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									Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                                PSYCHOLOGY


     • What is Psychology?
        – Psychology is a word deriving from Greek roots:
        – Psyche – “soul” or “mind,” Logos – “word”
     • Psychology is the systematic study of behavior and
       experience




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                      The Goals of Psychologists


     • Psychologists engage in the study of psychology in
       order to understand, explain, predict and control
       behavior
     • What are the major philosophical issues that are
       relevant to this study?
        – Why we do what we do (causes of behavior).
        – Relationship of brain activity and the “mind” (Mind-
          Brain Problem).
        – Role of heredity and environment.



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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                   The Major Philosophical Issues


     • Free will versus determinism – are the causes of
       behavior knowable, and is behavior predictable?
        – Free will is the belief that behavior is caused by an
          individual’s independent decision-making
            • What does independent mean?
        – Determinism is the assumption that everything
          that happens has a cause or determinant in the
          observable world.
            • We can isolate specific determinants of
              behavior.


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                      Major Philosophical Issues


     • Which perspective holds that behavior is fully
       predictable?
        – A determinist assumes everything that happens
          has a cause that can be known
        – A believer in free will assumes that even with
          complete information regarding causes and
          conditions, predictions regarding human behavior
          can never be fully accurate

          – How many of you believe you have free will?


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                      Major Philosophical Issues


     • The mind-brain problem: - How is experience related
       to the organ system called the brain?
        – Thoughts versus Brain activity
            • Dualism is the belief that the mind is separate
              from the brain but somehow controls the brain
              and through it also the rest of the body
            • Monism is the view that conscious experience
              is generated by and therefore is inseparable
              from the brain



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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                      Major Philosophical Issues


     • The mind-brain problem
        – Data from brain imaging research such as PET
          (positron emission tomography) suggests that
          brain activity and mental activity are two aspects
          of the same thing
        – Yet the question is far from resolved




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                      Major Philosophical Issues

     • The nature-nurture issue
        – How do differences in behavior relate to
          differences in heredity and environment?
        – Some scientists assume the larger proportion of
          differences in potential and behavior are due to
          the influence of genes
        – Others assume that most differences are a result
          of aspects of the environment such as culture,
          expectations, and resources
        – This issue arises in virtually every field of
          psychology, and knowledge gained through
          research seldom provides a simple answer


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Psychology is an academic, non-medical discipline
       that includes many branches and specialties
        – The educational requirements can vary, but
          generally involve study beyond the bachelor’s
          degree
        – A master’s degree, or a Ph.D./Psy.D. (doctor of
          psychology) are common terminal degrees in the
          discipline




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?




Figure 1.2 More than one-third of psychologists work in academic settings. The
remainder find positions in a variety of settings (based on the data of Chamberlain,
2000).                                                                             9
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • There are many specialties in the broad science of
       psychology. Psychologists practice within their
       chosen specialty in 3 main areas:
        – Teaching and research
        – Service providers to individuals
        – Service providers to organizations




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Teaching and research
        – Most teaching psychologists work in colleges and
          universities
        – Most psychologists who teach also engage in
          research and writing
        – Some psychologists are employed in full-time
          research positions




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Major categories of psychological research:
       Biological psychology or neuroscience
        – A bio-psychologist tries to explain behavior in
          terms of biological factors, such as anatomy,
          electrical and chemical activities in the nervous
          system, and the effects of drugs, hormones,
          genetics and evolutionary pressures
        – Sample question: How do drug abuse, brain
          damage, and exposures to environmental toxins
          change nervous system functioning (and by
          extension, behavior)?


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Major categories of psychological research:
       Evolutionary psychology
        – An evolutionary psychologist tries to explain
          behavior in terms of natural selection pressures
          promoting behaviors that lead to success in
          reproduction and survival.
        – Sample questions: What forces led to selection for
          human language abilities? What specific
          advantages in survival over other animals did
          language give early humans in the ancestral
          environment?


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Major categories of psychological research:
       Learning and motivation
        – A psychologist who studies and does research in
          this area is interested in how behavior depends on
          outcomes of past behaviors and on current
          motivations
        – Sample question: Do frequent or consistent
          rewards for desired behaviors produce better
          learning than less frequent or less predictable
          rewards?


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Major categories of psychological research: Cognitive
       psychology
        – A cognitive psychologist studies the processes of
          thinking and acquiring knowledge.
        – Sample question: What do “experts” in a field
          know or do that sets them apart from other
          people?




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Major categories of psychological research:
       Developmental psychology
        – A developmental psychologist studies the
          behavioral capacities typical of different ages and
          how behavior changes with age.
        – Sample questions: What do people do or know as
          adults that they do not know as children? Why did
          this change occur? Was the change due to
          biological changes, increased experience, or a
          combination of these?


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Major categories of psychological research: Social
       psychology
        – A social psychologist studies how an individual
          influences and is influenced by other people
        – Sample question: To what degree do the demands
          and expectations of authority figures influence our
          behavior? How strong is the human tendency to
          conform?




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                                Concept Check


     • Which area of psychology research is concerned with
       whether or not punishment is an effective means of
       eliminating undesirable behaviors?
        – Learning and motivation
     • Which would ask if people will obey an authority
       figure even when that leader is demanding behavior
       that might be classified as immoral or wrong?
        – Social




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                                Concept Check



     • Which psychologist wants to know when language
       learning occurs most rapidly in children?
        – Developmental psychologist
     • Which psychologist would do research to determine
       how memories are stored in the brain?
        – Biological psychologist (Cognitive Neuroscientist)
     • Which psychologist would do research to determine
       how retention and recall of information in a college-
       level psychology course can be enhanced?
        – Cognitive psychologist
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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Service providers to individuals
        – There are many types of psychotherapists,
          professionals with training in psychology who
          specialize in helping people with psychological
          problem. Psychotherapists are trained in a variety
          of disciplines.




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?




Table 1.1 several types of Mental Health Professionals    21
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Service providers to individuals
        – Clinical psychologists have advanced degrees in
          psychology, with a specialty in understanding and
          helping people with mental and emotional
          problems.
        – They receive training in intellectual and
          psychological testing used in the diagnosis and
          treatment.




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Service providers to individuals
        – Psychiatrists are trained as medical doctors.
        – In addition to learning the principles of psychology,
          they are educated in how to use prescription drugs
          to treat psychological distress.

          – Clinical Psychologist can also receive extensive
            training in the use of prescription drugs to treat
            behavioral disorders and can earn perscription
            privileges.


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Service providers to individuals
        – Psychiatric nurses receive standard nursing
          education plus additional training in the care of
          emotionally troubled individuals.
        – They usually work in medical clinics and hospitals.




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Service providers to individuals
        – Psychiatric and clinical social workers combine
          training in traditional social work with specialized
          knowledge of how to treat emotionally disturbed
          people and advocate for their well-being within the
          larger community.




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Service providers to individuals
        – Psychoanalysts are psychotherapists who use
          mental health treatment strategies that are based
          on the theories and methods pioneered by
          Sigmund Freud.
        – Freud believed that an unconscious component of
          the human mind affects our functioning in day-to-
          day life.




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Service providers to individuals
        – Counseling psychologists have an advanced
          degree in psychology and help people with
          educational, vocational, marriage, health, and
          other important life decisions. They receive
          training in therapy and some types of
          psychological testing.




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Service providers to individuals
        – Forensic psychologists provide advice and
          consultation to those who work in the criminal
          justice system.




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                                Concept Check


     • Which psychotherapist would help a middle-aged
       woman trying to transition from work as a
       homemaker to resuming her college education?
        – Counseling psychologist
     • Which psychotherapist would prescribe a mood
       stabilizing medication to a patient who shows signs of
       bipolar affective (emotional) disorder?
        – Psychiatrist




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                                Concept Check


     • Which psychotherapist might provide ongoing
       counseling and support for residents of a halfway
       house for recovering addicts?
        – Clinical social worker
     • Which psychotherapist might be part of the staff of a
       hospital emergency room, and manage the intake of
       a patient admitted with acute suicidal thoughts and
       feelings?
        – Psychiatric nurse



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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                                Concept Check


     • Which psychotherapist might be employed in an
       inpatient facility for developmentally delayed children
       and adolescents, doing assessment and
       psychotherapy?
        – Clinical psychologist
     • Which psychotherapist would try to help a patient
       discover his or her hidden motivations for an
       apparently distressing and unacceptable behavior or
       thought?
        – Psychoanalyst


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do

     • Service providers to organizations
        – Industrial/Organizational psychologists study
          people’s behavior in the workplace using a
          combination of social, cognitive, and motivational
          psychology principles, and often employ
          psychological tests.
        Sample question: Workers in two departments at an
          aerospace engineering firm have started to
          withhold information from each other. This has
          been detrimental to morale and productivity. How
          can this behavior be stopped without terminating or
          reassigning any employees? How evvective are
          virtural meetings?

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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do


     • Service providers to organizations
        – An ergonomist, or human factors specialist,
          attempts to facilitate the use of machinery and
          appliances so that the average user can operate
          them as efficiently and as safely as possible.
        Sample question: How can the design of a clerical
          workstation in an office be improved to minimize
          the possibility of repetitive stress related injuries
          occurring to the employee who occupies it?




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         What Psychologists Do

 • Service providers to organizations
    – A school psychologist specializes in the psychological
      condition of the students, usually at the kindergarten
      through secondary school levels.
    – School psychologists draw upon a combination of
      developmental, learning and motivational principles, and
      often use educational and psychological tests to assist
      with educational planning for individual students.
    Sample question: Does a fourth grade student whose
      grades have been declining over the past two years have
      an identifiable learning disability, or is there an issue
      related to the student’s emotional well-being affecting his
      performance?
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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                                Concept Check


     • Which psychologist would consult in the design of an
       airplane cockpit to maximize crew efficiency and
       safety?
        – Ergonomist
     • Which psychologist would evaluate a student for
       possible placement in a school’s program for gifted
       children?
        – School psychologist




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                                Concept Check


     • Which psychologist would work with supervisors at a
       software development company to improve
       communication between departments and levels of
       management?
        – Industrial/Organizational psychologist




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         Majoring in Psychology




     • Should you major in psychology?
        – Although psychology is a popular major, very few
          jobs are listed specifically for people with
          bachelor’s degrees.
        – Jobs that would be appropriate for someone who
          earns a bachelor’s degree in psychology include:

           Personnel or human resources specialist
           Halfway or transitional home staff or supervisor
           Community or social services outreach worker

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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?



                            Majoring in Psychology


     • Should you major in psychology?
        – Psychology will be useful in careers that are not
          closely related to psychology, and in your life apart
          from work as well. Psychology can help you to:
         more effectively evaluate evidence presented to
          you in a variety of situations
         improve your learning and retention
         be aware of the power of social influence and
          cultural context


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         Majoring in Psychology


     • Should you major in psychology?
        – It is also an excellent major for those who are
          contemplating further professional education in
          areas such as business, law, or divinity.




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         Majoring in Psychology

     • Should you major in psychology?
        – If you want to become a psychologist…
         You will probably need a doctorate (Ph.D./Psy.D.)
         You will be in school for up to eight more years. It
          is hard to anticipate how the job market will
          change in the time it takes to complete your
          degree
         You should have an interest in working in health
          care or educational settings or a willingness to
          work in a private practice or consulting role



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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         Majoring in Psychology



     • Should you major in psychology?
        – Why take this class or consider majoring in the field?
         Psychology offers exciting possibilities for improving the
          quality of life in many aspects and levels of human existence
         Psychologists use information covered in this course to help
          people understand themselves and make better use of their
          skills and qualities
         It is currently attracting talented persons from an increasingly
          diverse variety of backgrounds




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                         Majoring in Psychology


     • Should you major in psychology?
        – Whether or not you choose to do more advanced
          work, we hope that you will find a long-lasting
          benefit from your investment of time and energy in
          this Introduction to Psychology course.




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – In all cultures, and for thousands of years, people
          have wondered about the nature of human
          thought, action and experience.
        – The great writers of every civilization are widely
          read because they provide us with compelling
          descriptions and make profound observations of
          human behavior.




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?




Figure 1.5a Dates of some important events in psychology and elsewhere. (Based
partly on Dewsbury, (2000a)                                                   44
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?




Figure 1.5b Dates of some important events in psychology and elsewhere. (Based
partly on Dewsbury, (2000a)                                                   45
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – The first psychological laboratory was established
          by William Wundt, Leipzig, Germany in 1879
        – William Wundt was trained as a physician and did
          research on the workings of the senses.
        – Although other psychology experiments had been
          done, this was the first laboratory devoted
          exclusively to the activities of psychological
          research.



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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – Wundt’s fundamental question was: What are the
          components of experience, or mind?
        – He presented his subjects with a wide variety of
          stimuli, and asked them to look within themselves,
          to introspect. He tried to measure the changes in
          their experiences as the stimuli changes.




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – Wundt and his students did experiments in a wide
          range of areas related to psychology, and they
          wrote prolifically about their findings.
        – Most importantly, Wundt demonstrated that it was
          possible to perform meaningful experiments in the
          science of psychology.




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – Edward Titchener was a student of Wundt who
          immigrated to the United States in 1892.
        – He developed the approach he called
          structuralism.
        – In structuralism, the researcher attempts to
          describe the structures that compose the mind, its
          sensations, feelings and images.




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – Titchener presented a stimulus to his subjects and
          asked them to analyze its separate features
        – After Titchener’s death in 1927, his research
          methods were abandoned
        – There was no feasible way to check the accuracy
          of his subjects’ observations
        – As psychology evolved through the 20th century,
          psychological researchers became more
          interested in describing and analyzing readily
          observable behaviors


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – William James wrote The Principles of Psychology
          (1890)
        – He was keenly interested in what the mind does,
          rather than the elements of mind
        – He rejected the methods of Wundt and Titchener
        – He wanted to learn how the mind produces
          behaviors. He called his approach functionalism




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – Typical questions from a functionalist perspective
          include:
         How does a person recall the answer to a
          question?
         How does a person inhibit an undesirable
          impulse?
         Can a person attend to more than one task at a
          time?



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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – Psychophysics is a term created by early
          psychologists working on sensation and sensory
          experience
        – They noticed interesting aspects of the functioning
          of the senses
        – For example, the perception of a stimulus’
          intensity is not directly proportional to the actual
          physical intensity of the stimulus.



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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – Psychophysics attempts to provide a
          mathematical description of the relationship
          between the actual physical properties of the
          stimulus and its perceived properties
        – A sound that is half as loud (in physical terms, in
          decibels) as another sound may not sound that
          way to the listener




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
     – The works of Darwin had an enormous impact: The
       Origin of Species (1859); The Descent of Man (1871)
     – By presenting compelling evidence that humans and
       other animal species were related, Charles Darwin
       forced scientists and thoughtful people working in
       many disciplines to consider the basic features held in
       common by many or all animals, such as thinking and
       intelligence.
     – Comparative psychologists, who use this perspective,
       are specialists who compare different animal species.


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – Early comparative psychologists devised a
          number of experiments to try to measure animal
          intelligence, such as:
         The delayed response problem
         The detour problem
         The pattern recognition problems




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?




Figure 1.8 Early comparative psychologists assessed animal intelligence with the
delayed response problem. A stimulus was presented and a delay ensued; then the
animal was expected to respond to the remembered stimulus. Variations on this
delayed-response task are still used today.                                      57
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?




Figure 1.9 Another task popular among early comparative psychologists was the
detour problem. An animal needed to first go away from the food in order to move
toward it.                                                                       58
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?




Figure 1.10 Zebras learn rapidly when they have to compare stripe patters (Giebel 1958). How
“smart” a species is perceived to be depends on what ability or skill is being tested
                                                                                         59
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – According to the research of comparative
          psychologists, some species appeared to be gifted
          in one set of tasks and highly deficient in another.




                                                                 60
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – Eventually the inconsistencies in performance
          between different tasks across a single species
          suggested to comparative psychologists that
          questions about animal intelligence might be
          meaningless.
        – This issue is similar to problems that we currently
          are encountering in the controversial area of
          measuring human intelligence.




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now

  • The early era and the roots of psychology
     – Francis Galton was one of the first scientists to try to
       measure human intelligence and determine to what
       extent heredity influenced variations in human
       cognitive abilities.
     – He studied the sons of accomplished men and found
       that the offspring of the talented and famous had a
       high probability of being accomplished too.
     – He explained this as due chiefly to the influence of
       heredity.
     – Galton tried to develop an intelligence test, but did not
       succeed.


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


    • The early era and the roots of psychology
       – Alfred Binet devised the first useful intelligence test in
         1905, at the behest of the French government, for use
         in identifying children in the public school system who
         might be in need of special services
       – His test was imported to the United States after his
         death, and was the “template” for the development of
         many IQ and other psychological tests
       – Some of the most interesting questions you will
         encounter in this course will involve whether it is truly
         possible to measure these qualities, or to fully
         understand what they are
                                                                 63
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – While structuralism was abandoned because of
          problems with subjectivity, behaviorism is a field of
          psychology that concentrates on observable,
          measurable behaviors and not mental processes
        – Behaviorists primarily seek to study the
          observable behaviors associated with what is
          generally referred to as learning.




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – “Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely
          objective experimental branch of natural science.
          Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of
          behavior.”

                                 John B. Watson, 1913




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now



     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – The earliest researchers in the field of behaviorism
          and learning expected to find that it operated using
          simple, basic and predictable laws, comparable to
          Newton’s physical laws of the universe
        – Much as Newton’s “majestic clockwork” has given
          way to the more random and unpredictable world of
          modern quantum physics, the specialty of
          behaviorism has revealed some laws of behavior, but
          also major complications arising from other processes
          (such as the influence of cognition and motivation)
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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now



     • The early era and the roots of psychology
        – The early questions posed by behaviorists in the mid-20th
          century have given way to complex questions about how
          humans learn to be aggressive and violent
        – This is just one of many interesting questions with complex
          answers that have yet to be fully revealed
        – Even modern behaviorists have left behind the hope of
          discovering “simple universal principles of behavior.” But the
          principles of behaviorism are still interesting and useful, as
          you will soon see




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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                       Psychology Then and Now


 • The early era and the roots of psychology
    – In presenting psychoanalytic theory, Sigmund Freud
      revolutionized psychology by proposing the existence of
      an “unconscious mind” rooted in our animal origins
    – He worked with his patients to understand how this
      hidden part of the mind influenced their mood and
      behavior by analyzing their dreams, fantasies, and
      perceptions of their own early childhood experiences
    – Although much of psychoanalytic theory has been
      rejected as unscientific, psychology is still heavily
      influenced by Freud’s ideas about treatment of
      psychological distress

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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                     Recent Trends in Psychology




     • Modern clinical psychology
        – The trauma experienced by so many soldiers in World War II
          provided ample opportunity for the further development of
          psychoanalysis and innovation in new methods of
          psychotherapy.
        – Behaviorists used rewards and other principles of learning in
          treating psychological distress.
        – Other fields of psychology that eventually made contributions
          to therapy as the 20th Century progressed include humanistic
          and cognitive psychology.



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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                     Recent Trends in Psychology


     • Academic and applied psychology
        – Although many researchers have abandoned the
          study of consciousnesses or self, there is still
          abundant research being done on cognition.
        – Applied fields of psychology are booming. These
          include:
         Health psychology (addiction, stress, nutrition.)
         Forensic psychology (dealing with issues of
          mental competence for trial, and accuracy of
          eyewitness testimony.)


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                     Recent Trends in Psychology


 • The role of women in psychology
    – What about the history of women in psychology? In the
      early days of psychology, opportunities for women were
      limited as they were in so many areas at the time
    – Mary Calkins was one of the pioneering women in the
      field. Her graduate education in psychology at Harvard
      was paid for as part of her teaching salary at Wellesley
      College
    – Calkins never received the Ph.D that she earned from
      Harvard, but she went on to do research, study
      memory, and serve as the president of the American
      Psychological Association.

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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                     Recent Trends in Psychology


     • Cross-cultural psychology and human diversity
        – In examining a variety of issues related to
          psychology, scientists have become more
          conscious of cultural context over the past three
          decades
        – Psychologists now recognize, for example that
          mental illness is at least partly culturally and
          socially defined
        – What is considered psychologically adaptive is
          defined by the culture in which one is raised



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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                     Recent Trends in Psychology


     • Cross-cultural psychology and human diversity
        – An observation that supports these ideas is that
          homosexuality once was considered a
          psychological disorder. It is no longer considered
          a legitimate mental illness in our culture, whatever
          controversy continues about issues of sexual
          orientation.
        – Psychoanalytic theories of child development
          seem irrelevant in world cultures where children
          are fathered by one man but raised by his brother.


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

                     Recent Trends in Psychology


     • An evolving science:
        – We have changed radically as a species, and we
          have changed our world over the past century.
          This fact is having major consequences for our
          day-to-day functioning and long-term survival.
        – Psychology cannot always provide simple
          answers and solutions. But psychologists are
          working to help us understand ourselves better,
          find the best solutions and change ourselves when
          it is in our best interest to do so.


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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 1: What is Psychology?




     • We will cover Chapter 2 tomorrow.
       – After the Chapter 1 Quiz.




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