AP Biology Syllabus by 0eTO5TjJ


									                              AP Biology Syllabus
Course Overview

The AP Biology curriculum is structured on the themes of biology listed in the Acorn
book “AP biology course description” published by the College Board. There are eight
major themes that recur throughout the course as described by the Acorn book. This
course emphasizes the eight themes to assist students in organizing concepts and
topics into a conceptual framework.

The course allows students to develop an understanding of science as a process rather
than an accumulation of facts through the lab activities. When a full lab report is
required, students must research, develop a hypothesis, test, and then analyze the data
collected. They must be able to discuss limitations of the lab and make
recommendations for improvement. Experiments that do not give the expected results
allow students an opportunity to discuss scientific processes, experimental procedures,
and accuracy of data. Students complete all 12 labs recommended by the College
Board in hands-on activities. We have all of the necessary facilities, equipment (probes
and computers) and supplies needed to complete these laboratory activities. Students
have access to the AP Biology Lab Manual and receive copies of the AP labs that are
modified versions of the labs.

Students must apply knowledge of biological concepts and critical thinking skills to
analyze journal articles and abstracts. Class discussions of current social issues such
as stem cell research and cloning improve student critical thinking skills. Analysis of
video clips of current movies allows students to show biological knowledge.

Topics covered in the course include chemistry of life, cells and cell energetics,
heredity, molecular genetics, evolution, diversity of organisms, structure and function of
both plants and animals, and ecology. The course is broken down into three areas of
study: 25% molecules and cells, 25% genetics and evolution, and 50% organisms
and populations as suggested by the College Board. The student will spend more
than 25% of their time on these topics in laboratory.

AP Biology students at this campus receive 1 ½ credits for this course. During the fall
semester students attend class daily for 45 minutes. During the spring semester
students attend class daily for 90 minutes. We are on accelerated block-scheduling.

Textbook: Campbell, Neil and Reece, Jane, Biology, 6th edition. 2002

Course Topics

In each unit students are assigned to read the textbook with a reading guide of
questions to answer. Students are periodically quizzed over their reading (reading
quizzes) and material covered in lectures and laboratory activities (pop quizzes or
announced quizzes.) Students are also given a unit study guide to complete as the
material is covered. Students are required to write at least one AP essay during each
unit. At least one supplemental reading is assigned in each unit. The reading usually
comes from a scientific journal (Scientific American, Discover, Science, Popular
Science, National Geographic, etc.) The students write an article summary or journal
abstract for each article. The articles chosen vary based on the content covered and
current advances in Biology and related fields. At the completion of each unit a unit
exam is given or the unit may be divided into several chapter exams. The exams follow
the AP Exam format and consist of a multiple choice section with 30-50 questions and
an essay section with 1-2 Essays from released AP exams. Some exams may also
include a lab practical.

Outline: Order of topics, activities, assignments and assessments are subject to
change to incorporate new discoveries, ideas, teaching methods, time
constraints, and to meet the needs of the students.

AP Biology Topic: Molecules & Cells
Unit 1: Biochemistry Chapters 1-5 (~13-15 days)
       A. Introduction to AP Biology Themes (emphasized throughout units)
          1. Science as a Process
          2. Evolution
          3. Energy Transfer
          4. Continuity & Change
          5. Relationship to Structure & Function
          6. Regulation
          7. Interdependence in Nature
          8. Science, Technology & Society
       B. Chemistry
          1. Structure of atoms
          2. Chemical Bonding
       C. Water
          1. Structure & geometry of water
          2. Unique properties of water (relating to importance for living organisms)
          3. pH and Buffers
       D. Organic Chemistry
          1. Properties of Carbon
          2. Characteristics of Organic compounds
          3. Functional Groups
       E. Biological Molecules
          1. Monomers vs. Polymers
          2. Structure, function, & classification of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and
          nucleic acids.

       Unit 1: Lab Activities (Approximate time spent on labs): All of these labs are
       hands-on carried out by students. Teacher provided pre-lab instruction will
       include safety, introduction to equipment, experimental techniques, and
       discussion of objectives to be accomplished.

       1. Organic Molecule Model Lab: students use models to build organic
          molecules to identify functional groups & types of molecules (45 minutes)

       2. Biological Molecule Identification Lab: students use biochemical tests to
          identify biological molecules present in known and unknown solutions (90
      3. pH/Buffer Lab: students change pH of solutions with and without buffers to
         observe and explain how buffers help resist pH changes (45 minutes)

      Unit 1: Assignments
      1. Designing a controlled experiment reading and activity
      2. AP Essay: Unique properties of Water
      3. Textbook Reading and reading guide
      4. Journal Article Reading and Summary/Abstract
      5. Unit 1 study guide

      Unit 1: Assessments
      1. Reading Quizzes (over textbook reading)
      2. Pop Quizzes
      3. Unit 1 Exam (AP exam format: m/c & essay)

Unit 2: Cell Structure & Function Chapters 7 & 8 (~14 days)
       A. Cell organelles (structure/function)
              1. nucleus, nuclear membrane, nucleolus, chromatin/chromosomes
              2. endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, vacuoles, lysosomes
              3. mitochondria & chloroplasts (endosymbiotic theory)
              4. ribosomes, peroxisomes,
              5. cell wall, extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton
       B. Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
       C. Plants vs. Animals
       D. Cell Membrane (structure/function)
       E. Cell Transport
              1. Passive Transport: diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
              2. Active Transport: protein pumps, endocytosis, & exocytosis

           Science as a Process
           Relationship of Structure and Function
           Regulation
           Evolution

      Unit 2: Lab Activities:

      1. Microscope Lab: Students review parts of microscope, focusing, making
         slides, observe letter e, field of view diameter, estimation of cell size,
         observation of organisms & determining cell size; colored fibers (90 minutes)
      2. Cell Lab: Students observe a prokaryote slide under oil immersion; make
         wet-mount slides and then observe, draw and estimate size of eukaryotic
         cells (Cheek, Elodea, Onion) comparing them to prokaryotic slide (45
      3. Cell Size Lab: Students compare different size cubes and determine their
         surface area & volume to see how these factors limit cell size (45 minutes)
      4. AP Lab 1: Osmosis & Diffusion (90 minutes)
      Unit 2: Assignments
      1. Textbook Reading & reading guide
      2. AP essay: Prokaryotes/Eukaryotes
      3. AP essay: Cell membrane
      4. Cell Study Guide
      5. Journal Article reading: Nobel Prize: Aquaporins

      Unit 2: Assessments
      1. Cell Parts Quiz
      2. Cell transport quiz
      3. Unit 2 exam (AP format m/c, essay, practical)

Unit 3: Cellular Energy Chapters 6 & 9
       A. Energy & Enzymes
              1. Free energy
              2. Energy profiles & reactions
              3. Structure & Function of ATP
              4. Enzyme Structure & characteristics
              5. Factors affecting enzyme activity
              6. Regulation of Enzymes
       B. Cellular Respiration
              1. Overview
              2. Structure relating to function of mitochondria
              3. Glycolysis
              4. Krebs Cycle
              5. Electron Transport Chain & Oxidative Phosphorylation
              6. Fermentation
              7. Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Respiration
              8. Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes & cell respiration (evolution)
              9. Regulation of cell respiration
              10. video: The Learning Channel: How to Build a Human Series: Forever
                  Young: Video relates Mitochondria to aging (50 minutes)
             Science as a Process
             Energy Transfer
             Relationship of Structure and Function
             Regulation
             Continuity & Change
             Evolution
             Science, Technology, and Society

      Unit 3: Lab Activities:

      1. Lactase Lab: Students use Lactaid to design an experiment to observe
         hydrolysis of lactose (45 minutes)
      2. AP Lab 2: Enzymes: Students complete a modified version of AP lab. We
         collect oxygen gas and observe the factors that affect activity of catalase
         (Temperature, pH, concentration of substrate, concentration of enzyme,
         presence of inhibitors.) (90 minutes)
      3. AP Lab 5: Cellular Respiration (90 minutes)
      4. Fermentation Lab: Students use Vernier probes & graphing calculators to
         observe yeast fermentation of various sugars (45 minutes)

      Unit 3: Assignments:
      1. AP Essay: Enzymes
      2. Energy Concept Map
      3. Enzyme Study guide
      4. Pre-lab Catalase
      5. Journal Article Readings & Summaries/Abstracts Enzymes; Mitochondrial
         Diseases; SCS’s and Catalytic scavenger’s role in aging (current research)
      6. AP Essay: Cell Respiration
      7. Cell Respiration Application Questions

      Unit 3: Assessments
      1. Reading Quiz
      2. Pop Quiz: Enzymes
      3. Pop Quiz: Cell Respiration
      4. Energy & Enzymes Exam (Ch 6)
      5. AP Lab 2: Enzymes Formal Lab Report
      6. Cellular Respiration Exam (Ch 9)

AP Biology Topic: Organisms & Populations
Unit 4: Introduction to Animals & Systems (~30-32 days)
       A. Introduction to Animals Ch 40
              1. Hierarchy of organization
              2. Cell Types
              3. Tissue Types
              4. Organs
              5. Organ Systems
              6. Homeostasis
              7. Regulation: Positive & Negative Feedback
       B. Animal Nutrition Ch 41
              1. Dietary Categories
              2. Feeding Mechanisms
              3. Stages of Food Processing
              4. Types of Digestive Compartments (comparison/contrast of
                 invertebrates & vertebrates)
              5. Process of Digestion (emphasis Mammals)
              6. Digestive Enzymes
              7. Control of Digestion: Hormones
              8. Video: Universe Within: Bonnie Blair Segment: Digestion
              9. Video: Digestion: Fats (New Living Body)
       C. Circulation & Gas Exchange Ch 42
              1. Transport Systems in organisms
              2. Open vs. Closed Circulatory Systems
              3. Vertebrate Circulation: Comparison of vertebrate hearts
              4. Parts of Mammalian Heart: structures & functions
              5. Events of Cardiac Cycle
              6. Control of Heart Rhythm
              7. Blood Pressure
              8. Components of Blood & Functions
      9. Blood Cell Formation
      10. Blood Clotting
      11. Cardiovascular Disease
      12. Gas Exchange comparison in organisms (emphasis on adaptations)
      13. Mammalian Respiratory System structure & function
      14. Ventilation
      15. Regulation of Breathing
      16. Gas Transport
      17. Videos: New Living Body Blood (emphasis on Sickle Cell Anemia and
          circulatory system) and Breathing (emphasis on Cystic Fibrosis and
          lung function
D. Excretory Systems Ch 44
      1. Regulation of Body Temperature
      2. Types of Nitrogenous wastes
      3. Osmoregulation
      4. Excretory Systems in organisms (comparison with emphasis on
      5. Mammals: How the nephron works
      6. Regulation of kidneys: hormones
E. Nervous System Ch 48
      1. Overview of nervous system
      2. Nervous systems in organisms
      3. Neuron Structure
      4. Nerve impulse & Chemical Synapse
F. Muscular System Ch 49
      1. Types of muscle cells
      2. Skeletal muscle structure & function
      3. Muscle contraction
G. Endocrine System Ch 45
      1. Chemical Signals & modes of action
      2. Endocrine Glands & Hormones (Structure/function)
      3. Regulation: Feedback
          a. Thyroid hormones
          b. Blood Calcium
          c. Blood Sugar
H. Reproduction Ch 46        (Video: Universe Within: Reproduction segment)
      1. Overview
      2. Mechanisms of Sexual reproduction
      3. Mammalian reproduction
          a. reproductive anatomy (structure/function)
          b. spermatogenesis & oogenesis
          c. Hormone control of testes
          d. Hormone control of menstrual & ovarian cycles
         Science as a Process
         Evolution
         Energy Transfer
         Continuity and Change
         Relationship of Structure and Function
         Regulation
            Interdependence in Nature
            Science, Technology, and Society

Unit 4: Lab Activities:

1. Animal Tissue Slide observation: students observe slides of epithelial
tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue, and connective tissue (45 minutes)
2. Digestion: Salivary Amylase Activity: Students swab a starch agar plate
with a q-tip soaked with their saliva, allow plate to sit, then test for presence of
starch with Lugol’s iodine and observe the starch digestion (20 minutes)
3. Sheep Heart Dissection: Students observe & identify parts of heart (30
4. AP Lab: Circulatory System (90-135 minutes)
5. Blood Typing Lab: Students use simulated blood to determine blood types
    (40 minutes)
6. Lung Observation/Lung Capacity Activity (30 minutes) Students will
    observe Goat lung and then determine their own lung capacity.
7. Sheep Kidney dissection/observation (30 minutes)
8. Urinalysis Students use simulate urine and test urine samples for sugars,
    proteins, ketones, pH, specific gravity and determine which samples are
    abnormal and possible diseases/problems affecting patients. (45 minutes)
9. Rat Dissection (135 minutes)

Unit 4: Assignments
1. Textbook Reading & Reading Guides
2. Animal Classification Chart
3. Digestion study guide (questions/diagrams)
4. AP Essay: Hormone Control of Digestion
5. Circulation & Gas Exchange Study guide
6. AP Essay: Gas Transport
7. Excretory System Study Guide
8. AP Essay: Kidney Structure & Function
9. Endocrine Study Guide
10. AP Essay: Regulation of Blood sugar and Blood Calcium
11. Journal Article & Summary: Endocrine Disorders
12. Reproduction Study Guide
13. AP Essay: Menstrual Cycle

Unit 4: Assessments
1. Reading Quizzes over textbook reading
2. Pop Quizzes
3. Digestion Exam
4. Circulatory /Respiratory Exam
5. Excretory/ Endocrine Exam
6. Reproduction Exam
7. Rat Practical
AP Biology Topic: Heredity & Evolution
Unit 5: DNA, Cell Division, Animal Development Chapters 16, 12, 13, 47 (~12-14
       A. DNA Structure & History (Nova Video: Secret of Photo 51)
       B. DNA Replication
       C. Cell Cycle Overview
       D. Stages of Mitosis
       E. Control/Regulation of Cell Cycle
       F. Cancer
       G. Meiosis Overview
       H. Stages of Meiosis
       I. Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis
       J. Mitosis vs. Meiosis
       K. Animal Development

         Science as a Process
         Evolution
         Continuity and Change
         Relationship of Structure and Function
         Regulation
         Science, Technology, and Society

Unit 5 Lab Activities:

1. DNA Extraction Lab Students will extract and observe DNA from a plant cell (Kiwi,
strawberry or onion) and an animal cell (thymus, liver or cheek cell). (30 minutes)
2. DNA Replication Model Activity: paper lab: teacher designed activity where
students take a DNA molecule and model the replication process (20-30 minutes)
3. AP Lab: Mitosis & Meiosis (90-135 minutes)

Unit 5: Assignments
   1. Textbook Reading & Reading Guide
   2. DNA, Cell Cycle, Meiosis, Development Study Guides
   3. AP Essay: Replication
   4. Journal Article Reading & Summary/Abstract: Cancer
   5. AP Essay: Regulation of Cell Cycle
   6. AP Essay: Compare and Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis

Unit 5: Assessments
   1. Reading Quiz
   2. Pop Quizzes
   3. DNA/Cell Cycle Exam (AP format m/c, essay, and practical)
   4. Meiosis/Development Exam (AP format m/c, essay, and practical)
Unit 6: Genetics, Protein Synthesis, Genetics of Bacteria & Viruses, Immune
System: Chapters 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 43 (~20 days),
   1. Mendelian Genetics
   2. Nonmendelian Genetics
   3. Pedigrees
   4. Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
   5. Transcription
   6. Translation
   7. Mutations & Genetic Diseases
          a. Video: Lorenzo’s Oil
          provides insight into progression of a genetic disorder and how scientists discover
          a biochemical pathway. (1992) Lorenzo’s Oil (DVD) Available from MCA
   8. Classification of Bacteria
   9. Characteristics of Bacteria
   10. Bacterial Genetics
   11. Regulation of bacterial genes: inducible and repressible operons
   12. Virus Characteristics
   13. Viral Life Cycles
   14. Eukaryotic Genome organization and control
   15. DNA Technology Applications (Video: From Secrets of the Sequence (Green
       Fluorescent Protein) A Green Light for Biology: Making the Invisible Visible
       www.pubinfo.vcu.edu/secretsofthesequence )
   16. Immune System
           a. Lines of Defense
           b. Cell-Mediated Immunity
           c. Antibody-Mediated Immunity

     Science as a Process
     Evolution
     Energy Transfer
     Continuity and Change
     Relationship of Structure and Function
     Regulation
     Interdependence in Nature
     Science, Technology, and Society

Unit 6 Lab Activities:

   1. Chi-Square lab Students flip coins to collect data to calculate chi-square (45
   2. AP Lab Genetics: Fast Plants (Long term project lab 4-6 weeks, time daily
   3. Genetics of Corn Students use genetics corn ears and count the number of
      colored & shaped kernels, predict mode of inheritance and then calculate chi-
      square (45-60 minutes)
   4. Human Genetics: Observation of Traits Students determine if they possess
      certain dominant or recessive characteristics (20 minutes)
   5. Modeling Protein Synthesis Students will model transcription and translation
       using teacher designed manipulatives.
   6. Observation of Bacteria: Slide observation lab. Students use oil immersion
       microscope to determine shape of bacteria. (20 minutes)
   7. Gram-Staining Lab Students will fix, stain, and observe bacteria to determine
       whether the bacteria are gram positive or gram negative. (~60 minutes)
   8. Paper lab: Plasmid Teacher designed activity. Students will be given a paper
       plasmid and a eukaryotic DNA sequence. Students will use restriction enzymes
       to cut both plasmid and eukaryotic DNA to make a recombinant DNA plasmid.
       This will provide necessary background for AP Lab: Transformation (45 minutes)
   9. AP Lab 6: Transformation of Bacteria (pGLO lab from Bio-Rad) (120
   10. Paper Lab: DNA Scissors Students model DNA restriction digestion and
       electrophoresis using a paper model. Provides background for DNA Restriction
       Analysis Lab (20 minutes)
   11. AP Lab 6: DNA Electrophoresis: Restriction Analysis (120 minutes)
   12. Disease Transmission Simulation Students will simulate the transmission of a
       contagious disease and determine original source of infection. (20 minutes)

Unit 6 Assignments
   1. Textbook Reading & guides
   2. Genetics Problems
   3. Fruit-Fly Genetics & Chi-Square Problems
   4. AP essay: Genetics
   5. Genetic Disease Project: Students research a genetic disease and prepare a
       power point slide presentation to teach class about a genetic disease including
       current developments in research, genetic testing, and treatments.
   6. Protein Synthesis Study Guide
   7. AP Essay: Protein Synthesis
   8. Journal Article & Summary
   9. Bacteria, Viruses, Immune System Study Guides
   10. AP Essay: Immune System
   11. Game: Immunoscenarios

Unit 6 Assessments
   1. Reading Quiz
   2. Pop Quiz
   3. Fast Plant Genetics Formal Lab Report (AP Lab)
   4. Genetic Disease Project
   5. Genetics & Protein Synthesis Exam (AP exam format: m/c & essay)
   6. Formal Lab Report AP Lab 6
   7. Journal Article Readings & Summaries Genetic Engineering; Immune System
   8. Project: Infectious Diseases: Students will research an infectious disease and
       create a web page explaining cause, symptoms, treatments, prevention of
   9. Bacteria, Viruses, Immune System, DNA Technology Exam (AP Format: m/c,
       essays, practical)
Unit 7: Evolution Chapters 22-26 (~8-10 days)
   1. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution (PBS Evolution Website: Video clips)
   2. Evolution of Populations
   3. Speciation
   4. Phylogeny & Systematics
   5. Origin of Life

    Science as a Process
    Evolution
    Continuity and Change

Unit 7 Lab Activities:

   1. Natural Selection Activity Students determine selection of color variations in
      different environments over several generations. (45 minutes)
   2. AP Lab 8: Population Genetics & Evolution (90 minutes)
   3. Cladistics Activity Students construct a phylogenetic tree for organisms based
      on amino acid analysis (60 minutes)

Unit 7 Assignments
   1. Textbook reading & guide
   2. Evolution study guide
   3. Hardy-Weinberg Problems
   4. AP Essay: Speciation

Unit 7 Assessments
   1. Reading Quiz
   2. Pop Quiz
   3. Unit 7 Exam (AP format: m/c & essay)

AP Biology Topic: Organisms & Populations
Unit 8: Kingdom Survey (~20 days)
       A. Prokaryotes Ch 27
          1. Classification
          2. Importance to living organisms
       B. Protists Ch 30
          1. Classification
          2. Importance
       C. Fungi Ch 31
          1. Classification
          2. Importance to living organisms
       D. Plants Ch 29,30, 35, 10, 36, 37, 38, 39
          1. Classification
          2. Plant Structure/Function & Growth
          3. Photosynthesis
              a. Structure & Function of Chloroplast
              b. Light Dependent Reactions
              c. Light-Independent Reactions
              d. Adaptations for photosynthesis
             e. Photosynthesis vs. Cell Respiration (compare/contrast)
         4. Plant transport
         5. Plant Nutrition
         6. Plant reproduction & biotechnology
         7. Plant hormones & control systems
      E. Animals Chapters 32, 33, 34
         1. Classification
         2. Invertebrate Classification and Characteristics
         3. Vertebrate Classification and Characteristics

         Science as a Process
         Evolution
         Energy Transfer
         Continuity and Change
         Relationship of Structure and Function
         Regulation
         Interdependence in Nature
         Science, Technology, and Society

Unit 8 Lab Activities:

   1. Protist classification/observation lab Students will observe & classify protists
      from prepared slides and wet-mount slides of pond water samples. (45 minutes)
   2. Fungi classification/observation lab Students will observe & classify fungi
      based on characteristics observed from prepared slides, preserved specimens,
      and live samples. (45 minutes)
   3. Plant Classification/observation lab Students observe live and preserved
      specimens and slides of mosses, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms and
      then classify plant samples based on these observations (60 minutes)
   4. Plant Anatomy lab Students observe slides, preserved and live specimens of
      stems, roots, leaves, and flowers to classify, identify cells and tissues. (90
   5. AP Lab 4: Photosynthesis (part 1: 60 minutes; part 2: 90 minutes)
   6. AP Lab 9: Transpiration (90 minutes)
   7. Plant Hormone Lab: Fast plants & Gibberellic acid Students grow normal
      Wisconsin Fast Plants and Mutant Dwarf plants. Mutant Dwarf plants will be
      treated with gibberellic acid to determine its effect on the mutant plants. (long
      term lab 2-4 weeks, daily observation)
   8. Invertebrate Classification lab Students compare and contrast characteristics
      of preserved specimens and live specimens in a station lab. (60 minutes)
   9. Vertebrate Classification lab Students compare and contrast characteristics of
      preserved and live specimens in a station lab. (60 minutes)

Unit 8 Assignments
   1. Textbook reading and guide
   2. Prokaryote Study guide
   3. Journal Article Reading & Summary: Prokaryotes
   4. Protist Study guide
   5. Fungi Study guide
   6. Plant Study guide
   7. Journal Article Reading & Summary: Plants
   8. AP Essay: Plant transport
   9. Photosynthesis Study guide
   10. AP Essay: Adaptations for Photosynthesis
   11. Invertebrate Study Guide
   12. Vertebrate Study Guide
   13. Journal Article Reading & Summary: Animals
   14. Phylogenetic Tree

Unit 8 Assessments
   1. Reading Quizzes
   2. Pop Quizzes
   3. Formal Lab Report: Photosynthesis
   4. Formal Lab Report: Transpiration
   5. Kingdom Survey Exam; Plant & Photosynthesis Exam (AP format: m/c, essay,

Unit 9 Ecology Chapters 50-55 (~12-14 days)
   1. Biomes
   2. Animal Behavior
   3. Population Ecology
   4. Community Ecology
   5. Ecosystems
   6. Conservation Biology

     Science as a Process
     Evolution
     Energy Transfer
     Continuity and Change
     Relationship of Structure and Function
     Interdependence in Nature

Unit 9 Lab Activities:

   1. AP Lab 12 Dissolved Oxygen/primary productivity (90-120 minutes)
   2. AP Lab 11 Animal Behavior (90 minutes)

Unit 9 Assignments
   1. Textbook reading and guide
   2. Ecology study guide
   3. Journal Article & Reading: Ecology
   4. AP Essay: Ecology
Unit 9 Assessments
   1. Reading Quiz
   2. Pop Quiz
   3. Formal Lab Report: Dissolved Oxygen
   4. Formal Lab Report: Animal Behavior
   5. Unit 9 Exam (AP format: m/c, essay)

Unit 10: AP EXAM Review

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