Announcements: Lec. 8, 02/15/10
Due today: Your article on what you will give your talk and research paper
Plus general review article plus textbook/web page(s)
½ pg write-up
March 15th : Student Presentations
March 17th : Student Presentations
We will likely have one evening section—pizza included!
Next Wednesday– quiz on Chpt 3 of ECB; next homework due.
No homework assigned.
Next Monday– NO Class (I’m at Biophysical Society Meeting)
Applications of DNA: Forensics, FISH, DNA “chips”;
Sequence, dead or alive
Forensic DNA Typing
Did you kill (rape, father…) that person?
How DNA can “definitively” say.
National Institutes of Science & Technology
Target Region for PCR
You can be identified by your own unique various regions
DNA Use in Forensic, Paternity… Cases
• Most Forensic cases are rape cases (>2 out of 3)
Looking for match between evidence and suspect
-- matching suspect with evidence
• Paternity testing -- identifying father
• Military DNA “dog-tag.”
•Mixtures must be resolved
•DNA is often degraded (stored wet- have mold, nuclease)
•Inhibitors to PCR are often present
Sources of Biological Evidence
• Teeth (useful in fires).
• Bone (Yes, there are cells in bone. Decalcify it.
100,000 year old people, Dinosaurs- has DNA!)
All felony arrests- cheek swab.
Short Tandem Repeats (STRs)
(say chromo 3)
Identical in all people
Identical in all people
the repeat region is variable between samples while the
flanking regions where PCR primers bind are constant
Homozygote = both alleles are the same length
Heterozygote = alleles differ and can be resolved from one another
Variation Among STRs
Choosing which STRs:
Significant statistical variation – but not too many.
Freq. that are measured in pop. : Loc 1 -10%. Loc
2 – 10%; locus 1+2 -1/100.
Random match with 13 primers (used now): 1/1013.
(There are 6 billion people, ~ 6 x 109 people.)
Watch out for different racial types!
• Over 10 Markers Can Be
Copied at Once
• Sensitivities to levels less than
1 ng of DNA
• Ability to Handle Mixtures
and Degraded Samples
• Different Fluorescent Dyes
Used to Distinguish STR
Alleles with Overlapping Size
Most rxns: require 2 PCR (tubes) 7 or 8
primer pairs in one tube– need total of
about 2 tubes for 13 different STRs.
$20-$25 per rxn in lab. $150 incl
labor. Cost for forensic up to $1000.
13 CODIS Core STR Loci
with Chromosomal Positions
D16S539 D18S51 D21S11 AMEL
D tells chromosome 21— Can tell Down’s syndrome. (No Down’s here.)
Human Identity Testing with Multiplex STRs
Amelogenin protein is involved in tooth enamel and happens to be on sex chromosome – top: 2 peaks: x (106 bp) and y (112 bp);
Bottom only 1 peak cause they have two X chromosomes. ®
AmpFlSTR SGM Plus™ kit
DNA Size (base pairs)
amelogenin D8 TH01
Two different individuals
D19 VWA D21 D16
106 bp 112 bp
probability of a random
match: ~1 in 3 trillion Results obtained in less than 5
amelogenin D3 hours with a spot of blood the
size of a pinhead
D8 VWA D16
D21 D18 D2
Simultaneous Analysis of 10 STRs and Gender ID
FBI’s CODIS DNA Database
Combined DNA Index System --all 50 states can upload
their convicted felony and seq. of unsolved cases…. In Florida to convicted felon.
• Used for linking serial crimes and unsolved
cases with repeat offenders
• Launched October 1998
• Links all 50 states
• Requires >4 RFLP markers
and/or 13 core STR markers
• Current backlog of >600,000 samples
Except for police errors, and sufficient racial typing,
it’s a done deal
(Mitotic) Chromosomes can be identified by
their unique sequences
Each chromosome can be labeled uniquely
The location of genes on a chromosome can be determined
Fluoresence in Situ Hybridization (FISH)
Green- # 22 marker- 22q13
Red- DiGeorge Syndrome region (if missing) at 22q11.2
(Person has 2 normal)
A). Chromosone 4 “painted”.
B) From same person in A, but hybridized with
a probe for the terminal part of chromosome
4q. Only one green signal one chromosome
4 is missing material from the terminal end of
C) Xcen chromosome 22
Other: Steroid Sulfatase gene.
Two X chromosomes, 1 St.Su. gene female
carrier for Steroid Sulfatase Deficiency.
Nature Genetics Supplement 21:33-37 (January 1999)
Molecular portraits of human breast tumours
Gene chips can be used to follow genetic changes during cancer and cancer treatment
FIG. 1. Variation in expression of 1,753
genes in 84 experimental samples.
Data are presented in a matrix format: each
row represents a single gene, and each
column an experimental sample. Green
squares, transcript levels below the median;
black squares, transcript levels equal to the
median; red squares, transcript levels greater
than the median; grey squares, technically
inadequate or missing data.
Affymetrix, 1992. Marriage
of Silicon and Genes.
techniques could be united with
advances in combinatorial
chemistry to build vast amounts
of biological data on a small
Brown & Botstein, Nature, 406, 747, 2000
Gene Chips can be used to follow genetic changes
Sequencing: Illumina (and other sources).
Decoding 4,000 year old DNA (From Nature, 2009)
Less 10 years after first living person’s DNA sequenced
“Inuk” died on an island off Greenland called
Qeqertasussuk. He left bits of hair and bone that the
permafrost preserved, including his complete genome.
Inuk’s genes reveal he was a fairly young man, robustly
built to exist in a frigid climate, with A-positive blood,
dark skin, brown eyes, and thick, black hair on a scalp
genetically susceptible to baldness. He was a palaeo-
Eskimo, and by comparing his genome to other living
people, they deduced that he was member of the Arctic
Saqqaq, the first known culture to settle in Greenland
whose ancestors had trekked from Siberia around the
Arctic circle in pursuit of game.
Contamination a big problem: The best place to find it is entombed in ice, where it is
preserved by the cold and protected from contamination. Hair doesn't as readily absorb
contaminants, and its surface can be bleached clean. They also tagged the millions of
fragments of extracted DNA with a barcode-like sequence to distinguish them from
stray modern human DNA.
1. What was the most interesting thing you learned in class today?
2. What are you confused about?
3. Related to today’s subject, what would you like to know more
4. Any helpful comments.
Answer, and turn in at the end of class.