       13

    3.2    Emergency Contact Details (out of hours)                     13



4   Monitoring for Radiation and Contamination                          14

    4.1    Monitoring the Workplace                                     14
    4.2    Personal Radiation Monitoring                                14
    4.3    Portable Radiation Monitoring Equipment                      15
    4.4    Portable Surface Contamination Monitoring Equipment          15
    4.5    Wipe Testing of Sealed Sources                               15
    4.6    Maintenance Procedures for the Irradiating Equipment         16
    4.7    Monitoring of I-125 Contamination                            16
    4.8    Wipe-testing of Sealed I-129 Source                          18
    4.9    Storage and disposal of Radioactive Waste                    19
           I-125 Laboratory Safety Poster                               21




                                                                               1
5    Radiological Protection Administration                                               22

     5.1       Role of the Heads of Department                                            22
     5.2       Role of the Radiological Protection Advisor                                22
     5.3       Role of the Radiological Protection Officer                                22
     5.4       Role of the Departmental Radiological Protection Supervisors               22
     5.5       Administration for Radiological Protection at the University of Limerick   23



6    Intervention Plan and Emergency Plan for Radiological Accidents

     6.1       Introduction                                                               26
     6.2       Purpose of plan                                                            26
     6.3       Organisational structure and responsibilities                              26
     6.4       Team responsibilities                                                      29
     6.5       Crisis scenarios involving radioactive sources or X-ray apparatus          30
     6.6       Call out procedures                                                        32




References                                                                                33

Tables
     Table 1           Main types of ionising radiation’s and their hazards




                                                                                               2
                                 Introduction

The Statutory requirements for the protection of workers and general public
against the danger of radiation are based on the following three fundamental
principles:-

(a)   every activity resulting in an exposure to ionising radiation shall be
      justified by the advantages which it produces;

(b)   all exposures shall be as low as reasonably achievable (the ALARA
      principle);

(c)   the dose equivalent to individuals shall not exceed the prescribed limits.

For the purposes of this manual radioactive materials can be classified into two
groups - unsealed dispersible radioactive material and sealed sources. The
following definitions apply:-

(a)   a radioactive substance is any substance which is suspected to have an
      activity concentration greater than the value stated in SI 125 of 2000;

(b)   a sealed source is a radioactive material wholly bonded within a solid
      inactive material or encapsulated in a receptacle so that no leakage can
      occur during storage or foreseeable conditions of use (Refer to ISO 2919);

(c)   unsealed dispersible radioactive material is radioactive material not
      considered to be a sealed source.

Work with radioactive substances is perhaps more stringently controlled than
some aspects of chemical research, and this is reflected in Irish legislation for
the handling of radioactive materials.




                                                                                   3
                                     Section 1


1.       General


1.1      The University of Limerick academic Departments shall comply with the
      conditions of the RPII License in the control and use of radioactive
      substances and irradiating apparatus.

1.2       The Radiation Safety Manual is for the use and guidance of all University
      staff for whom it is relevant. The provisions of the Radiation Safety Manual
      are to supplement the requirements of the RPII Licence and shall be
      observed in full.




                                                                                  4
                                 Section 2


2   Normal Operating Procedures


    2.1    Basic Principles of Control

    There are three main principles of control against the internal radiation
    hazard:
          (a)    containment;
          (b)    cleanliness;
          (c)    use of the least toxic radioactive material that is suitable,
                 and the minimum quantities in all experiments.

    The two methods of containment of operations most widely used are
    partial containment by means of fume cupboards, and complete
    containment by means of glove boxes.


    2.2    General Procedures for Working with Radioactive Materials

    The following working practices and procedures should be adopted:

           (a)    the laboratory bench should be maintained in a tidy and
                  orderly state;
           (b)    there should be no unnecessary accumulation of radioactive
                  materials;
           (c)    any surface contamination arising during an operation
                  should be cleaned-up immediately;

    2.3    Methods of Protection

    Every attempt must be made to limit the degree of exposure achieved
    through working with radioactive materials or radiation sources. Table 1
    lists the types of radiation which may be encountered. Their range in air
    varies with their nature and energy and gives rise to two types of
    radiological hazard - internal and external.




                                                                                 5
Radiation type            Main hazard to             Protection
                          personnel
Alpha particles           Internal                   Containment

Beta particles            Internal and               Containment, local shielding
                          external skin dose         and exposure time

Gamma & X-rays            External                   Distances, shielding and
                                                     exposure time

Neutrons                  External                   Special shielding and
                                                     exposure time

Table 1 Main types of ionising radiation’s and their hazards

2.3.1 The External Radiation Hazard

        The basic methods of protection against external radiation are:-
        (a)   restriction of the strength of every source to the minimum
              necessary for the task in hand;
        (b)   the use of the maximum amount of distance between the
              source and the operator, compatible with the satisfactory
              and safe performance of the work;
        (c)   restriction of the period of exposure to the minimum
              compatible with safe working;
        (d)   the use of suitable shielding.

        The protection necessary in any particular situation to ensure that
        doses are kept below the relevant limit may be achieved by a
        combination of these methods.

        (b)     The Use of Distance
                The intensity of radiation from a radioactive source
                decreases with increasing distance. For a point source (and
                where the dimensions of the source are small compared
                with the distance from the source to the point of interest), the
                dose rate is inversely proportional to the square of the
                distance, i.e., by doubling the distance the dose rate is
                reduced by a factor of 4 and so on. For example, the
                gamma dose rate from a 1 GBq cobalt-60 source decreases
                with increasing distance as follows.

                                         at 1 cm          ~ 3.5 Sv h-1
                                         at 10 cm         ~35 mSv h-1
                                         at 100 cm        ~350Sv h-1



                                                                                    6
             Radioactive sources should therefore never be handled with
             bare hands, or with gloved hands unless the thickness of the
             glove is sufficient to reduce the radiation to reasonable
             levels.

      (c)    The Use of Time
             The acceptable dose must be kept both within statutory
             dose limits   and ALARA - As Low as Reasonably
             Achievable.

             Exposure to high dose rates calls for careful pre-planning,
             and sometimes for 'dummy' runs. 'On the job' discussions in
             a radiation field should be avoided.

      (d)    The Use of Shielding
             Beta Radiation. The most suitable shielding materials for
             beta radiation are sheets of light metals such as aluminium
             or Perspex. The absorption of beta particles in matter gives
             rise to bremsstrahlung radiation (electromagnetic radiation
             resulting from the retardation of charged particles). For
             sources of energetic beta radiation, a combination of
             Perspex and lead makes the best shielding material.

             Gamma rays cannot be completely absorbed by a shield;
             they are only reduced in intensity. Of course, any degree of
             attenuation is possible if the shield is made thick enough.
             The approximate thicknesses of various materials required
             to attenuate 1 MeV gamma rays by a factor of 10 are:

                LEAD          IRON        CONCRETE         WATER
                3.5cm          6cm            20cm          40cm
                    (These figures refer to broad beam geometry)


2.3.2 The Internal Radiation Hazard

Routes of Entry:
(a)   Ingestion. Contamination on surfaces may lead to ingestion of
      activity through the mouth. Control is based on a combination of
      rules and procedures and strict laboratory discipline, e.g. in the
      correct use and removal of gloves, correct monitoring procedures
      after working in contaminated areas, and no eating, smoking,
      drinking, or applying make-up in contamination-controlled areas.




                                                                        7
      (b)     Inhalation. Work carried out in a laboratory or workshop can be
              accompanied by the formation of airborne contamination. The
              assessment of the significance of radioactive airborne
              contamination is a difficult problem due to the influence of many
              factors such as breathing characteristics (rate of breathing, whether
              the individual breathes through the nose or the mouth etc.), the
              size, shape and density and the chemical properties of the airborne
              particles (which will affect lung deposition and subsequent
              metabolism), and the ventilation pattern in the working area.
              Control is largely based on proper containment and ventilation
              coupled with correct working discipline. Before a job is carried out
              consideration must be given to the possibility of airborne
              contamination.

      (c)     Absorption. Radioactive contamination may penetrate the skin by
              diffusion through the skin barrier or via cuts and wounds.
              Radioactive materials deposited on the skin and absorbed through
              the skin may subsequently disperse via the blood stream. Organic
              solvents are particularly dangerous in that they can penetrate the
              skin easily. In general, however, the skin forms an efficient barrier
              to contamination. Control is based largely on correct laboratory
              discipline and techniques, e.g. when using solvents suitable gloves
              should be worn.

2.4         Procedure for the Procurement and Use of Radioactive Materials
            and Irradiating Apparatus.

              Permission to acquire and to use licensable items may be granted
              by the Head of Department after consultation with the Radiological
              Protection Officer (RPO) and the Departmental Radiological
              Protection Supervisor (DRPS).

              Faculty who wish to acquire licensable items must make an
              application in writing to the RPO. The application for acquisition
              should be submitted sufficiently in advance of the anticipated need
              to permit time to review the application and evaluate it without
              delaying the proposed project. Approval to use licensable items
              carries with it the responsibility for the faculty member to ensure
              that appropriate safety measures are established, appropriate
              records are kept, and that only properly trained personnel are
              permitted to work with radioactive materials and irradiating
              apparatus.

              All other incoming shipments of licensable items (transfers, gifts,
              samples, replacements, etc.) must be approved by the RPO prior
              to receipt.



                                                                                  8
2.5   Scanning Electron Microscopes - Material Science and
      Technology Department

       Only the named operators (Dr M Pomeroy, Ms G Hanrahan, Ms P
      Olsthoorn) may use the Jeol 840 SEM. Post graduate students,
      researchers and external operators may use the JEOL 35 SEM
      provided permission is acquired from the named operators.

      All named operators, academic staff, postgraduate students,
      researchers and external operators using the scanning electron
      microscopes must meet the following requirements:

      a) a personnel dosimeter badge must be worn at all times, this can
         be ordered through G Hanrahan or P Olsthoorn in the SEM
         Laboratory;
      b) training must be arranged with the named operators;
      c) booking and access must be cleared with the named operators;
      d) Jeol 840 and Jeol 35 operating instructions must be followed;
      e) correct handling procedures must be followed when re-filling the
         SEM 840 dewer with liquid nitrogen;
      f) the laboratory must be left in a clean and tidy state;
      g) post graduate students and research personnel who operate
         the Jeol 35 after hours must ensure that the laboratory door is
         locked when the instrument is unattended;
      h) any faults should be reported immediately to any of the named
         operators;
      i) good laboratory practices and procedures must be followed at
         all times. Failure to comply with the above regulations will result
         in refusal in permission to operate the Jeol 840 and Jeol 35
         Scanning Electron Microscope.


2.6   PHILIPS X-Ray Diffraction & Philips Sequential XRF
      Spectrometer’s – MST and CES Dept.

      The named operators (R Hutchison, C Considine and N Coleman),
      academic and technical staff, postgraduate and research students
      may use the above equipment provided the following requirements
      are met:

      a) anyone requiring to use the equipment must get permission
         from either of the DRPSs (Prof. M Pomeroy or Ms M Munroe, or
         C Considine);
      b) a personal dosimeter badge must be worn at all times, this can
         be ordered through the DRPSs or named operators;


                                                                           9
      c) training must be arranged with the named operators;
      d) booking and access must be cleared with the named operators;
      e) any instructions originating from the DRPSs and the named
         operators must be followed;
      f) the User Sheet must be filled in for each sample analysed;
      g) the laboratory must be left in a clean and tidy state;
      h) any faults should be reported to the named operators, or
         DRPSs (M Munroe or N Coleman).

      Failure to comply with the above regulations will result in your
      personal dosimeter badge being withdrawn and access to the
      laboratory denied for one month.

2.7   Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometer DXA

      Prior to use refer to the document ‘RADIATION SAFETY
      PROCEDURES - Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometer DXA’ issued
      by the RPA (J Upton) on March 2006 (copies available from P
      Thornton or P Jakeman) and to Section H of the RPII Licence.

2.8   Sealed Radioactive Sources – Physics Department

      Laboratory experiments, which use radioactive sources, may only
      be used with the knowledge and permission of the DRPS for the
      Physics Department Dr. M Laugier. When using sealed radiation
      sources (i.e. Griffin & George specimens) the following procedures
      should be followed:

      a) working area must be kept free from all clutter while
         experimentation is in progress;
      b) sources are to be handled with a forceps only;
      c) sources must be pointed away from the user and other
         personnel in the vicinity;
      d) dosimeter and white coat to be worn when performing any
         nuclear experiments;
      e) at the completion of the experiment sources are to be placed in
         the original lead containers and returned to the DRPS or M
         Quinn;
      f) wash hands thoroughly after use.

         The DRPS (Physics Department) will control the stored
      radioactive sources and he will perform an inventory check of the
      Chamber contents, at monthly intervals. The results of the
      inventory check will be recorded in the “Physics Department
      Radioactive Sources Inventory Log”.




                                                                          10
2.9   Unsealed Radioactive Sources (Custody Only) – CES
      Department

2.9.1 General Requirements for Laboratories Containing Radioactive
      Materials

         Access to storage facilities should be properly marked with
         appropriate radiation warning signs. The radioactive materials
         should be placed in the lead lined shielded chest in a lockable
         cabinet. Surfaces on which radioactive sources are to be used
         should be easily cleanable and sharp corners, crevices and
         angles should be minimised.

2.9.2 Storing Lead Lined Chest in the CES store (A3 009B)

         The responsibility for the control of the store is vested with the
         Chemical and Environmental Sciences (CES) Department.
         The DRPS for the CES Department (M Munroe) will control the
         stored radioactive sources and will perform an inventory check
         of its contents at monthly intervals. The results of the inventory
         check will be recorded on an inventory log. The radioactive
         specimens shall be kept in store which is of solid construction, it
         is lockable and is provided with the following:

         a) adequate space for equipment access;
         b) arrangements for the easy segregation of radioactive
            substances with due regard for easy identification and
            removal;
         c) should be safe, secure, fire proof, and easy to
            decontaminate;
         d) entrance should be clearly marked and conditions of entry
            displayed;

2.9.3 Supervision of Lead Lined Chest

         Access to the chest will only be allowed when the following
         conditions are met:

         a) a white coat, gloves and a personal dosimeter must be worn
            at all times;
         b) training must be arranged through the DRPS where
            necessary;
         c) operational procedures and instructions concerning any
            activities involving radioactive sources must be understood
            prior to commencement of activities;



                                                                          11
          d) all samples and items for storage must be clearly labelled
             showing type, date generated, amount of radiation, owner
             and, where applicable, disposal date;
          e) the addition or removal of any radioactive specimen must be
             recorded in the Inventory Log;
          f) Store with the radiation chest should be kept clean and tidy;
          g) glove-disposal and hand wash facilities should be used
             when work is completed.


2.10   Security and Safety of Licensed Items

       All departments who control licensed items shall:
           a) prevent, so far as is reasonably possible, the loss or theft of
               any licensed item or the unauthorised removal from its
               assigned location;
           b) carry out monthly visual checks of licensed items and, where
              appropriate, a radiation survey shall be carried out at
              monthly intervals. The departments must keep records of
              these checks;
           c) departments shall inform the RPO (P Thornton) immediately
              of any loss or theft of a licensed item; and,
           d) inform the Chief Fire Officer of the location of licensed items
              annually.




                                                                           12
                                  Section 3

3   Emergency Operating Procedures


    3.1   Personal Contamination

            (a)   Wash:       Wet the skin thoroughly and apply detergent. Do
                              not use abrasives, highly alkaline soaps or organic
                              solvents. Work up a full lather and keep it wet.
                              Wash contaminated area 2-3 minutes, being
                              careful not to spread the contamination. In the
                              case of extensive contamination promptly use an
                              emergency shower.

            (b)   Rinse:      Thoroughly rinse with lukewarm water


            (c)   Monitor     Test the effectiveness of the procedure using a
                  :           survey meter, if applicable.

            (d)   Repeat: Repeat procedure 3-4 times, using a soft brush if
                          necessary, being careful to avoid irritation to the
                          skin.

            (e)   Protect     Apply lanolin or other hand cream to prevent
                  Skin:       chapping.



    3.2   Emergency Contact Details (out of hours)

    Name                      W.Tel         W.Fax        H.Tel        Mobile
    Philip Thornton           061 202239    061 202595   061 340030   086 8351374
    Safety Officer / RPO

    UL Security (24 Hours)    061 203333

    Radiological Protection   01 269 7766
    Institute of Ireland

    Gardai, Fire Brigade &    999 or 112
    Ambulance




                                                                               13
                              Section 4

4   Monitoring for Radiation and Contamination

    (a)   Personal monitors which, as their names implies, are carried on the
          person and hence give a measurement of the radiation or air
          contamination to which the person is exposed;

    (b)   Portable monitors, usually battery operated, can be moved from
          place to place as the need arises. They are used in particular for
          carrying out detailed measurements at various positions during
          specific operations, and also for carrying out routine surveys;

    4.1   Monitoring in the Workplace
          Suitable monitoring equipment must be obtained prior to starting
          work and must be available during the work period. If there is any
          doubt regarding the equipment to be used the Departmental
          Radiological Protection Supervisor (DRPS) or the Radiological
          Protection Officer must be consulted.

          The following points should be borne in mind:
          (a)    During active handling operations (e.g. fume cupboards or
                 glove boxes) monitoring should be carried out frequently as
                 work proceeds, and at the end of a working session prior to
                 leaving the laboratory;
          (b)    gloved hands and laboratory coats and other parts which
                 might become contaminated must be monitored;

    4.2   Personal Radiation Monitoring

          Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLDs)
          Thermoluminescent materials such as lithium fluoride (LiF) release
          light when they are heated after exposure to beta or gamma
          radiation and can therefore be used for the measurement of dose.
          TLDs are particularly useful when measuring extremity dose, or
          when rapid results are required. The badges are processed by the
          RPII who retain records of the employees’ exposure history to
          ionising radiations.

          The SEM Technicians (G Hanrahan/P Olsthoorn) are issued with
          the appropriate number of dosimeters and a list of dosimeter
          numbers and wearers names. A corresponding number of holders
          will also be issued with the first consignment. At the end of the
          monitoring period (normally four weeks) the RPII will provide a
          replacement consignment of dosimeters. The SEM Technician will


                                                                           14
      return the first consignment of dosimeters as soon as, but not
      before the second consignment is received, the dosimeter holder
      being retained. This procedure is repeated at the end of the
      second monitoring period and so on.

      The RPII will normally issue routine reports within two weeks of
      receipt of dosimeters. ‘Urgent’ reports, such as in cases of
      suspected overexposure of personnel will, on request, be issued on
      the same day that the dosimeter is received by the RPII. The Head
      of Department, the Radiological Protection Officer (RPO) and the
      Department Radiological Protection Supervisor (DRPS) must be
      immediately informed of all cases of suspected overexposure and
      where a dosimeter reading of 0.5 mSv per month is recorded. In
      keeping with the Regulations (SI 125 of 2000) which require that
      records of doses to exposed workers be kept at the University, the
      reports will be sent to the University Safety Officer for review and
      storage. The reports will be kept for 30 years.

4.3   Portable Radiation Monitoring Equipment
      These instruments use ionisation chambers, Geiger-Muller
      counters, proportional counters or scintillation counters as the
      detector according to the type and range of the ionising radiation to
      be measured. A wide selection of battery operated monitors are
      available for the measurement of dose rates in the range from
      natural background of about 0.1 Sv h-1 to 50 Sv h-1. Energy
      response, monitor range, and sensitivity to ionising radiation’s are
      important factors which should be taken into account before
      selecting and using a particular monitor in an ionising radiation
      environment.

4.4   Portable Surface Contamination Monitoring Equipment
      These instruments use a Geiger-Muller counter, scintillation
      counter, or proportional counter detector coupled to a suitable
      counting rate meter.

      The Safety Officer has acquired a Scintillation Mini-Monitor Series
      900 with a type 44A probe attachment. The instrument should be
      operated as per the manufacturers instructions. The monitor and
      probe are calibrated by the manufacturer and are to be re-
      calibrated at least every 12 months.

4.5   Wipe-Testing of Sealed Sources
      All sealed sources must be wipe-tested at least once every 24
      months or more frequently dependent upon the conditions and
      usage to which the source is subject. The laboratory wipe test
      procedure is as follows:


                                                                         15
      (a)   Wear disposable gloves when performing wipe tests to
            minimise the spread of contamination from surfaces wiped
            to fingers;
      (b)   use 1" diameter filter paper, moistened with alcohol (i.e.
            Sterets Pre-Injection Swabs Stock No. 00766691 are
            recommended by the RPII);
      (c)   apply light pressure to the swab, contacting 100cm 2 (4" x 4"
            square) of the surface to be tested;
      (d)   each wipe sample should be counted with an assay system
            sensitive to the isotopes used in the area tested. This
            testing will normally carried out by the RPII;
      (e)   surfaces for which wipe test results exceed 185
            DPM/100cm2 must be immediately decontaminated and re-
            wipe tested;
      (f)   (e) above must be repeated as necessary until wipe test
            results are less than 185 DPM/100cm2.

4.6   Maintenance Procedure for Irradiating Apparatus

      All irradiating apparatus are to be maintained and serviced
      according to the manufacturers instructions by trained and
      authorised personnel. Records of maintenance and servicing
      procedures are to be retained by the responsible Department.

4.7   Monitoring for I-125 Contamination (PESS DEPT. ONLY)

      Personal Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLDs) are supplied by
      the RPII and issued to all persons engaged in research with I-125.
      Each person is responsible for wearing his/her personal monitor
      and preserving the integrity of the monitor as follows:

      (a)   TLDs are stored in the designated holding cabinet when not
            in use;
      (b)   TLDs are worn attached to the laboratory coat at the trunk
            whilst working in the designated radiation area;
      (c)   TLDs are replaced by the RPII after the designated
            monitoring period (normally 4-8 weeks) and the exposure
            history recorded by the DPRS.
      (d)   The RPII will normally issue routine reports within two weeks
            of receipt of dosimeters. ‘Urgent’ reports, such as in cases of
            suspected overexposure of the personnel will, on request,
            be issued on the same day that the dosimeter is received by
            the RPII. The Head of Department, the Radiological
            Protection Officer (RPO) and the Department Radiological
            Protection Supervisor (DRPS) must be immediately informed


                                                                         16
            of all cases of suspected overexposure and where a
            dosimeter reading of 0.5mSv per month is recorded. In
            keeping with the Regulations (SI No. 43 of 1991) which
            require that records of doses to exposed workers be kept at
            the University, the reports will be sent to the University
            Safety Officer for review and storage. The reports will be
            kept for thirty years.

4.7.1 Monitoring I-125 contamination in PG-038

     The Biochemisty Laboratory PG-038 has a Scintillation Mini-
     Monitor Series 900 with a type 44A probe attachment available for
     this purpose. The instrument, which is currently on loan to the
     PESS Department, should be operated as per the manufacturer’s
     instructions. The monitor and probe are calibrated by the
     manufacturer and are to be recalibrated at least every 12 months.
     Monitoring of potential I-125 contamination must be undertaken
     prior to starting work and following the completion of work involving
     the use of I-125 products. The monitor must also be available to the
     user during any work period. If there is any doubt regarding the
     equipment to be used the Department Radiological Protection
     Supervisor (DRPS) or the Radiological Protection Officer must be
     consulted.

4.7.2 Laboratory Surface I-125 Contamination Survey

      The designated area of the Biochemistry laboratory (PG-038)
      where unsealed gamma sources are used or stored is to be
      scanned with a surface meter to detect significant sources of
      contamination. Sites of measurement are depicted in Figure 1
      below. All exposure readings are recorded and audited by the
      DPRS.
      Surveyed surfaces, which have exposures significantly above
      background, should be included in the wipe tests to evaluate
      whether removable contamination exists.
      During active handling operations (e.g. fume cupboards or glove
      boxes) monitoring should be carried out frequently as work
      proceeds, and at the end of a working session prior to leaving the
      laboratory;
      Gloved hands and laboratory coats and other parts that might
      become contaminated must be monitored.




                                                                           17
      Fridge -             Fume Hood &          Gamma Counter    Bench
            Site 1 & 2   Sink – Site 3, 4 & 5      -Site 6  Site 7 & 8



                     DESIGNATED FLOOR SPACE
                          Site 11, 12, 13, & 14. Centrifuge-
      Site 9 & 10


Figure 1 Designated Sites for Portable Radiation Monitoring in PG-048

1.    Freezer Door            8. Right Hand Side of Bench
2.    Fridge Door             9. Centrifuge Exterior
3.    Fume Hood Work area     10. Centrifuge Interior
4.    Fume Hood Sink          11. Floor Space Adjacent to Fridge
5.    Fume Hood Drain         12. Floor Space Adjacent to Fume Hood
6.    Gamma Counter Work area       13. Floor Space Adjacent to Counter
7.    Left Hand Side of Bench       14. Floor Space Adjacent to Centrifuge


      4.8   Wipe-Testing of Sealed I-139 Source

            The sealed I-139 sealed source is to be wipe-tested at least once
            every 24 months or more frequently dependent upon the conditions
            and usage to which the source is subjected to. The laboratory wipe
            test procedure is as follows:
            (a)    Wear disposable gloves when performing wipe tests to
                   minimise the spread of contamination from surfaces wiped
                   to fingers;
            (b)    Use 2.5cm diameter filter paper, moistened with alcohol (i.e.
                   Sterets™ Pre-Injection Swabs Stock No. 00766691 as
                   recommended by the RPII);
            (c)    Apply light pressure to the swab, contacting 100cm 2 of the
                   surface;
            (d)    Each wipe sample should be counted with an assay system
                   sensitive to the isotopes used in the area tested, normally be
                   carried out by the RPII;
            (e)    Surfaces for which wipe test results exceed 185
                   DPM/100cm2 must be immediately decontaminated and re-
                   wipe tested. Repeat as necessary until wipe test results are
                   < 185 DPM/100cm2.




                                                                               18
4.9   Storage and        Disposal    of   Radioactive     Waste     (PESS
      Department)

      Dry Solid Waste.

      I-125 waste (solid) is stored in a lead-lined chest situated in a
      secure storeroom (PG-020) within the PESS Building. The
      responsibility for the control of contaminated waste in the Physical
      Education and Sports Science (PESS) Department is held by
      Professor Philip Jakeman, DRPS for the Physical Education and
      Sports Science (PESS) Department.

      The DRPS will control the stored radioactive sources and s/he will
      perform an inventory check of the chamber contents, at quarterly
      intervals. The results of the inventory check will be recorded in the
      “PESS Radiation Chamber Inventory Log”. This store is of solid
      construction, lockable and provided with the following:
      (a)    adequate space for equipment access;
      (b)    arrangement for segregation of radioactive substances with
             due regard for easy identification and removal;
      (c)    is safe, secure, fire proof, and easy to decontaminate;
      (d)    entrance is clearly marked and conditions of entry displayed
             (see below);
      (e)    has sufficient space to accommodate the anticipated
             throughput;

      Access to the PESS radiation chest will only be allowed when the
      following conditions are met:
      (a)    a white coat, gloves and a personal dosimeter is worn at all
             times;
      (b)    training of personnel by the DRPS where necessary;
      (c)    operational procedures and instructions concerning activities
             in the chamber are understood prior to commencement of
             activities;
      (d)    all samples and items for storage must be clearly labelled
             showing type, date generated, amount of radiation, owner
             and, where applicable, disposal date (see below);
      (e)    the addition or removal of any radioactive specimen must be
             recorded in the “PESS Radiation Chamber Solid Dry Waste
             Inventory Log”;
      (f)    the PESS radiation chamber should be kept clean and tidy;
      (g)    glove-disposal and hand wash facilities should be used when
             work is completed.




                                                                         19
Conditions for storage

Dry I-125 waste is contained for a minimum of ten half-lives and
then dispose of it as non-radioactive waste.
Disposal under such conditions is permitted as I-125 has a physical
half-life of less than 120 days provided that, before disposal, it is
surveyed to determine that its radioactivity cannot be distinguished
from background.

Bags containing I-125 waste must be sealed, labelled with the
name of the isotope, date generated, amount of radiation, owner
and the suggested safe disposal date.

A survey of radioactivity of I-125 waste is to be undertaken at
quarterly intervals and recorded in the “PESS Radiation Chamber
Solid Dry Waste Inventory Log”. Reading are to be taken by a
hand-held scintillation monitor (900 scintillation monitor with 44A
probe, Mini-Instruments Ltd, calibrated at annual intervals) at a
distance of 2.5cm or less from the surface of the material.

If waste is found to be indistinguishable from background it is to be
removed from the chamber, all labels referring to radioactivity
removed and disposed of as non-radioactive waste. In the case of
I-125 the waste must not exceed 102 kBq/kg.

A record of all material removed from the chamber is to be
recorded in the “PESS Radiation Chamber Solid Dry Waste
Inventory Log”.

Liquid Waste

Responsibility for the control and disposal of I-125waste (liquid) in
the Physical Education and Sports Science (PESS) Department is
held by Professor Philip Jakeman, DRPS for the Physical
Education and Sports Science (PESS) Department. The DRPS will
control the disposal of liquid radioactive sources and s/he will
perform an inventory check of liquid I-125 products at quarterly
intervals. The results of the inventory check will be recorded in the
“PESS Liquid Radiation Waste Inventory Log”.

Active waste may be disposed of to the foul-water sewer via the
designated sink in the fume hood of the Biochemistry laboratory
(PG-038) provided that;
(a)    it is readily dispersible in water;




                                                                   20
                (b)      the waste does not exceed the limits as stated in SI 151
                         (1993). In the case of I-125 the waste must not exceed 105
                         Bq in total (i.e. 0.1MBq) per day.



The following Local Rules to be prominently on display in PG-048:
                                      University of Limerick
                      DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS SCIENCE

                 LOCAL RULES FOR PROCEDURES USING I-125 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

   1.   GENERAL
           a. All work must be approved by the Head of Department (or his/her designee) and the
              Departmental Radiological Protection Supervisor;
           b. No personnel should undertake any work until they are familiar with the use of I-125 and
              the procedures for its handling and disposal;
           c. Any personnel undertaking temporary work using ionising radiation (e.g. project students)
              should only perform procedures using low level materials and be supervised by a
              registered user;
           d. All personnel handling I-125 should wear a personal thermiluminescent dosimeter badge
              (TLD);
           e. All work should be undertaken within the designated radioactive area;
           f. Adequate protective clothing should be worn at all times i.e. laboratory coats and gloves.
              Exposure to ionising radiation should be kept to a minimum at all times by using
              protective screens (lead for gamma emitters).
   2.   WASTE
           a. Low level solid waste should be placed in the lead-lined bin marked ‘radioactive waste’.
              When full this should be emptied into the storage bins in the Radiation Container Bin.
           b. Liquid waste should be run down/aspirated into the designated sink (fume hood) using
              copious amounts of water. At the end of the procedure the sink should be rinsed with
              Decon™ 90.
           c. Disposal of waste is to be recorded on a monthly disposal record form.

   3.   STORAGE
           a. All radioactive materials should be stored in the designated fridge and freezer in the lead
               containers provided for gamma emitters;
           b. A record of the quantity and activity of the stored materials should be displayed on the
               fridge/freezer door and the use of the material withdrawn from the store recorded as used.

   4.   MONITORING
           a. Work areas (e.g. bench, sink, fume cupboard) should be monitored and recorded after
              each procedure using a hand-held scintillation counter. A record of background reading
              should be kept.
           b. Regular cleaning of the areas with Decon™ 90 should be carried out.

   5.   SPILLAGE
            a. All spillage should be cleared up immediately using Decon™ 90 and the waste disposed
                of in the normal way.




                                                                                                       21
                              Section 5

5   Radiological Protection Administration

    5.1   Role of the Heads of Department

          The responsibility for the radiological safety of employees, students
          and visitors within the agreed boundaries of departments is vested
          with the Heads of Departments.

          The Heads of Department must ensure that their Departments
          comply with the legal obligations set out in the Radiological
          Protection Act, 1991 (Ionising Radiation) Order, 2000 (SI No 125 of
          2000) and the RPII licence. Heads of Department must also ensure
          that their staff and students adhere to the safety operating
          procedures contained in the University of Limerick Radiation Safety
          Manual.

    5.2   Role of the Radiological Protection Advisor

          A medical physicist has been appointed to act as Radiatioin
          Protection Advisor (RPA) in accordance with S.I. 125 of 2000 and
          the conditions contained in the RPII license.

    5.3   Role of the Radiological Protection Officer (RPO)

          The RPO directs the radiation safety activities necessary to
          implement and enforce the safety programme established by the
          University of Limerick and endorsed by the management of the
          participating university departments. The RPO is authorised to
          enforce procedures pertaining to the radiation safety programme
          including the authority to temporarily suspend activities involving
          ionising radiation deemed to be unsafe.

    5.4   Role of the Departmental Radiological Protection Supervisor
          (DRPS)

          The DRPS plays a supervisory role in assisting the University to
          comply with the requirements of the Regulations and Licence.
          He/she should exercise close supervision to ensure that the work is
          done in accordance with the local rules, though he/she need not be
          present all the time. The DRPS should;




                                                                             22
            (a)    know and understand the requirements of the regulations,
                   licence and local rules as they affect the work he/she
                   supervises;
            (b)    commands sufficient respect from the people doing the work
                   as will allow him/her to exercise supervision of radiation
                   protection and;
            (c)    understands the necessary precautions to be taken in the
                   work that is being done and the extent to which these
                   precautions will restrict exposures.


     5.5    Administration for Radiological Protection at the University of
            Limerick



                          Governing Authority



                               President

                                                Dean, Faculty of Science
                                                and Engineering




       Director - HR                               Heads of Department
                                                 MST, Phy, PESS, CES,
                                                 MIRC MSSI.



                                                 Departmental
RPA – Mr. J Upton
                                                 Radiological
                                                 Protection Supervisors
RPO – Mr. P Thornton
                                                 Dr. M Laugier
                                                 Ms. M Munroe
                                                 Prof. M Pomeroy
                                                Prof. P Jakeman
                                                Mr N Coleman




                                                                           23
Heads of Departments

Dr. D Corcoran, Physics Dept. (Phy)
Prof. C Hussey , Materials Science and Technology Dept. (MST).
Dr. C Adley, Chemical and Environmental Sciences Dept. (CES)
Dr. E Magner, Director, Materials & Surface Science Institute (MSSI)



Radiological Protection Advisor (RPA)

Mr. J Upton MSc, X-Spect Limited, 3 Ballinakill Close, Waterford.
Medical Physicist


Radiological Protection Officer (RPO)

Mr. P Thornton, BSc, MSc, CMIOSH
Safety Officer.


Departmental Radiological Protection Supervisors (DRPS’s)

Prof. P Jakeman BSc, PhD,
Professor: PESS Dept.

Dr. M Laugier, BSc, PhD, MinstP.
Lecturer; Physics Dept.

Ms M Munroe, MSc, CMIOSH
Chief Technical Officer; CES Dept.

Prof. M Pomeroy, BSc, MSc, PhD.
Associate Professor; MST Dept.

Dr. W Redington BSc, MSc, PhD
Experimental Officer; MSSI

Mr. N Coleman Dip. Prod. Eng
Chief Technical Officer: MST




                                                                       24
Technical Staff

Ms. M Quinn
Chief Technical Officer; Physics Dept.

Mr. R Hutchison
Senior Technical Officer; CES Dept.

Ms. G Hanrahan and Ms. P Olsthoorn
Senior Technical Officers; MST Dept.

Mr. Clive Considine,
Senior Technical Officer, MST.




                                         25
                                  Section 6
6.    Intervention Plan and Emergency Plan for Radiological Accidents

6.1   Introduction

      The University of Limerick has a two tiered systematic approach to the
      management of emergencies. Emergencies are divided into:

6.1.1 those that occur at a Departmental or Building level and can be dealt with,
      in the first instance, at that level with the assistance of the Department,
      Buildings & Estates or other external services (e.g. small chemical spill,
      fire resulting in damage to a confined area within a building). This type of
      incident is dealt within the Departmental Emergency Plan. Each
      Department has its own Departmental Emergency Plan. Personnel from
      the Buildings Department and the Safety Officer will be involved. A
      Departmental Emergency may escalate into a crisis;

6.1.2 unexpected or unforeseen events which will severely disrupt the functions
      of the University, degrade the reputation of the University and adversely
      affect the financial well being of the University and require a response at
      an Executive level. This type of incident is dealt with in the Executive
      Crisis Management Plan. Departmental Emergency Plans link in to the
      Executive Crisis Management Plan, i.e. on activation of the Executive
      Crisis Management Plan individual Departmental Emergency Plans may
      be activated; and

6.1.3 the ‘Intervention Plan and Emergency Plan for Radiological Accidents’ will
      form part of the Executive Crisis Management Plan.

6.2   Purpose of plan

      The purpose of the ‘Intervention Plan and Emergency Plan for
      Radiological Accidents’ is to restrict the radiation exposure to employees,
      the general public and to emergency services personnel that may arise
      from any radiological emergency that may be associated with all teaching
      and research at the University of Limerick.

6.3   Organisational structure and responsibilities

      Management, Coordination and Implementation Teams
      The organisational structure for the management of crises that may affect
      the operation and/or reputation of the University is set out in table 7.1.




                                                                                26
Executive Crisis Management Team
Name                     Alternate                        2nd Alternate
Prof. D Barry            Prof. P McCutcheon               Dr. P Phelan
President                VP Academic                      Ass VP Academic
R Reidy                  T Considine
Director, Buildings and  Buildings Services
Estates                  Manager

Prof. B Fitzgerald
VP Research
T Foy                         M Kelly
Director, Human               Manager, HR
Resources
E Cregan                      Y Davis
Director, Corporate Affairs   Press Officer
J Field                       J Fox
VP Finance                    Financial Controller
P Thornton                    G O’Carroll
Safety Officer                Technical Officer

Responsibilities       Major decisions such as the close down of the University
                       are taken at this level. The Executive Crisis Management
                       Team may not always be directly involved in the crisis
                       management process but will be informed of progress by
                       the Coordination Team.

Location               President’s Office     Dept, Buildings & Estates (Alternate)
Contact Details        See appendix 1 a       Phone 061 202001 or
                                              061 202006
Table 6.1

If the President or his alternates are not available the College Deans will be
contacted in the following order;

Name                   Deans in order of decanal appointment
Prof. P. O’Connor      Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Social Science
Prof. D. Dineen        Kemmy Business School
Prof. K Hodnett        Faculty of Science and Engineering
Prof. M O’Sullivan     Faculty of Education and Health Sciences
Table 6.2




                                                                                 27
Coordination Team
Name
                                       Alternate
R Reidy                                T. Considine
Director, Buildings & Estates          Campus Services Engineer
T Foy                                  M Kelly
Director, Human Resources Division     Manager, Human Resources Division
Dr. P Phelan
Ass. VP Academic
P. Thornton                            G O’Carroll
Radiological Protection Officer        Technical Officer

Responsibilities   The Coordination Team are the primary decision makers and
                   are called out for most crisis scenarios. They activate the
                   Implementation Team and coordinate their activities.

Location           Crisis Management Centre             Alternate
                   Department, Buildings and Estates    Seminar Room (F2
                   (AM 065)                             030), Foundation
                                                        Building
Contact Details    See appendix
Table 6.3

Implementation Team

Responsibilities   The Implementation Team have a functional role in crisis
                   management, i.e. security personnel directing emergency
                   services to the scene of an accident, IT personnel setting up
                   computers. The full Implementation Team is only called out
                   when there is an emergency involving multiple victim’s and/
                   or fatalities on campus. Selected personnel from the
                   Implementation Team may be used for other crisis scenarios.

Location           Crisis Management Centre             Alternate
                   Department Buildings and Estates     Seminar Room (F2
                   (AM 065)                             030), Foundation
                                                        Building
Contact Details    See appendix
Table 6.4




                                                                              28
6.4   Team Responsibilities

6.4.1 Executive Crisis Management Team
      The Executive Crisis Management Team is responsible for:
          ensuring the continuity of the University function;
          providing strategic guidance to the other teams;
          providing a spokesperson and controlling the information flow
          making financial decisions;
          controlling resource allocation in terms of people, property and
            equipment.

6.4.2 Coordination Team

      Operation of the Plan
      The Coordination Team is responsible for:
      assessing crisis situations, managing them, and implementing the best
      course of action to be taken to mitigate their adverse effects.

      Any member of the Coordination Team is responsible for:
          determining whether a crisis at Departmental level should be
           escalated to an Executive level crisis requiring activation of this
           plan;
          briefing the Executive Crisis Management Team during crises;
          activating the Coordination Team and the Implementation Team.

      As well as carrying Coordination Team responsibilities the Director,
      Buildings and Estates is responsible for:
          co-ordinating Buildings and Estates related aspects of the plan
             including the management of contractors on site and liasing with
             utility providers.

6.4.3 Administration of the Plan

      The President through the Director, Human Resources is responsible for:
          ensuring that the Radiological Protection Officer maintains the
            ‘Intervention Plan and Emergency Plan for Radiological Accidents’
            and keeps it up to date;
          ensuring that sufficient resources are allocated to allow the plan to
            operate;
          ensuring that the plan is practiced on a regular basis.
      The Radiological Protection Officer is responsible for:

         carrying out an annual review of the ‘Intervention Plan and Emergency
          Plan for Radiological Accidents’;
         coordinating additions or modifications to the plan to ensure they are
          consistent with the University Safety Statement and policies
         communicating the University’s policy on the management radiological
          accidents and events to relevant personnel.


6.5   Crisis scenarios involving radioactive sources or X-ray apparatus

6.5.1 Standard Laboratory Analytical Tools (X-ray diffractometers, Tel-X-O
meters)

      Malfunction resulting in unintentional exposure
      There are specific requirements for operating X-ray diffractometers,
      including a requirement that all safety alarms and interlocks be working
      correctly at all times. In the event of any malfunction in any radiation-
      producing device or related safety systems, the following actions shall be
      taken:
       Exit the room containing the device immediately.
       Contact the Radiological Protection Officer during normal working
          hours or Security (ext. 3333) after hours, on holidays, or weekends.
       Attempt to determine if the device is emitting radiation.
       If the device is emitting radiation, attempt to disable or secure it
          without entering the room in which the device is located.
       Monitor radiation levels in the vicinity of the room housing the device.

6.5.2 Sealed radioactive teaching sources

      Loss or theft
       Initiate a search to locate the radioactive source. Check lab coats,
         cupboards, fume cupboards, bins, waste containers, drawers, etc.
       Ask assistance from staff and students who had access to the source.
         Use the various internal communication systems to seek the return of
         the source.
       If the material cannot be located notify the Head of Department (HOD)
         and the Radiological Protection Officer (RPO). If appropriate, the RPO
         shall advise the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII).
       If theft is suspected the RPO shall, after consultation with the HOD
         and the RPII, report the loss to the Gardai.

      Physical damage
      Physical damage to any source (radioactive waste, stock vial solutions,
      sealed sources, etc.) or any other accident involving radioactive material


                                                                                   30
     must be reported promptly to the Head of Department (HOD) responsible
     for the use of the radioactive material and to the Radiological Protection
     Officer (RPO).

     Fire
      Exit the area if you feel your life is in danger.
      Raise the fire alarm and immediately report the emergency to
         Reception/Security (ext. 3333), including the fact that radioactive
         material is stored in the room in question.
      During working hours, contact the Radiological Protection Officer to
         inform him of the emergency.
      DO NOT try to combat a fire yourself unless you are trained in fire
         fighting techniques.
      Evacuate the building and report to the Building Evacuation
         Coordinator at the Assembly Point.

6.5.3 Unsealed radioactive sources (chemical powders)

     Radioactive chemical spill
     The probability of a spill involving radioactive chemicals is extremely small
     as they are licensed for storage but not use at the university. In the
     unlikely event that a significant spill occurs:
      Decontamination of personnel will take precedence over all other
         matters;
      Avoid spread of contamination and isolate area, as appropriate;
      Warn persons in the immediate vicinity of the accident;
      Notify Radiological Protection Officer who may decide to issue further
         warnings and summon additional assistance if required;
      Deal with the emergency or evacuate the area as circumstances
         dictate. Until the Radiological Protection Officer has worked out the
         appropriate course of action, only the minimum immediate action
         should be taken. Except where the person in charge decides that it is
         necessary to evacuate the area immediately, attempts should be made
         to limit the dispersal of contamination;
      Protective and other clothing, which is contaminated with radioactive
         material, should be removed and left in the affected area. When
         removing clothes, take care not to transfer radioactivity to the skin;
      Contaminated persons should not move far from the site of the
         incident until they have been monitored and, if necessary,
         decontaminated. However, the treatment of serious injuries must take
         precedence over decontamination and containment of contamination;
      Persons entering the affected area to carry out emergency procedures
         should wear protective clothing;
      Entry to the affected area must be restricted until all the appropriate
         actions have been taken to clear the contamination from the area and



                                                                                  31
            environmental surveys have satisfied the Radiological Protection
            Officer that it may be reoccupied.

         Loss or Theft
          Initiate a search to locate the radioactive material. Check lab coats,
            chemical stores, cupboards, fume cupboards, bins, waste containers,
            drawers, etc.
          Ask assistance from staff and students who had access to the source.
            Use the various internal communications systems to seek the return of
            the source.
          If the material cannot be located notify the Head of Department (HOD)
            and the Radiological Protection Officer (RPO). If appropriate, the RPO
            shall advise the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII).
          If theft is suspected the RPO shall, after consultation with the HOD
            and the RPII, report the loss to the Gardai.

         Fire
          Exit the area if you feel your life is in danger.
          Raise the fire alarm and immediately report the emergency to
             Reception/Security (ext. 3333), including the fact that radioactive
             material is stored in the room in question.
          During working hours, contact the Radiological Protection Officer to
             inform him of the emergency.
          DO NOT try to combat a fire yourself unless you are trained in fire
             fighting techniques.
          Evacuate the building and report to the Building Evacuation
             Coordinator at the Assembly Point.

6.6      Call out procedure
          The Radiological Protection Officer is responsible for maintaining a
            comprehensive list of contact numbers of persons or organisations to
            be contacted in an emergency.
          The call out trees contained in the University of Limerick Executive
            Crisis Management Plan shall be made available to the Radiological
            Protection Officer. The call out trees contain the contact details of
            technical, medical and specialist staff who may be required in any
            emergency.



References

      (1) Dept. of Health and Social Security, 1982. Code of Practice for the
          Protection of Persons Against Ionising Radiations arising from Medical
          and Dental Use. 1982.



                                                                                    32
(2) Eichling, John, 1986. Radiation Safety Manual. Washington University
    and Affiliated Institutions.
(3) Radiological Protection Act, 1991 (Ionising Radiation) Order, 2000 (S.I.
    125 of 2000)
(4) Kershaw, Belinda, 1994. The Handling and Disposal of Radioactive
    Materials, The Laboratory Environment. The Royal Society of Chemistry,
    p125-147,.
(5) Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 1997. License for the
    Custody/Use/Disposal         of     Radioactive       Substances/Nuclear
    Devices/Irradiating Apparatus.
(6) University of Limerick, June 2000, Safety Statement (Revision 3).




                                                                          33

				
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