Draft Environmental Impact Assessment

Document Sample
Draft Environmental Impact Assessment Powered By Docstoc
					                                                             E256
                   Socialist Republic of Vietnam
              Quang Ninh Provincial People's Committee       Vol.13
HA LONG CITY AND CAM PHA DRAINAGE AND SANITATION PROJECT
                    MANAGEMENT UNIT
      4 Cao Xanh Road, Ha Long City, Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam




     HA LONG CITY AND CAM PHA TOWN DRAINAGE
         AND SANITATION PROJECT - PHASE II
                     Loan Agreement No. 3211-VN


                  ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT




                  Environmental Impact Assessment
                   Environmental Management Plan
                         Public Consultation




                               May 2005




                BLACK & VEATCH (INTERNATIONAL)
                           in Joint Venture with
  BAC BO WATER & ENVIRONMENT JOINT STOCK COMPANY - WECO
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment



Contents

Executive Summary

PART 1 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
1           INTRODUCTION AND PROJECT DESCRIPTION ...................................................... 1
1.1         Background of the Project ...................................................................................................... 1
1.2         Environmental Impact Assessment of Halong City Water Supply and Sanitation Project .... 1
1.3         Environmental Impact Assessment of Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town Drainage and
            Sanitation Project – Phase II................................................................................................... 2
1.4         Background, Objectives, Location and Scope of the Work of Additional Work in Hon
            Gai, Bai Chay and Cam Pha ................................................................................................... 3
1.5         Implementation Schedule ....................................................................................................... 4

2           ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION ................................................. 5

2.1         Environmental Management................................................................................................... 5
2.2         Environmental Law, Decree and Standards ........................................................................... 6
2.3         World Bank Guidelines .......................................................................................................... 7

3           BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................... 8

3.1         Environmental Setting ............................................................................................................ 8
3.2         Previous and Ongoing Sanitation Projects and Studies .......................................................... 8
3.3         Ha Long City Master Plan ...................................................................................................... 9
3.4         Cam Pha Town Master Plan ................................................................................................. 11

4           BASELINE DATA.............................................................................................................. 12

4.1         Location ................................................................................................................................ 12
4.2         Climate Conditions ............................................................................................................... 12
4.3         Topography and Soil Conditions .......................................................................................... 13
4.4         Flora and Fauna .................................................................................................................... 13
4.5         Sea and River Conditions ..................................................................................................... 15
4.5.1       Tide Regime ......................................................................................................................... 15
4.5.2       Sea Water Quality................................................................................................................. 15
4.5.3       River Water Quality.............................................................................................................. 16
4.5.4       Pollution Loads and Dilution Capacity according to Water Quality Models ....................... 16
4.6         Population and Socio-economic Environment ..................................................................... 17
4.6.1       Population ............................................................................................................................. 17
4.6.2       Health ................................................................................................................................... 18
4.6.3       Economic Structure .............................................................................................................. 18
4.6.4       Tourism................................................................................................................................. 19

5           DRAINAGE AND SANITATION STATUS .................................................................... 19

5.1         Drainage Areas and Capability of Drainage and Sewerage System in Hon Gai, Bai Chay
            and Cam Pha ......................................................................................................................... 19
5.2         Flooding ................................................................................................................................ 20
5.3         Wastewater Quality in Hon Gai, Bai Chay and Cam Pha .................................................... 21
                                                                        1                                                                      Black & Veatc
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

6           ALTERNATIVES OF THE PROJECT ........................................................................... 22

6.1         Without the Project Situation ............................................................................................... 22
6.2         Selection of the Location of Wastewater Treatment Plant in Hon Gai ................................ 22
6.3         Selection of Alternatives of Wastewater Treatment in Hon Gai .......................................... 23
6.3.1       Wastewater Flow and Load Projections of Phase II ............................................................. 23
6.3.2       Effluent Discharge Standards ............................................................................................... 25
6.3.3       Choice of Treatment Technology ......................................................................................... 25
6.4         Selection of the Alternatives of Sewerage and Drainage Improvements in Hon Gai, Bai
            Chay and Cam Pha ............................................................................................................... 28

7           IDENTIFICATION OF THE IMPACTS ........................................................................ 29

7.1         General Impacts on Socio-Economy .................................................................................... 29
7.2         Impacts during Design and Construction ............................................................................. 30
7.2.1       Impacts of Wastewater Treatment Plant in Hon Gai ............................................................ 30
7.2.2       Impacts of Combined Sewers, Interceptor Sewers and Wastewater Pumping Stations in
            Hon Gai, Bai Chay and Cam Pha ......................................................................................... 30
7.2.3       Impacts on Rehabilitation of Canals and Drains in Hon Gai, Bai Chay and Cam Pha and
            Tidal Gates in Hon Gai ......................................................................................................... 31
7.3         Impacts during Operation ..................................................................................................... 31
7.3.1       Wastewater Treatment Plant ................................................................................................. 31
7.3.2       Sewerage System .................................................................................................................. 33
7.3.3       Drainage System ................................................................................................................... 33

PART 2 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN


8           MITIGATIONS MEASURES ........................................................................................... 35

8.1         General.................................................................................................................................. 35
8.2         Mitigation Measures during Detailed Design ....................................................................... 35
8.2.1       Generic Design Instructions ................................................................................................. 35
8.2.2       Wastewater Treatment Plant Design Instructions ................................................................ 36
8.2.3       Drainage and Sewerage System Design Instructions ........................................................... 36
8.3         Mitigation Measures during Construction Works ................................................................ 37
8.4         Mitigation Measures during Operation and Maintenance .................................................... 37
8.4.1       Wastewater Treatment Plant ................................................................................................. 41
8.4.2       Drainage and Sewerage System ........................................................................................... 42
8.5         Summary of Mitigation Measures ........................................................................................ 42

9           ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND REPORTING .......................................... 44

9.1         Generic Environmental Monitoring during Construction and Operation ............................. 44
9.2         Present Water Quality and Wastewater Quality Monitoring ................................................ 45
9.3         Water and Effluent Quality Monitoring of Phase II ............................................................. 45
9.4         Monitoring of Flooding Areas .............................................................................................. 46

10          CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING.......................................................... 47

10.1        Overall Environmental Management.................................................................................... 47
10.2        Training ................................................................................................................................ 48
                                                                        2                                                                     Black & Veatc
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

11          COST ESTIMATES OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ................................ 49


PART 3 PUBLIC INVOLVEMENTS AND CONSULTATION


12          PUBLIC INVOLVEMENTS AND CONSULTATION .................................................. 51

12.1        General.................................................................................................................................. 51
12.2        Key principles ....................................................................................................................... 51
12.3        Disclosure ............................................................................................................................. 51
12.4        Public Consultation Meetings ............................................................................................... 48

13          ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND PUBLIC HYGIENE AWARENESS
            PROGRAMME ................................................................................................................... 54

Annexes
Annex 1             Water Quality in Ha Long Bay Area 2002 – 2003
Annex 2             Estimated Pollution Loads according to the Previous Studies (ESSA, JICA)
Annex 3             Project Performance Indicators of Phase I 2001 - 2003
Annex 4             Wastewater Inflow and Load Mass Balance – Hon Gai Collector Sewer
                    Catchment
Annex 5             Environmental Impacts of the Project Components
Annex 6             Public Consultation Documents
Annex 7             Environmental Training Material
Annex 8             Approval of Phase II Feasibility Study

Drawings
Drawing 1           General layout of the proposed sewerage system in Hon Gai Phase II (HG-SW-
                    01)
Drawing 2           General layout of the proposed drainage system in Hon Gai Phase II (HG-TTTN-
                    01)
Drawing 3           Detailed locations of proposed drainage system in Hon Gai Phase II (HG-TN-01)
Drawing 4           Detailed locations of proposed drainage system in Hon Gai Phase II (HG-TN-02)
Drawing 5           Detailed locations of proposed drainage system in Hon Gai Phase II (HG-TN-03)
Drawing 6           Detailed locations of proposed drainage system in Hon Gai Phase II (HG-TN-04)
Drawing 7           Location of Wastewater Treatment Plant in Bai Muoi in Hon Gai (HG-WWTP-
                    01)
Drawing 8           Proposed drainage system in Bai Chay in Phase II (BC-TN-01)
Drawing 9           Proposed sewerage system in Bai Chay in Phase II (BC-TN-02)
Drawing 10          General layout of the proposed drainage system in Cam Pha Phase II (CP-TN-04)
Drawing 11          General layout of the proposed drainage system in Cam Pha Phase II (CP-TN-05)
Drawing 12          General layout of the proposed drainage system in Cam Pha Phase II (CP-TN-06)
Drawing 13          Flooding areas in Hon Gai
Drawing 14          Flooding areas in Cam Pha




                                                                        3                                                                     Black & Veatc
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment




                List of Abbreviations

                Organisations
                QNPPC                            Quang Ninh Province People’s Committee
                Ha Long URENCO                   Ha Long Urban Environment Company
                Cam Pha URENCO                   Cam Pha Urban Environment Company
                CMS                              Consulting Management Services
                MOC                              Ministry of Construction
                MOF                              Ministry of Finance
                MPI                              Ministry of Planning and Investment
                MNRE                             Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment
                MoSTE                            Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment
                DONRE                            Department of Natural Resources and Environment
                PMU                              Project Management Unit
                TUPWS                            Transportation and Urban Public Works Service
                WB, the Bank                     The World Bank
                NGO                              Nongovernmental organisation


                Other
                EIA                              Environmental Impact Assessment
                EMP                              Environmental Management Plan
                O&M                              Operation and Maintenance
                PIP                              Project Implementation Plan
                RAP                              Resettlement Action Plan
                Phuong                           ward




                                                            4                                      Black & Veatc
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment


Executive Summary

Background of the Project

Consistent with Government strategy of developing the sanitation and drainage components of
urban infrastructure in Vietnam in the period 2001 to 2010, Quang Ninh province is included in
a three cities programme in World Bank funded sanitation project. The other two cities are
Danang and Haiphong.

The first project formulation and feasibility study was done in 1995. Feasibility study for Phase
I was completed in 1998 followed by detailed design and bid documentation. The tendered
rates for the construction packages were lower than anticipated. In late 2002 the Ha Long City
and Cam Pha Sanitation Project Management Unit (PMU) requested the World Bank approval
to utilize unused funds for a second phase of improvement works. The funds would be used to
expand on drainage, sanitation and wastewater treatment in accordance with the concept laid
out in the Phase I feasibility study, as approved by the Government of Vietnam.

The feasibility study for the Phase II works was approved by the Quang Ninh People’s
Committee on 22 April 2003, which included the location of the wastewater treatment plant at
Deo Sen, Ha Khanh Ward, Hon Gai (see Annex 8).

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment for Additional Works was prepared during the
detailed design phase of the Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project –
Phase II in July – August 2004. The EIA report has been updated based on the comments in
December 2004.

Scope and Objectives of the Phase II

The investment aim, as defined in the Decision from the Peoples Committee of Quang Ninh
Province dated 22 April 2003 is to continuously invest in the drainage and wastewater systems,
and solid waste management, to protect the environment from flooding and to improve the
drainage and sanitation system.

More specifically, using funds remaining from the first phase, the objectives of the project are
to:
    Mitigate flood and inundation of areas of Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town not covered
     under the Phase I works.
    Provide significant reduction in pollution of the ocean waters of Hon Gai by intercepting
     and treating wastewater carried in the storm water drains in the central area of the city.
    Further reduce the pollution of the Bai Chay coastline emanating from wastewater carried
     in storm water drains by increasing the length of interceptor sewers installed in Phase I.
Water Quality and Pollution Loads

According to the State Environmental Quality Report of Quang Ninh Province (2003) the
coastal sea water quality of Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town is directly influenced by
domestic wastewater, port services and sea reclamations. However, the parameters like DO,
BOD, turbidity, coliform, oil and grease, heavy metals, total nitrogen and total phosphorous
meet the requirement limits of the standard TCVN 5943:1995. The water quality in Ha Long
Bay area is rather clean, clear and unpolluted. The water quality around floating fish farming
area is suitable for aquaculture.

                                                            1                                   Black & Veatc
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

The results according to the water quality model calculated in 1998 show that the dilution
capacity of Ha Long Bay is very good. It can be estimated that dilution capacity with the
proposed load is in Cua Luc Bay 8,570:1 and in Ha Long Bay 900,000:1. This is expected
because of its connection with the Gulf of Tonkin. On the other hand, the dilution capacity of
Cua Luc estuary (Bai Chay bay, Hon Gai Bay) is limited and is related in a large measure to the
area of the estuary. If the bay is reduced, as seem to be happen, in size by reclamation, the
dilution capacity will also be reduced, but is still very good compared to the discharged effluent
volume.

Alternatives of the Project

The Phase II is the extension and finalisation of the ongoing Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town
Drainage and Sanitation Project Phase I and it is necessary to fulfil the scope of the project,
which was proposed in the Phase I feasibility study in 1998. Without the Phase II there would
be no wastewater collection and treatment in Hon Gai and intended improvements of living and
hygienic conditions would not be reached. Without the project improvement of drainage system
would not be completed in the extension to be agreed and flooding problems would be solved
only partly and in Bai Chay, Hon Gai and Cam Pha.

The most important criteria in determining the best wastewater treatment plant site was agreed
to be the number of houses requiring resettlement. This in turn necessitated the determination
of the likely buffer zone around the site perimeter, based on Government regulations. The most
appropriate standard is TCVN 7222:2002, and this dictates a 300m buffer zone in the case of
open sludge treatment and a 210m buffer zone (a 30% reduction) in the case of closed sludge
treatment. It also allows for a further 30% reduction (to 147m) in the event tree landscaping is
provided around the WWTP site perimeter. The local authorities have approved the location of
wastewater treatment plant in Bai Muoi in Hon Gai.

SBR (Seqvencing Bacth Reactor) has been selected for the wastewater treatment process and
the process has been designed to meet the Vietnamese standards TCVN 6987:2001 and TCVN
7222:2002. The removal efficiency of BOD, suspended solids, total nitrogen and total
phosphorous would be 70 – 90 %. The quality of the effluent after treatment is calculated to be
as follows: BOD 20 – 30 mg/l, SS 30 mg/l, total N 5 mg/l, total P 2 mg/l. Effluent from the
wastewater treatment plant will be discharged to the nearby large drainage channel, which
discharges to the sea through the new coastal urban development area. Due to the self-
purification mechanism starting in discharge channel and continuing in the sea, the pollutants
are easily diluted and decomposed, which further mitigates the impacts on water quality in Cua
Luc Bay and Ha Long Bay.

Environmental Impacts

General

The main impacts in the proposed project area will mainly affect the human and aquatic
environment, in lesser amount the atmospheric and terrestrial environment. The atmospheric
and terrestrial impacts are mainly temporary during construction and rehabilitation and
therefore of short duration. Possible negative impacts on air quality from operation of
wastewater treatment plant can be minimised through mitigation measures. The overall impacts
of the project are positive and are very important step in improving sanitation situation in Ha
Long City and Cam Pha Town.



                                                            2                                    Black & Veatc
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

The improvement of urban sanitation, which is currently badly hampered by frequent flooding,
towards a clean and healthy environment for the population of Ha Long City and Cam Pha
Town as well as the numerous domestic and international tourist visiting the area is essential.
The overall impact of the on going project and the proposed additional works is positive and it
is an important step in improvement of sanitation in Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town. The
Phase II Project includes additional works to the first sanitation project aiming at the
rehabilitation and improvement of the existing sewerage and drainage system of the city.

Improvement of the wastewater collection and treatment in Hon Gai and prevention of flooding
in low-lying areas in Hon Gai and Cam Pha will improve considerably the living and
environmental conditions in the project area. However, untreated wastewater will partly still
flow in the open channels, which cross the residential areas. The negative impacts of untreated
wastewater are mainly concentrated in the city area. The discharge of untreated wastewater to
the sea will continue the contamination of the sea water. However, the concentrations of
contaminants will be diluted by the large amount of seawater.

The water use will increase in the city (new water connections, more household facilities,
conversion from bucket latrines to flush toilets, etc.), which will increase wastewater amounts.
This shall be taken into account in the designs and in dimensioning the improvements in flood
prevention. The installation and regular desludging of septic tanks connected to sewers will
improve the wastewater quality.

On any of the proposed construction sites there are no cultural properties, historical places or
buildings or other structures, which should be protected.

All the excavated material is normal soil and there is no need for treatment of this material.

Wastewater Treatment Plant in Hon Gai

The wastewater treatment plant will be constructed in Bai Muoi on the vicinity of Deo Sen
landfill, Deo Sen cemetary and mining quarry, where the original landscape has been already
changed. On the proposed construction site there are fish ponds which need dewatering and
land reclamation before construction. Separate socio-economic and detailed measurement
survey will be done for the preparation of Resettlement Action Plan.

During the dewatering and filling there will be noise from pumps, and an increase in channel
water turbidity due to pumping, this can be minimised with avoiding mixing of sediment and
using stabilisation pond. The pond can be dewatered through existing channel to Cua Luc
Estuary on the other side of the road.

During the construction of the wastewater treatment plant the traffic will increase due to the
transportation of excavated material and construction equipment and materials. The excavated
material is normal soil and there is no need for treatment. Working should be avoided during
night from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. The maximum permitted noise level in public and residential areas
is given in Vietnamese standard TCVN 5949:1998.

Construction of some structures might need piling, which will temporarily cause an increase of
noise in the vicinity of the construction sites.

Sewerage and Drainage System



                                                            3                                    Black & Veatc
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

Sewers will be constructed in street areas and there is no need for site-clearance and
resettlement. However, some temporary disturbance might be caused to businesses along the
streets during the excavation of sewer trenches. Pumping stations are constructed next to the
streets and in some places some site clearance might be needed, if there is not enough vacant
land available.

Most of the rehabilitation of channels will occur on the ends of channels, but some parts of the
channels or whole channels are located along narrow alleys where it is difficult to use any
machines, and only manual methods can be used. Some channels or part of channels to be
rehabilitated are located under houses or other structures, and this will cause some difficulties
both for rehabilitation and for people living next to the channels. Site clearance might be
needed in some areas. A detailed survey will be done for the Resettlement Action Plan.

There will be temporary nuisance to traffic and traffic congestion is possible due to the
construction. On highway 18 and Hau Can Road in Bai Chay there might be some disturbance
for tourist transportation. The traffic will increase due to the transportation of equipment, pipes
and excavated material. Dust and noise will increase temporarily in the vicinity of construction
sites. Open trenches might be dangerous if not marked and identified carefully.

Impacts during Operation

The capacity of the wastewater treatment plant in Hon Gai is 7,000 m3/d and the capacity can
be increased later to 14,000 m3/d. The wastewater treatment plant is necessary first step to treat
the wastewaters in the densely populated Hon Gai area.

In general the positive impact of the wastewater treatment is the decrease of pollution load to
the environment and especially to the sea. Wastewater treatment plant will guarantee from its
part that the pollution load to the sea will not at least increase due to the possible increased
wastewater quantity. Wastewater treatment will have positive impact on the hygienic situation,
decrease the risk of water related diseases, and thus improve the living conditions of the people.
The decreased pollution load to the sea will improve the living conditions for aquatic life and
therefore improve the fishing catches.

Nowadays both rainwater and wastewater is discharged into the combined system. Sections of
the channels have collapsed and are blocked by solid waste and O&M is neglected, all of which
decreases the flow. After the rehabilitation the flow will increase and there will be no stagnant
water.

Wastewater flow in open channels will decrease when wastewater is collected through the new
interceptor sewer pipes to be constructed in Hon Gai. This will also decrease the discharge of
untreated wastewater to the sea. In the dry season all wastewater will be treated at the
wastewater treatment plant. The foul odour in the vicinity of channels will decrease and the risk
of water related health problems will also decrease due to the improved sanitation situation.

Breakdowns in wastewater pumping might cause serious environmental risks if there are no
spare pumps, electricity supply or enough capacity in the system.

Mitigation Measures

Environmental matters shall be integrated in all the design work and planning of the project.
The designing shall be done by minimising the adverse impacts on environment using as much
as possible existing facilities and selecting the location of new facilities in areas where the

                                                            4                                     Black & Veatc
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

disturbance to environment, people and existing structures is the smallest. Where possible
existing rights-of-way should be used rather than create new ones.

Location of the wastewater treatment plant has been selected in co-operation with the local
authorities paying attention to the approved master plan and the present and future land use.
Densely populated areas have been avoided to minimise the resettlement. On the proposed
construction site there are no cultural properties, historical places or buildings or other
structures, which should be protected. Buffer zones should be designed around the wastewater
treatment plant according to the standards TCVN 7222:2002.

Very special attention has to be paid to the strengthening of the management system and long-
term O&M training since in practice these will be the weak points, and might put the whole
system at risk if not arranged carefully. SBR (Sequencing batch reactor) as the treatment
method needs trained staff to operate. If the given and agreed O&M guidelines are neglected
the wastewater treatment plant can cause big environmental problems when all wastewater is
discharged from one outlet instead of several and the local impact might be significant.

Handling of sludge has to be done according to the given guidelines. If gravity thickened
sludge will be transported to final treatment to Deo Sen septage treatment facility the
transportation has to be done in closed tankers and only to the agreed treatment facility.
Spillages have to be avoided during loading, transportation and unloading of sludge. Special
attention has to be paid to occupational health and to training of workers to avoid direct contact
with wastewater and sludge. Protective clothing including overalls, gloves and wellingtons has
to be provided to workers.

In the operation and maintenance of drainage and sewerage system has to be considered regular
inspection of the condition of sewerage and drainage system. Solid waste disposal into drains,
sewers, channels and sea has to be prevented to keep the drains and sewers open. Illegal
housing in the channel embankments has to be prevented. In all operation and maintenance
operational and safety standards have to be followed.

Summary of Mitigation Measures
 Phase           Main mitigation measures                                                              Responsible
                                                                                                       organisation
 Design           - International and Vietnamese design criteria and standards to be used              Design
                  - Wastewater treatment plant, sewers and pumping stations designed so that need      Consultant
                    for resettlement is minimised                                                      Design
                  - Works designed to implemented during dry season                                    Consultant
 Construction     - Minimise dust, odour, litter, noise and traffic emissions by good operation        Contractor
                    management and site supervision
                  - Appropriate working methods shall be followed                                      Contractor
                  - Sites shall be kept clean and safe during and after the work                       Contractor
                  - Safety and health regulations shall be strictly followed                           Contractor
                  - Protective clothing and operational training for workers is essential              Contractor
                  - Transportation shall be minimised and routes selected to avoid public nuisance
                  - Transportation during rush hours and night shall be avoided                        Contractor
                  - Tight and proper equipment to transport sludge shall be used to avoid accidental   Contractor
                    spills and odour nuisances                                                         Contractor
                  - Excavated material has to be transported only to the agreed tip sites
                  - Construction sites and time shall be informed to the local people in advance       Contractor
                                                                                                       PMU
 O&M              - Minimise dust, odour, litter, noise and traffic emissions by good operation        Ha Long
                    management and site supervision                                                    URENCO,
                  - Appropriate working methods shall be adopted and followed                          Cam Pha
                  - Sites shall be kept clean and safe during and after the work                       URENCO

                                                            5                                                   Black & Veatc
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

                  -   Safety and health regulations shall be strictly followed
                  -   Protective clothing and operational training for workers is essential
                  -   Transportation shall be minimised and routes selected to avoid public nuisance
                  -   Transportation during rush hours and nights shall be avoided
                  -   Tight and proper equipment to transport thickened sludge shall be used to avoid
                      accidental spills and odour nuisances. Unloading only to the agreed treatment
                      facility

Monitoring

Vietnam: Three Cities Sanitation Project – Quang Ninh Sub-Project (Phase I Project) takes
wastewater samples twice per year from sewers No. 13 and 21 in Bay Chay, from sewer No. 11
in Hon Gai and sewer No.5 in Cam Pha. The parameters to be analysed are BOD5, total
suspended solids and coliform bacteria.

From Bai Muoi wastewater treatment plant in Hon Gai would be analysed the process and
effluent quality at the discharging point to the open channel discharging to the sea. Due to the
several other pollution sources to the channel and especially to the sea it is not possible to
separate the impact of effluent from the impact of other load sources, therefore no analysing
point from Cua Luc Bay, which is recipient water body, is proposed. Wastewater treatment
process will be analysed daily and effluent samples will be taken four times per year.

Monitoring of Bui Muoi Wastewater Treatment Plant in Hon Gai
Sampling Point                          Frequency         Parameters
Wastewater treatment ponds              Daily             On-site: Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature
Treated wastewater at                   4 / year          On-site: Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature
discharging point to the
channel
Treated wastewater at                   4 / year          Laboratory: BOD5, COD, total phosphorous,
discharging point to the                                  total nitrogen, total suspended solids, faecal
channel                                                   coliform
In Bai Chay there is no need to have additional sampling points because there are already now
two sampling points for Phase I in the project area. In Cam Pha one sampling point would be
added to Km 8 Stream and one sampling point to Eastern of Mechanical Enterprise Stream.
Samples will be taken twice per year after the construction.
Monitoring of the flooding areas is proposed to be done in the same way than in Phase I. In
Phase is proposed to have the following flooding monitoring areas in Hon Gai: Cau 2 Channel
(Cao Xanh ward), Dong Thanh Channel (Cao Thang ward), Ha Lam Channel (Ha Lam ward)
and Technical Construction College (Hong Hai ward); and in Cam Pha: Cam Thach market
(Cam Thach ward, Western of Mechanical Enterprise (Cam Phu ward), Bridge No. 6 (Cam Phu
ward), Thanh Nien Mining Enterprise (Cam Phu ward) and Quang Hanh area.
All reporting of Phase II will be done in the same way than in Phase I including semi-annual
Report to WB, monitoring of implementation of mitigation measures done by the Contractors
and all other relevant reports already in use.

Institutional Development

Organisation responsible for Ha Long and Cam Pha Sanitation and Drainage Project is Ha
Long URENCO on the behalf of Ha Long URENCO and Cam Pha URENCO according to the
decision of QNPPC 300/QD-UB 3.2.1999. Ha Long URENCO and Cam Pha URENCO as the
statutory providers of the sector services in Ha Long and Cam Pha will be implementing
agencies of the Project, advised and supervised by Quang Ninh Province People’s Committee
                                                            6                                              Black & Veatc
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

(QNPPC) and municipal People’s Committees. For practical day-to-day work of this Project
URENCOs have set up a Project Management Unit (PMU).

PMU, Ha Long URENCO and Cam Pha URENCO shall pay attention to protection of
environment and implement EMP during construction. PMU shall observe and follow
resettlement rules and pay resettlement compensations on the behalf of the companies.
Technical assistance will be used to improve management systems.

Public Involvement and Consultation

The World Bank’s Operational Policy (OP 4.01) on Environmental Impact Assessment requires
that affected groups and local NGOs to be informed and consulted as a part of the EIA
preparation during at least two stages of the EIA-process: shortly after the EA category has
been assigned and after the draft EIA-report has been prepared. Proper consultation is a
requirement for EIA category A projects. Participation should be enabled during project
preparation under certain conditions and is generally recommended as part of implementation.
Projects that require involuntary resettlement (OP 4.30), consultation on social issues should be
included.

The Vietnamese version of the executive summary of draft EIA report was disclosed in all
phuongs including to the project from August 2004. At the same time the full text of the draft
EIA report was available at PMU office and informed to the project affected households. The
final EA documents will be disclosed in InfoShop and VDIC at the World Bank office in
Hanoi.

The first public consultation meeting was arranged already on 24 April 1998 in Ha Khanh ward
People’s Committee. However, the wastewater treatment plant for Hon Gai was not
implemented during the Phase I of the project.

The second public consultation meeting for wastewater treatment plant was organised on 3
August 2004 and there were representatives from Ha Khanh, Hong Gai and Bach Dang wards
from where the wastewater is collected and where the wastewater treatment plant will be
located. There were totally eight participants. In the meeting the participants agreed the
location of the wastewater treatment plant, but wanted to have proper mitigation measures to
prevent the negative impacts caused by the wastewater treatment plant, e.g. buffer zone around
the site. Resettlement and site clearance issues were also discussed.
The public consultation for sewerage and drainage component in Bai Chay and Hon Gai was
organised on 30 November 2004 and there were representatives from Hong Hai, Cao Thang,
Tran Hung Dao, Yet Kieu and Bai Chay wards. There were totally nine participants. In the
meeting the participants supported the sewerage and drainage construction because it will
decrease the flooding problems and improve environmental condition. The participants noticed
that impacts during construction are obvious and requested that construction regulations and
mitigation measures should be strictly followed. The representatives of the wards fully agreed
to support and co-operate with PMU in the implementation of the project.

The public consultation for drainage component in Cam Pha was organised on 1 December
2004 and there were representatives from Cam Thinh, Cam Phu, Cam Son, Cam Thach and
Quang Hanh wards. There were totally ten participants. In the meeting the participants made
practical proposals for the design how to improve the streams in their wards. The participants
fully supported the project because it will reduce the flooding problems in the area. The
participants also proposed to speed up the construction. In addition during the RAP

                                                            7                                   Black & Veatc
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

consultation meeting arranged on 3 December 2004 have been informed and discussed the
environmental issues with the project affected people. There were 23 severely project affected
people and representatives of the communes. The PAPs wanted that the appropriate boundaries
of the buffer zone around the wastewater treatment plant should be identified to minimise the
possible adverse impacts
For environmental education and hygiene awareness it is recommended in the Phase II to
continue the group training method, which results are already noticed to be good and effective.
Women’s Unions would be the correct facilitators, because they have already experience from
the Phase I to run the training on group level. Actually Women’s Unions have already made
proposal to continue the training. Community participation and environmental training of Phase
I already covers the central areas of the project area and therefore it is recommended to have
environmental awareness campaign in those areas which have not got any training until now.




                                                            8                                 Black & Veatc
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment




                PART 1 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT




                                                            9          Black & Veatc
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment



1               INTRODUCTION AND PROJECT DESCRIPTION

    1.1   Background of the Project
Consistent with Government strategy of developing the sanitation and drainage components of
urban infrastructure in Vietnam in the period 2001 to 2010, Quang Ninh province is included in a
three cities programme in World Bank funded sanitation project. The other two cities are Danang
and Haiphong.

The first project formulation and feasibility study was done in 1995. Feasibility study for Phase I
was completed in 1998 followed by detailed design and bid documentation. The tendered rates
for the construction packages were lower than anticipated. In late 2002 the Ha Long City and
Cam Pha Sanitation Project Management Unit (PMU) requested the World Bank approval to
utilize unused funds for a second phase of improvement works. The funds would be used to
expand on drainage, sanitation and wastewater treatment in accordance with the concept laid out
in the Phase I feasibility study, as approved by the Government of Vietnam.


    1.2   Environmental Impact Assessment of Halong City Water Supply and Sanitation
          Project
The 1998 published EIA-study was divided into two separate reports: Volume IIIA – EIA for
Proposed Landfill Sites and Volume IIIB – EIA for Proposed Drainage and Sewerage System.
Separate Environmental Management Reports have been prepared for Proposed Landfill Sites
(IIIC) and Proposed Drainage and Sewerage System (IIID). A common Environmental
Assessment Summary (IIIE) has also been prepared.

The EIA Study for Proposed Drainage and Sewerage System was based on:
      collection of background data in situ in Vietnam and updating data from previous EIAs in
       Vietnam;
      review documents and project overview;
      review of the documents of other environmental studies in Halong Bay area, e.g. Ha Long
       Bay Environmental Pollution Study and The Study on Environmental Management for Ha
       Long Bay;
      site visits and preliminary assessment of wastewater treatment plant sites at Bai Chay (7
       sites), Hon Gai (14 sites) and Cam Pha (6 sites);
      biological-ecological and socio-economic surveys in Bai Chay (Cai Dam and Vuon Dao)
       and Hon Gai (Cua Luc shoreline in Yet Kieu) which were included in the earlier report (A
       Biological Study for the EIAs for three Landfills and three Wastewater Treatment Plant
       Sites in Halong City, Socio-economic Survey Data, and Summary of Results of Household
       Surveys in areas surrounding the proposed Yet Kieu – Bai Chay- Hung Thang wastewater
       treatment plant sites);
      site visits to the proposed areas in Bai Chay, Hon Gai and Cam Pha;
      Feasibility study and EIA of the recently constructed municipal wastewater treatment plant
       in Bai Chay
      Public hearings in Bai Chay, Hon Gai and Cam Pha,
      analysis of existing data
The following steps were taken in producing this environmental assessment report:


                                                            1                                    Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

    analyse and specify environmental effects on the physical, biological and human
     environment caused by the location, rehabilitation, construction and operation of drainage
     channels, sewers and wastewater treatment plans in Bai Chay, Hon Gai and Cam Pha;
    examine the existing environmental policy and legislation concerning the project;
    examine the positive and negative impacts and their significance;
    propose appropriate mitigative measures and recommendations for adverse effects of the
     proposed project;
    examine the need of possible further investigations;
    propose a monitoring plan;
    define the costs and financing of mitigation and monitoring;
    assess and propose possible institutional and training needs;
    provide general information regarding the project for local authorities and the public
Public consultation with parties potentially affected by the project has been an integral part of the
environmental assessment methodology. It has provided baseline information; has assisted in the
identification of issues requiring resolution; and has established a mechanism for constructive
exchange of information between the proponent and local residents. The consultation process
followed in this environmental assessment; the results obtained to date; and future plans for this
ongoing program.

A land acquisition and compensation plan was presented in a separate Resettlement Action Plan
report.


  1.3    Environmental Impact Assessment of Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town Drainage
         and Sanitation Project – Phase II
Draft Environmental Impact Assessment for Additional Works was prepared during the detailed
design phase of the Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
in July – August 2004. The EIA report has been updated based on the comments in December
2004.

This Environmental Impact Assessment is based on the following:
    Sanitation Feasibility Study, Annex 1 On-Site Sanitation, Ha Long City Water Supply and
     Sanitation Project, Kampsax International for Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Danida, April
     1998
    Sanitation Feasibility Study, Annex 2 Sewerage and Drainage Component, Ha Long City
     Water Supply and Sanitation Project, Kampsax International for Ministry of Foreign
     Affairs - Danida, April 1998
    Sanitation Feasibility Study, Annex 3 Discussion of WWTP Options, Ha Long City Water
     Supply and Sanitation Project, Kampsax International for Ministry of Foreign Affairs –
     Danida, April 1998
    Sanitation Feasibility Study, Volume I Main Report, Halong City Water Supply and
     Sanitation Project, Kampsax International for Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Danida,
     August 1998
    Preliminary Design Report Drainage and Sewerage Annexes Volume IIA, Halong City and
     Cam Pha Drainage and Sanitation Project, Kampsax International August 1999
    EIA for Proposed Drainage and Sewerage System Volume IIIB, Kampsax International
     for Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Danida, December 1998



                                                            2                                      Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

    Feasibility Study Ha Long City and Cam Pha Drainage and Sanitation Project (Using
     Surplus Funds from [Phase I] Bidding), VIWASE for Quang Ninh Provincial Peoples
     Committee, February 2003
    State Environmental Reports of Quang Ninh Province, Quang Ninh DONRE 2002, 2003
    Environmental Law 1993 and Decree 175 1994, updated 2004
    Vietnamese Environmental Standards, 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 MOSTE
    Site visits
    Discussions with DONRE, PMU and Additional Works design team
    Review of documents and project overview

  1.4    Background, Objectives, Location and Scope of the Work of Additional Work in
         Hon Gai, Bai Chay and Cam Pha
The investment aim, as defined in the Decision from the Peoples Committee of Quang Ninh
Province dated 22 April 2003 is to continuously invest in the drainage and wastewater systems,
and solid waste management, to protect the environment from flooding and to improve the
drainage and sanitation system.

More specifically, using funds remaining from the first phase, the objectives of the project are to:
    Mitigate flood and inundation of areas of Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town not covered
     under the Phase I works.
    Provide significant reduction in pollution of the ocean waters of Hon Gai by intercepting
     and treating wastewater carried in the storm water drains in the central area of the city.
    Further reduce the pollution of the Bai Chay coastline emanating from wastewater carried
     in storm water drains by increasing the length of interceptor sewers installed in Phase I.
The following table gives the scope of works. Locations of the project area and works are
presented in Drawings 1 to 12.

Table 1.1 Scope of Works
 Location           Items of Work                                                          Quantity
 Hon Gai            Wastewater treatment plant (SBR) and access road in Bai Muoi area to   7,113 m3/d
                    meet standard TCVN 7222:2002 and TCVN 6987:2001 (Drawing 7)
                    Combined sewers and interceptors with diameters from 300 to 800mm      10,000 m
                    including storm overflow chambers (Drawing 1)
                    Sewerage pumping main with diameters from 100 to 500mm (Drawing        3,470 m
                    1)
                    Wastewater sewers with diameters from 150 to 200mm (Drawing 1)         12,000 m
                    Wastewater pumping stations with capacities from 630 to 7000m3/day     8
                    (Drawing 1)
                    Rehabilitation and construction of tidal gates (Drawing 1)             1
                    Rehabilitation of canals and drains (Drawings 2 - 6)                   3,910 m
 Bai Chay           Combined sewers with diameters from 150 to 300mm (Drawing 9)           2,500 m
                    Rehabilitation of streams (Drawing 8)                                  1,370 m
 Cam Pha            Rehabilitation of streams (Drawings 10 – 12)                           9,250 m
 Procurement        Trucks with cranes to dredge streams                                   3
 of Equipment       Boats to collect solid waste from the sea                              2
                    Mobile WC's                                                            7

In Bai Chay and Cam Pha the rehabilitation of drains will be mainly forming lined drainage
channels from existing streams. In Hon Gai there will be making some new drains, enlarging
some drainage channels and lining some streams. The preliminary rough estimation of total
                                                            3                                           Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

volume of sludge and excavated earth would be about 10,700 m3, of which should be transported
to the landfill about 6,300 m3, the rest about 4,400 m3 could be used as i.e. backfilling material.

Table 1.2 Estimated amount of the material to be dredged
Location                                       Length (m)       Total volume    Volume        of   Volume           of
                                                                of sludge and   dredged            dredged      sludge
                                                                excavated       sludge to be       and earth which
                                                                earth (m3)      transported to     can be used as
                                                                                landfill (m3)      backfilling (m3)
HON GAI DRAINAGE SYSTEM
Cao Thang area                                 300              300             300
Ha Lam area                                    400              400             400
Nguyen Van Cu area                             500              500             500
Dong Thanh area                                250              250             250
Cau 2 channel (only lining)                    500              -
Cau 3 channel (only lining)                    150              -
Total                                          2,300            1,450           1,450
BAI CHAY DRAINAGE SYSTEM
Provincial Union Stream (no. 12) (only         400              -
lining)
Nha Tron Stream (no. 16) (only lining)         300              -
Dia Chat Stream (no.19) (only lining)          670              -
Total                                          1,370
CAM PHA DRAINAGE
Eastern of Mechanical Enterprise               1,050            1,050           500                550
Western of Mechanical Enterprise               1,100            1,100           550                550
Bridge No.6 at km 154                          950              950             400                550
Bridge No.4                                    300              300             300
Thanh Nien Mining Enterprise                   770              770             770
Cam Son Market                                 250              250             250
Bridge No.3                                    700              700             700
Cay Si                                         780              780             390                390
Km No. 6                                       960              960             480                480
Ha Giang Mining Enterprise Km No.7             530              530             260                270
Km No. 8                                       500              500             250                250
R.C channel to Goat Mountain                   600              600                                600
Km No.12                                       760              760                                760
Total                                          9,250            9,250           4,850              4,400
Grand total                                    12,920           10,700          6,300              4,400

In Hon Gai there will be interception and treatment of about 45 % of the estimated total
generated dry weather wastewater. The surplus will be diverted to drains at each of the eight
pumping stations and discharged to the sea.

  1.5      Implementation Schedule
The bidding is planned to be started in the year 2004 and the construction is planned to be started
in 2005 and to be completed in the year 2006.




                                                            4                                                      Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment



2               ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION

2.1      Environmental Management
The National Assembly approved the government’s proposal to create the Ministry for Natural
Resources and Environment (MONRE) by decision 02/2002/QH11 on August 5, 2002. Decree
No 86/2002/ND-CP on November 5, 2002 provides in general functions, tasks, powers and
organisation structure of the ministry and ministerial agencies. Decree No 91/2002/ND-CP on
the functions, tasks, powers and organisational structure of the Ministry of Natural Resources
and Environment was promulgated on November 11, 2002. The new ministry will co-operate
with the General Department of Land Administration, the General Hydro-Meteorology
Department and environmental offices that now operate under the Ministry of Science and
Technology.

MONRE is the government body to exercise the state function of management over the land,
water resources, minerals, environment, meteorology, hydrogeography, measuring and mapping
in the national scope; exercise the governance over the public services and represent the owner
of state capital in enterprises using state budgets relating to natural resources of land, water,
minerals, environment, meteorology, hydro-geography, measuring and mapping in accordance
with the legislation.

Concerning the environment the tasks and powers are as follows:
     Direct and supervise the implementation of the regulations and measures for the protection
      of the environment, the programs and projects on the prevention of combat and
      overcoming the degradation and pollution, environmental break-down as assigned by the
      government
     Uniformly manage the national environmental monitoring system; summarise and process
      data from environmental monitoring and regularly assess the environment; forecast the
      environmental changes
     Appraise the environmental impact assessment reports of the projects and business and
      production units; regulate environmental standards and uniformly manage the licensing,
      restoring the environmental standards satisfied certificates according to the regulations of
      the laws;
     Mobilise the donor resources, receive the investment capital from the State to support
      programmes, projects, activities and tasks to protect the environment and manage the
      utilization of Vietnam Environmental Protection Fund.
On the provincial level DONRE is the legal body with responsibility for environmental
regulation. DONRE has the overall responsibility that the Vietnamese environmental regulations
are followed during the construction. DONRE carries out environmental monitoring as follows:
     Inspect execution of regulations, norms of the prevention and overcoming of
      environmental degradation caused by the pollution and environmental problems during the
      project implementation
     Co-operate with the PMU to inspect execution of relevant environmental law, regulations
      and standards to be followed
     Determine and report all environmental pollution and problems, which occur in project
      area and submit the inspection report to the People’s Committee for consideration and
      decision


                                                            5                                   Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

On the project level PMU has the main responsibility for the implementation and monitoring of
the EMP and will ensure that the necessary sampling, analysing and reporting is carried out.
PMU follows that the contractors will follow and implement the mitigation measures and
monitoring mentioned in EMP. PMU will submit all monitoring reports to DONRE.


2.2      Environmental Law, Decree and Standards
In Vietnam, the basic national environmental policy is based on the Law on Organisation of the
Government (September 30, 1992), the Law on Environmental Protection (December 27, 1993)
and the Decree No. 175-CP (October 18, 1994).

According to the Decree 91/2002/ND-CP under MONRE has been established among many
other departments Environmental Impact Assessment and Appraisal department. The EIA can,
however, be appraised by the local DONRE based on their knowledge of local conditions and
further be delivered to PC for approval, if delegated so by MONRE. There are no specific
stipulations in the law and decree concerning the approval of EMP.

MOSTE has published in 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002 Vietnamese Environmental
Standards, and standardisation work is in progress. From now on MONRE will continue the
standardisation work. In such cases, where the applicable Vietnamese standard is inadequate, not
regulated or applicable, project agencies must obtain MONRE’s approval for the use of
equivalent standards of the countries that have provided the technology and equipment to
Vietnam, or apply equivalent standard from a third country.

The most relevant environmental related laws, standards and regulations are listed as follows:

Table 2.1 Vietnamese environmental standards (MOSTE 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002)
   Number of standard            Name of standard
   TCVN 5998:1995                Guidance on sampling on marine waters (ISO 5667-9:1992)
   TCVN 5999:1995                Guidance on sampling of wastewater (ISO 5667-10:1992)
   TCVN 5298:1995                Requirements to the use of wastewater and their sludge for watering and
                                 fertilising purpose
   TCVN 5524:1995                General requirements for protecting surface water against pollution
   TCVN 5525:1995                General requirements for protection of underground water
   TCVN 5943:1995                Water quality – Coastal water quality standard
   TCVN 5945:1995                Industrial wastewater – Discharge standards
   TCVN 6986:2001                Water quality – Standards for industrial effluents discharged into coastal
                                 waters using for protection of aquatic life
   TCVN 6987:2001                Water quality – Standards for industrial effluents discharged into coastal
                                 waters using for water sports and recreation
   TCVN 7222:2002                Water quality – General environmental requirements for central domestic
                                 (municipal) wastewater treatment plants
   TCVN 5937:1995 -              Monitoring system for the air quality
   5940:1995
   TCVN 5948:1999                Allowed limitation values for road motor vehicle noise
   TCVN 5949:1998                Allowed limitation values for noise in public and residential areas
   TCVN 6962:2001                Vibration and shock – Vibration emitted by construction works and
                                 factories – Maximum permitted levels in the environment of public and
                                 residential areas

The standard TCVN 5298:1995 defines the requirements for use of wastewater and sludge for
watering and fertilising purposes. According to the requirements in the standard, the wastewater

                                                            6                                                 Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

and sludge should not content any harmful and toxic matters and the sludge can only be used for
fertilising purposes after treatment of toxic matters.


2.3      World Bank Guidelines
The environmental impact assessment study for the sanitation project was designed to evaluate
its status with respect to all applicable World Bank environmental and social policies and
guidelines.

During the EA process for this project, a review of World Bank environmental and social
policies was carried out with respect to their relevance to this project. The policies directly
relevant to this project are Environmental Assessment (OP 4.01), Cultural Property (OP 4.11)
and Involuntary Resettlement (OP 4.30). The specific World Bank guidelines that were
identified as being applicable to this project are Environmental Assessment Sourcebook, Volume
I and II (1991) and Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook 1997.

For all Category A projects proposed for IBRD or IDA financing, during the EA process, the
borrower consults project-affected groups and local nongovernmental organisations (NGOs)
about the project’s environmental aspects and takes their vies into account. For Category A
projects, the borrower consults these groups at least twice: shortly after environmental screening
and before the terms of reference for the EA is finalised; and once the draft EA report is
prepared.

For meaningful consultations between the borrower and project-affected groups and local NGOs
on all Category A projects for IBRD or IDA financing, the borrower provides relevant material
in a timely manner prior to consultation and in a form and language that are understandable and
accessible to the groups being consulted.

For a Category A project, the borrower provides for the initial consultation a summary of the
proposed project’s objectives, description, and potential impacts; for consultation after the draft
EA report is prepared, the borrower provides a summary of the EA’s conclusions. In addition,
for a Category A project, the borrower makes draft EA report available at a public place
accessible to project-affected groups and local NGOs.

Once the borrower officially transmits the Category A EA Report to the Bank, the Bank
distributes the summary (in English) to the executive directors (EDs) and makes the report
available through its InfoShop. If the borrower objects to the Bank’s releasing an EA report
through its InfoShop, Bank staff (a) do not continue processing an IDA project or (b) for IBRD
project, submit the issue of further processing to the EDs.




                                                            7                                    Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment



3               BACKGROUND

    3.1   Environmental Setting
The environmentally sensitive subjects in the project area are: coal mining activities in Cam Pha,
sewerage and drainage discharge in Ha Long Bay, shipping, and raw water sources.

The coal mining activities in Cam Pha have a significant environmental impact on the
environment. The open-pit mining produces coal dust and tailings. These are generally tipped
over the mountain escarpment facing the township. There is no buffer zone between the mining
site and the township and the rainwater carries coal dust down towards the township. The coal
dust settles all over and blocks the drains and channels. Coal dust and coal particles contaminate
the shoreline, offshore waters and bottom sediments thus damaging shoreline terrestrial and
aquatic habitats, particularly the coral reefs. Large quantities of sulphur dioxide are released into
the air and water bodies causing acidification. Coal mining causes also deforestation and land
destruction, thus increasing erosion, surface runoff and lowering of groundwater levels. The
large barren areas that are left without any landscaping after mining activities destroy the area’s
natural scenic beauty. Coal dust and inadequate mine safety increases health hazards.

The provincial administration is conscious of the negative environmental impact of the coal
industry and its conflict with the tourist development. Processing and shipment of coal has been
moved from Han Gai to Cam Pha, and the harbour presently used for coal shipment has been
changed to cater for passenger ships. It has been decided to encourage only underground mining
in the Hon Gai area in order to minimise the dust problems.

Discharge of untreated wastewater and solid waste into the channels, natural streams and the sea
causes deterioration of the bay water quality and affects fishing and tourism activities.
Deterioration of bay water quality is a health risk both for bathers and seafood consumers.

Sea traffic and harbour activities increase the risk of pollution. At present there is no bilge water
collection system, and in spite of existing regulations all vessels throw garbage and bilge water
into the sea causing serious pollution. As a result the harbour areas are very dirty and there is
often a visible oil film in the water.

There are several rivers both large and small discharging into Cua Luc estuary and Ha Long bay
bringing large amounts of suspended solids from upstream areas. Non-point source pollution
provides a large contribution to the overall pollution load in this area.


    3.2   Previous and Ongoing Sanitation Projects and Studies
Halong Water Supply and Sanitation Project is part of the World Bank financed water supply
and sanitation project in Vietnam which covers the three cities of Hanoi, Haiphong and Danang
and, in Quang Ninh province, Ha Long City and Cam Pha town. The Danish International
Development Agency (DANIDA) provided a bilateral grant for project preparation for the
Quang Ninh component including in the first phase pre-feasibility studies to define a priority
investment project to upgrade the water supply, drainage and sanitation services.

The objectives of the Phase I of the project, which cover Ha Long City (Bai Chay and Hon Gai)
and Cam Pha were to:
      improve environmental conditions in the urban areas
                                                            8                                      Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

    help preserve the unique natural environment of Ha Long Bay that has ben designated a
     World Heritage site by UNESCO
    encourage economic growth
    reduce flooding
    promote self-financing (user pays) of sanitation services
    development of the Environmental Sanitation Companies as efficient customer-oriented
     organisations
The Phase I project includes measures for rehabilitation and extension of the drainage system;
installation of new collector sewers; limited installation of new separate sewers in the centre of
Bai Chay; wastewater treatment, septage collection and treatment in Bai Chay; the construction
of septage treatment facilities in Hon Gai and Cam Pha; organisation of community awareness
participatory programme in environmental issues; and improvement of on-site sanitation
facilities in Hon Gai and Cam Pha through the provision of credit for septic tanks.

The construction phase, commenced in 2000, is expected to b completed by the end of 2004.


  3.3    Ha Long City Master Plan
Land Use

According to the new Ha Long City Master Plan 2020 development target for Ha Long City is to
develop infrastructure and other facilities and reserve land for construction to ensure the
development of ecotourism. Target of the spatial development is to develop at the same time
industrial areas, buffer zones, and residential and tourism areas focusing on two basic structural
systems in the area namely sea and mountains.

Urban spatial development orientation of Ha Long City according to approved master plan to
2020 can be summarized as below:
   1. The former centre (Eastern Hon Gai): Provincial centre for administration and public
      services like post office, hospital, stadium etc.
   2. The Southern and Western-Northern sea encroachment areas: Area for comprehensive
      development and close structural management of infrastructure system. The sea
      encroachment of urban zones in the Western-Northern direction of Cua Luc estuary need
      to be limited in order to protect mangrove forests and tidal expanses to avoid effect to
      natural environment, minimize impacts on river currents flowing to the estuary and avoid
      changing the narrow passage of Cai Lan port.
   3. Bai Chay area: The highest priority is development of tourism and tourism services
   4. The North of Western Hon Gai: Modern industrial zones and ports and therefore this area
      needs close management of development plans and environment protection.
   5. Expanded urban areas: Reserve for residential areas near centre
   6. Natural reserves, national forests and cultural and historical sites: Development belongs to
      Ordinance of Vestige and Landscape Protection as well as Ordinance and International
      Convention of Heritage Protection
   7. Development reservation area: Areas on the hills and mountains, which can used for
      construction, the reasonable sea encroachment areas and some satellite urban areas in
      order to meet the requirements in the situation of high growth of population.
   8. Central public areas: Areas for services, tourism, industry and urban residence
   9. Satellite urban areas: Preparation for three new urban areas: An ecotourism urban area at
      Hoanh Bo with capacity of 50,000 habitants and two urban areas at Bieu Nghi and Hoang


                                                            9                                   Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

          Tan. These areas have business centres, tourism services, sport parks, mangrove forest
          reservations etc. There is also reservation to construct an international airport.

     10. Peripheral buffer zones: Zones surrounding city including forests, limestone mountains,
         hills and coastal mangrove forests. These ecosystems surrounding the city and need to be
         protected.
Water Supply
 STT        Type of demand                   Norm of water supply                 Demand of water supply
                                                                                  (m3/day)
                                                        2010                2020          2010        2020
 1          Domestic                         110 l/capita/day    150 l/capita/day       25,600      60,300
 2          Public                                    10% of              10% of         2,560       6,030
                                               domestic use        domestic use
 3          Plant and street watering        8% of domestic               10% of         2,000       6,030
                                                          use      domestic use
 4          Tourism                          400 l/capita/day    400 l/capita/day        3,600       7,200
 5          Industry                             40 m3/ha/day             3
                                                                     40 m /ha/day       26,000      35,000
 6          Leakage & preservation                 30%Q15             30%Q15          18,000      28,600
 7          Water treatment plant                   5%Q16              5%Q16           3,900       7,000
            Total                                                                       81,660     150,160
            Rounding                                                                    90,000     150,000
Water sources are up to 2020 Cao Van lake, Thac Nhong dam, Yen Lap lake, Man river dam and
Luong Ky lake.

The sewerage system will be combined including interceptor sewers, pumping stations and
wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater treatment has been planned as follows:
         Domestic wastewater: Lagoon systems for treatment priority usage to safe costs
         Hospital wastewater: Each hospital has a WWTP
         Industrial wastewater: Each IZ has a WWTP, each plant located outside IZ has a WWTP
         Effluent Discharge Standard: Meet the requirement in level A, TCVN 5942:1995 (Note:
          TCVN 5942: 995 is standard for surface water quality, not Effluent Discharge Standard)
Investment demand for wastewater treatment:
     No               Category                    Quantity                              Note
     A      Domestic wastewater
      1     Pipelines                                                  100  500
      2     Pump stations                    45 stations               Capacity 360  10.680 m3/day
      3     WWTP                             20 plants                 Capacity 400  21.000 m3/day
     B      Industrial wastewater
      4     Pipelines                                                  100  300
      5     Pump stations                    8 stations
      6     WWTP                             6 plants                  Capacity 760  7560 m3/day

Two complex solid waste treatment plants with capacity of 450 tons/day (Eastern Cua Luc) and
300 tons/day (Western Cua Luc) are planned.




                                                           10                                            Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

  3.4    Cam Pha Town Master Plan
Land Use

The development of coal mine industry and commercial and services activities are especially
important in Cam Pha Town. Urbanization of the town shall mainly concentrate on area along
road 18 and new expansion urban areas planned from road 18 to the sea. Residential areas are
divided into three main areas:
    Area 1 : Including wards in old town, from KM6 to bridge No 1
    Area 2 : Including new wards in Eastern part of the town such as Cam Thinh, Cam Son,
     Cam Phu
    Area 3 : New area in the Western part of the town up to Deo But in Quang Hanh
Water Supply and Drainage
    Standard norm of water supply in the first stage:130 l/capita/day
    Long term water supply standard: 170 l/capita/day
    Plan to build a separate drainage system. Wastewater from households will be discharged
     into secondary drainage leading to interceptor and then to the WWTP
    Flow of domestic wastewater in old Cam Pha town is 18,000m3/day
Environment protection plan in coal mine area (Source: Project coded 52-05-05 of the
Ministry of Energy)
    There should be appropriate plan on locations for cinder and soil discharge to prevent
     impact on residential areas. It is necessary to plant trees on buffer zones to prevent dust
     spreading.
    To protect Dien Vong water treatment plant it is necessary to survey sedimentation of the
     reservoir and study solutions to improve quality of water in the Dien Vong River. It is
     important to have vegetated buffer zone especially around Dien Vong and Cao Van
     reservoirs.
    Treatment of water from coal mine areas: pH level of leachate is 2.5-6 and it is necessary
     to add lime into water. High level of ammoniac is proposed to be treated by lime and
     aeration.
    Trees and grass should be planted in new cinder and soil disposal sites to prevent dust and
     erosion. Tree plantation is needed to create buffer zone for protection of residential areas.
    Dust from road is prevented by tarmac the roads and increasing road watering. If sea water
     is used for this purpose, dust volume will be less than 5-7 times in comparison with using
     surface water. Watering with 1.8l/m2 seawater once a day will keep dust level on the
     permitted limitation.




                                                           11                                   Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment



4                BASELINE DATA

    4.1    Location
Quang Ninh province is located about 160 km North-East from Hanoi in the Northern Mountain
Region of Vietnam. It is bordering China in the North, Haiphong City and Hai Duong province
in the South-East, and Bac Giang and Lang Son provinces in the West. Quang Ninh has 14
administrative units including Ha Long city, 3 towns and 10 districts with total area of 5,900
km2.

Ha Long City is political, economic and cultural center of the province, and it is also attractive
resort with Ha Long Bay, which is UNESCO’s World Natural Heritage area. Ha Long City has
two main parts; Bai Chay and Hon Gai, which are separated by the Cua Luc strait. Bai Chay is
the tourism centre and Hon Gai is commercial and industrial centre of the city. Cam Pha is an
industrial town located 30 km far from Ha Long city to the Northeast. In Cam Pha the main
industrial activities are coal mining and mechanical factories.


    4.2    Climate Conditions
Some climate indicators recorded in the year of 2003 at Bai Chay and Cua Ong in Cam Pha
Town are shown in the table below.

Table 4.1 Climate Condition at the Project Area in 2003
                       Average             Sunny hours (hrs)            Rainfall (mm)      Relative average
                  temperature (oC)                                                            humidity (%)
                    Bai       Cua             Bai          Cua           Bai       Cua       Bai        Cua
                   Chay      Ong             Chay         Ong           Chay      Ong       Chay       Ong
                  station   station         station      station       station   station   station    station
 January           15.9      15.4            128.3        121.5          49.6      40.6      82          80
 February          19.7      19.2             76.2         75.2          17.1      14.6      88          88
 March             20.9      20.5             71.8         66.2          16.2      21.6      84          84
 April             25.2      24.6            110.6        105.3          86.5      85.1      85          86
 May               27.8      27.8            183.3        188.5         336.3     479.4      84          84
 June              28.9      28.5            149.5        150.5         413.4     304.5      83          84
 July              29.2      29.1            233.7        268.0         186.8     400.4      83          84
 August            28.2      27.8             93.0        136.0         291.6     466.5      88          89
 September         27.1      26.8            155.1        158.9         439.0     533.6      85          86
 October           25.3      24.9            154.7        188.4          7.4       29.5      78          78
 November          22.6      22.4            168.3        173.0          0.4       2.6       77          77
 December          17.6      17.1            133.7        133.6          0.0       1.9       71          73
                   24.0      23.7            1,658        1,765         1,844     2,380      82          83
Source : Quang Ninh Statistics Department, 2004


Based on this table the climate indicators in the project area can be summarized as follows:
         Average temperature: 23.7oC – 24.0 oC
         Sunny hours: 1,658 hrs – 1,765 hrs
         Rainfall: 1,844 mm – 2,380 mm
         Relative average humidity: 82% – 83%


                                                           12                                               Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

  4.3      Topography and Soil Conditions
The Ha Long Bay area is characterised by steep hills of weathered limestone running from East
to West and ranging from 100 to 300 meters high. The lowlands between the steep hills and the
bay consist of alluvial and marine sediments, with an average height of 4 to 5 meters.

All coal mining activity is in the Lower and Middle Triassic stratigraphic areas. North of these
regions are the Ordovician layers, where there is no coal mining.

Rates of erosion are associated with climate, particularly the amount and intensity of rainfall, and
can be modified by vegetative cover. Deforestation, mining activities, increased intensive
agriculture and other human activities such as housing on the hill slopes increase erosion in the
Ha Long City and Cam Pha areas.


  4.4      Flora and Fauna
General

In Quang Ninh Province there have been originally more than 35,000 ha of mangrove. Causes
for the deterioration include permanent dumping of coal waste, conversion to coastal agriculture,
fuel wood exploitation, land conversion to freshwater agriculture, alteration of tidal and salinity
regimes caused by dike construction and extensive land reclamation.

The original forest area in Quang Ninh Province was about 507,000 ha in 1943, but only 208,000
remained in 1985, and the forested area is certainly much less today.

Table 4.2 Coastal and Marine Ecosystems of Quang Ninh Province (Ha Long Bay Environmental
Pollution Study, 1998)
       Ecosystem                                                Characteristics
 Aquaculture systems             Brackish water fish and shrimp
                                 Frequently reclaimed from mangrove wetlands
 Estuaries, deltas               Semi-enclosed, brackish water
 and lagoons                     Highly productive, important fish/shrimp spawning, nursery and feeding
                                 areas
                                 High biodiversity
 Mangroves and wetlands          Estuaries, sheltered bays, along river banks
                                 Important for shrimp production
 Beaches (limited)               Important for tourism
 Seagrass beds                   Well-lit, shallow waters
                                 Associated with protected area inside coral reefs and with mangroves
 Coral reefs                     Important for many invertebrates, fish, sea turtles and dugongs
                                 Very fragile and sensitive
 Islands                         Unique ecosystems, often no predators
                                 Important for sea birds and sea turtles
                                 Tourism potential
 Near shore                      Less than 50-75 meters deep
                                 Include coral reefs, seagrass and ecosystems
                                 Very productive, but over utilized
Terrestrial and Aquatic Habitats of Ha Long Bay

The Ha Long bay area has many natural ecosystems and high biodiversity both in terrestrial and
aquatic habitats:

                                                           13                                         Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

    Natural forests developed in the limestone mountains for example: Bai Tho, Giap khau, Ha
     Tu mountains
    Secondary forests or savannas developed on the "soil" mountains or hills for example Bai
     Chay, Ghenh Tau Mountains. Secondary forests compose of plant species Pinnus spp,
     Eucaliptusspp, and Acacia spp
    Sea shorelines are composed of different sub- ecosystems and sand beaches, mudflat
     beaches, mangrove forests and brackish lagoons and lakes
    Cua Luc estuary
The aquatic Ha Long bay has a total surface area of 1,566 km2 with 1969 small isles. Of these
788 isles with a surface area of 434 km2 are protected by UNESCO as apart of World Natural
Heritage.

Vulnerable Ecosystems in Ha Long Bay

Tropical rain forests developed on limestone mountains and Ha Long bay islets have been
degraded by human activities. There are some hundreds of Phanerogame plants, which have
developed in these mountains. There are 19 mammals in the forests and hundred of bird species.

Mangrove forests of the coastal zones of Ha Long city can be divided into three types of
coastal geomorphology: shoreline of Hon Gai, shoreline of Bai Chay; and mudflat beaches of
Cua Luc. The mangrove forest in the shoreline of Hon Gai coast have not been developed very
well, because there are very few rivers and little alluvium deposits. The mangrove forests form
only narrow bands near the seashore. The mangrove forests in the shore line of Bai Chay and in
the Cua Luc areas are better developed than in Hon Gai, particularly in the mudflat beaches in
the Cai Dam area. In Ha Long Bay area there are mangroves growing along the coastline and in
the bay. The larger mangrove areas are protected, but most of the mangrove forests have been
cut down due to land reclamation. There are 34 species of mangroves found in the whole of
northern Viet Nam. Cua Luc has rather less with 13 species of mangroves, of which 6 species
distribute broadly over the entire saline swamps, and 4 of these have high density and large
qualities.

Coral reefs in Ha Long Bay: There are 117 species belonging to the 40 genera and 12 families
of hard corals (Scleractinian). Living corals cover about 15% of the near shore area and up to
50% of the offshore areas. The Corals occur normally in a depth of 0 to 7 m, the most of them
live in a water depth of 2m to 4m. According to the survey done by Hai Phong Institute of
Oceanology (HIO) for the Ha Long Bay Environmental Pollution Study there are no hard corals
near to the mainland due to the muddy bottom and high turbidity. The distribution of number of
taxon and species of living coral are found with increased distance from seashore towards the
outer sea direction. The amount of living coral varies from 15-55% with most of the reefs being
categorised as poor quality, and only the reefs at Dau Be and Hang Trai being in the good
category. No excellent reefs were found in the region. Species, which can tolerate turbidity of
sea water, were the most common. The biggest threats to coral reefs besides the turbidity are
fishing with dynamite and collection for souvenir business.

Threats to Ha Long Wetlands

Wetland and marine coastal ecosystems have been rapidly degraded particularly near Ha Long
city and Cam Pha Town. It has been estimated that over 60% of the mangrove systems have been
destroyed. The biggest threats are: land reclamation, population pressure and industrial
development; concession to agriculture; discharge of highly contaminated coal mine drainage;


                                                           14                                Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

and decreased freshwater discharge. Wetland use and management strategies and action plans are
proposed in Ha Long Bay Pollution Study.


  4.5     Sea and River Conditions

4.5.1            Tide Regime
The Ha Long Bay area is influenced by a diurnal tide. Average tidal amplitude is 2-3.8 m in
height, with maximum amplitude of 4.70 m. The tides are the strongest in December-January and
June-July. They are the weakest in March-April and August-September. During strong tides the
average tidal height is 2.8 - 3.6 m. The weak tides are only 0.2 to 0.5 m in height. Velocity of the
tidal currents is in the range 0.2-0.5 m/s. Bac Bo gulf tide regime has impact on the see water
level. The following information is based on data from national gauging station:
 No.        Name of gauging station                      Hmax (m)                  Htb (m)                Hmin (m)
  1            Hon Gai station                            + 4.10                   + 2.06                  + 0.20
  2            Hon Dau station                            + 3.80                   + 1.86                  + 0.10
Source: Master Plan of Ha Long City to the year of 2020 (August 2003)


4.5.2            Sea Water Quality
According to the State Environmental Quality Report of Quang Ninh Province (2003) the coastal
sea water quality of Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town is directly influenced by domestic
wastewater, port services and sea reclamations. However, the parameters like DO, BOD,
turbidity, coliform, oil and grease, heavy metals, total nitrogen and total phosphorous meet the
requirement limits of the standard TCVN 5943:1995. In general the values of DO were from 4.3
to 6.8 mg/l, BOD from 1.3 to 12 mg/l, TSS from 0.7 - 63 mg/l. The detailed information from
some of the sampling points is presented in Annex 1. The water quality in Ha Long Bay area is
rather clean, clear and unpolluted. The water quality around floating fish farming area is suitable
for aquaculture. Oil and grease concentration at Cai Lan port was about 1.86 times higher than
that in the TCVN 5943:1995. The number of coliform bacteria at Ha Long boat station was about
4.1 times higher than that in the TCVN 5943:1995 because of the operation of fish port.

Table 4.3 Water Quality in Cua Luc Bay in 2002 – 2003
 No.     Parameters                 Units                             Monitoring months                     TCVN 5943:1995
                                                   07/2002      10-11/2002       01/2003     02-03/2003     (swimming area)
 1       Current velocity          m/s               0.22           0.1            0.26         0.21               NA
                                    o
 2       Temperature                 C               31.1          25.2            15.9         21.5               30
 3       pH                           -               8.0           7.8            7.8           7.9            6.5 – 8.5
 4       Turbidity                 NTU                11            9.6            14.3          5.2               NA
 5       Conductivity             mS/cm              38.7          45.7            39.3         41.8               NA
 6       Salinity                   %o               22.4          28.9           29.35         29.1               NA
 7       DO                        mg/l               6.5           6.0            6.8           0.3               ≥4
 8       TDS                       mg/l              22.7          29.0            29.8         29.4               NA
 9       TSS                       mg/l               8.6           8.1            12.9          4.0               25
 10      BOD5                     mgO2/l               4            4.5            3.0           4.0              < 20
 11      Total Phosphorous         mg/l               0.5          0.53            1.5          0.43               NA
 12      Total Nitrogen            mg/l              1.54          2.07           0.713         2.160              NA
 13      Fe                        mg/l              0.07          0.07            0.19         0.07               0.1
 14      Pb                        mg/l             0.237          0.296          0.056         0.196              0.1
 15      Cd                        mg/l             0.048          0.056          trace         0.042             0.005
 16      Hg                        mg/l             0.867          trace          trace         1.067             0.005
 17      As                        mg/l             0.276          2.679          0.175         0.722             0.05
 18      Oil & Grease              mg/l               0.1           0.2            0.2           0.2                2
 19      Coliforms               MPN/100ml            12            105             52           116              1.000
Source: State Environmental Quality Report of Quang Ninh Province 2003

                                                                15                                                     Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

4.5.3          River Water Quality
The Halong City area has several rivers flowing into the Cua Luc estuary, the most significant of
these being Troi, Mau, Vuoai and Dien Vong Rivers. Dien Vong River is the source for the
domestic and industrial water supply for Hon Gai, Ha Tu, Cam Pha, Coc 6 and Cua Ong. The
waters of Troi River are utilised mainly for domestic and industrial use but also for agricultural
use in Dong Dang, Bai Chay and Gieng Day. There are a number of minor surface water
resources in Bai Chay and Hon Gai including many small ponds and lakes and numerous small
streams with small catchment areas. None of these are of any interest for public water supply due
to the small and unreliable flows. Many of these ponds and rivers are polluted by the coal mining
and other human activities.
Based on The study on Environmental Management for Ha Long Bay (carried out by JICA,
1999) as well as the environmental monitoring results of Quang Ninh DONRE from July 2002 to
February 2003, the river quality in the project areas is still unpolluted. The DO values are about
6 mg/l to 7 mg/l, BOD values are about 6 mg/l to 12 mg/l. The Total SS values are about 18 mg/l
to 120 mg/l in the dry season and about 500 mg/l to 1,000 mg/l in the rainy season because of the
high slope of rivers. The concentrations of other parameters like heavy metals, total nitrogen and
total phosphorous are rather low.
Table 4.4 Water Quality in Troi River Estuary in 2002 – 2003
 No.    Parameters                Units                       Monitoring months                     TCVN
                                              07/2002     10-11/2002    01/2003   02-03/2003      5943:1995
                                                                                               (swimming area)
 1      Current velocity         m/s             0.12            0.05     0.35       0.08             NA
                                  o
 2      Temperature                 C            30.0            23.3     15.0       25.7             30
 3      pH                          -             7.8             7.3      7.8        7.5          6.5 – 8.5
 4      Turbidity                NTU             18.3            10.3      9.2       13.8             NA
 5      Conductivity            mS/cm            1.75            23.2    22.16       32.8             NA
 6      Salinity                  %o              0.8            15.8    16.87       19.9             NA
 7      DO                       mg/l             6.8             6.3     4.77        5.8             ≥4
 8      TDS                      mg/l            1.04            16.7    17.76       20.8             NA
 9      TSS                      mg/l             18              9.4      9.0       12.5             25
 10     BOD5                    mgO2/l             4               7       6.8        7.5            < 20
 11     Total Phosphorous        mg/l             0.2             1.2      3.2        1.0             NA
 12     Total Nitrogen           mg/l            0.89           1.920    0.736      2.730             NA
 13     Fe                       mg/l             0.1            0.16     0.34       0.18             0.1
 14     Pb                       mg/l           0.000           trace    0.225      0.078             0.1
 15     Cd                       mg/l           0.000           0.016    0.004      0.030           0.005
 16     Hg                       mg/l           1.241           0.233    0.417      0.467           0.005
 17     As                       mg/l           0.276           2.381    1.404      0.444            0.05
 18     Oil & Grease             mg/l              0               0        0         0.1              2
 19     Coliforms              MPN/100ml         210             910      678          9            1.000
Source: State Environmental Quality Report of Quang Ninh Province 2003


4.5.4          Pollution Loads and Dilution Capacity according to Water Quality Models
Impacts of the discharge of effluent from the wastewater treatment plants the according to the
water quality model calculated in 1998 are presented in Annex 2. The results show that the
dilution capacity of Ha Long Bay is very good. It can be estimated that dilution capacity with the
proposed load is in Cua Luc Bay 8,570:1 and in Ha Long Bay 900,000:1. This is expected
because of its connection with the Gulf of Tonkin. On the other hand, the dilution capacity of
Cua Luc estuary (Bai Chay bay, Hon Gai Bay) is limited and is related in a large measure to the
area of the estuary. If the bay is reduced, as seem to be happen, in size by reclamation, the

                                                           16                                            Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

dilution capacity will also be reduced, but is still very good compared to the discharged effluent
volume.


  4.6    Population and Socio-economic Environment

4.6.1           Population
The total population of Quang Ninh province was 1,058,752 inhabitants and the population
density was 179 persons/km2 by the end of 2003. The current and forecast populations of some
wards and communes in the Project area are as follows:

Table 4.5 Current and Forecast Populations of Wards and Communes in Project Area
   No                         Area                                    Current                     Forecast
                                                            2002(*)         2003     2010(***)   2015(****)   2020(***)
    I                      Ha Long City
           Bai Chay
    1      Bai Chay ward                                       14,434                  28,800                   38,700
    2      Gieng Day ward                                        9,932                 23,000                   35,000
    3      Ha Khau ward                                          9,135                 17,100                   24,800
    4      Hung Thang commune                                    3,891                  9,000                   10,000
    5      Tuan Chau commune                                     1,549                  3,000                    4,200
    6      Dai Yen commune                                       7,968                 20,100                   57,000
    7      Viet Hung commune                                     9,139                 11,400                   16,000
           Sub-Total (Bai Chay)                                56,048                 112,400                  185,700
           Hon Gai
    8      Hong Gai ward                                         8,137                  9,000       12,836      10,500
    9      Yet Kieu ward                                         7,866                 12,500       10,516      18,200
   10      Tran Hung Dao ward                                    9,329                 11,000       12,710      15,500
   11      Bach Dang ward                                      11,250                  11,700       16,931      11,700
   12      Cao Xanh ward                                       14,471                  23,833       32,255      50,667
   13      Hong Hai ward                                       13,070                  23,800       23,237      26,300
   14      Ha Khanh ward                                         5,610                 11,833                   52,167
   15      Cao Thang ward                                      15,037                  26,333                   39,467
   16      Ha Lam ward                                           9,010                 11,000                   13,000
   17      Ha Tu ward                                          11,099                  14,000                   16,000
   18      Ha Trung ward                                         6,865                 10,300                   10,300
   19      Ha Phong ward                                         8,986                 16,000                   16,000
   20      Hong Ha ward                                        11,939                  17,500                   20,500
           Sub-Total (Hon Gai)                                132,669                 198,799      108,485     300,301
           Cam Pha Town(**)
   21      Cam Thinh ward                                        9,360       9,437
   22      Quang Hanh ward                                     13,415       13,630
   23      Cam Dong ward                                       10,529       10,576
   24      Cam Son ward                                        12,904       13,035
   25      Cam Phu ward                                        15,352       15,463
   26      Cua Ong ward                                        16,511       16,580
   27      Cam Tay ward                                         7, 983       7,967
   28      Cam Thuy ward                                         9,591       9,733
   29      Cam Thanh ward                                        8,483       8,572
   30      Cam Thach ward                                      10,737       10,853
   31      Cam Binh ward                                         7,654       7,696
   32      Cam Trung ward                                      12,115       12,299
           Sub-Total (Cam Pha)                                126,651      135,841
           Total population in project area                   315,368
           Total population in Hon Gai centre for              64,123                   91,833     108,485     132,867
           wastewater treatment (8 - 13)
Note :      (*): Data from Ha Long City Statistics Department
           (**): Data from Cam Pha Town Statistics Department
          (***): Data from Master Plan of Ha Long City to the year of 2020
         (****): Data from FS – Phase II


                                                              17                                                          Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

Population of Ha Long City was 189,356 inhabitants and the population density 908 persons/km2
by the end of 2003. Population of Cam Pha Town was 157,432 inhabitants and the population
density 469 persons/km2. Population of Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town is 32.8% of the total
population of Quang Ninh province, although their area is only 9.2% of the whole area of the
province. The current total population in project area is 315,368 inhabitants. The forecast total
population in Hon Gai centre for wastewater treatment system design is 108,485 inhabitants in
the year of 2015.


4.6.2           Health
According to the data from Quang Ninh Statistical Department in the year 2003 there are 19
hospitals, 9 local general surgeries, 1 sanatorium and 183 health stations for 184 wards and
communes over the province. All of these health services are state owned. Number of hospital
beds in the province is 3,309 in the year 2003, from which in Ha Long City there are 924
hospital beds (27.9% of the total hospital beds) and Cam Pha Town has 558 hospital beds
(16.9% of the total hospital beds).

Health indicators recorded at five wards in the project area for Phase I project performance
indicator indicate that no typhoid, cholera, dysentery or malaria has been recorded. Nevertheless,
the number of diarrhoea cases has been significant and usually only the serious cases are
recorded and treated at health centres.

Table 4.6 Number of Diarrhoea Cases 2001 - 2003
                                                                          Number of diarrhoea cases
  No.                    Areas surveyed
                                                                   2001             2002            2003
 1         Bach Dang ward (Ha Long City)                            50                66             53
 2         Bai Chay ward (Ha Long City)                             30                42             49
 3         Ha Khanh ward (Ha Long City)                             12                20             19
 4         Cam Trung ward (Cam Pha Town)                            40                65             49
 5         Cam Binh ward (Cam Pha Town)                             27                46             27
                           Total                                   159               239            197
Source : Phase I PMU


4.6.3           Economic Structure
Economic structure of Quang Ninh province from 2000 to 2003 is presented on the table below.
The economic structure has changed into positive direction; especially services like tourism and
transportation have been developed.
Table 4.7 Economic Structure of Quang Ninh Province
     No.                      Items                                       Economic structure (%)
                                                            2000            2001             2002    2003
      I   Agriculture, forestry, aquaculture                 9.5             9.2              8.6     8.8
           Agriculture                                      8.0             7.7              7.2     7.4
           Forestry                                         1.0             1.0              0.9     0.9
           Aquaculture                                      0.5             0.5              0.5     0.6
    II    Industry, capital construction                    52.4            52.3             52.1    47.8
           Industry                                        50.3            50.0             49.8    45.7
           Capital construction                             2.2             2.3              2.3     2.1
   III    Services                                          38.0            38.0             39.2    43.4
           Trade                                            5.9             5.3              5.0     5.2
           Hotel                                            2.7             3.2              3.1     3.3
           Transportation, post                             4.6             5,4              5,3     5,6
           Imported tax                                    22.7            17.0             17.5    17.7
          Total (I + II + III)                               100             100              100    100
Source: Quang Ninh Statistics Department, 2004

                                                           18                                               Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

Gross Domestic Product (GDP), economic growth, and GDP per capita of Quang Ninh province
from 2000 to 2003 are presented in table below. The economic growth of Quang Ninh province
from the year 2000 to 2003 has been over 16% per year. GDP per capita has been increasing
regularly and it reached value of 8,197,000 VND/capita in the year of 2003.

Table 4.8 Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Economic Growth and GDP per Capita of Quang Ninh
Province
                  Economic indicators                                          Value
                                                         2000             2001        2002        2003
     1    Gross Domestic Product (GDP)                5,423,751        6,363,501   7,475,557   8,678,975
          (Million VND)
     2    Economic growth (%)                             16.4           17.3         17.5       16.1
     3    GDP per capita (1000 VND)                      5,323          6,165        7,153      8,197
     4    Growth of GDP per capita (%)                     -             15.8         16.0       14.6
Source : Quang Ninh Statistics Department, 2004


4.6.4          Tourism
Quang Ninh province has special tourism resources with attractive resorts and especially Ha
Long Bay which has been recognized as the World Natural Heritage area by UNESCO. In the
province there are also hundreds of historical places and buildings. There are a lot of
opportunities to discover the sea, land and islands.

The tourism turnover in the year 2003 was 879 billion VND and 2,590,064 tourists visited the
area. The number of tourists increased 10.2% from the year 2002. The number of foreign tourists
was 1,107,813 which increased 21.8% in comparison with the year 2002.

There were 51,462 people working in trade, tourism, hotel and restaurant in the province in the
year 2003, of which in Ha Long City there were 21,217 workers (41.2% of total labour of the
province) and in Cam Pha Town 6,717 workers (13.0% of total labours of province).


5               DRAINAGE AND SANITATION STATUS

    5.1   Drainage Areas and Capability of Drainage and Sewerage System in Hon Gai, Bai
          Chay and Cam Pha
Ha Long URENCO and Cam Pha URENCO are responsible for operation and maintenance of
drainage system in Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town. The drainage system is about 50 years old
and suffering from poor maintenance, including significant blockage due to the solid waste,
sewage and coal fines from the nearby coal mines. Many parts are broken or plated and have not
been prepared.

In general in the project area the channels are short and discharge directly to the sea. The
channels are usually not lined except in the town centres. The channels are frequently partially
blocked by household garbage. The number of drainage is limited and they concentrate on
centres and along coastline areas, and therefore there is no drainage system in valleys or
residential areas far from the centres.

In recent years the high degree of urbanisation has changed the characteristics of the surface and
reduced the penetration capacity of storm water into the ground, thus increasing the water
volume to be discharged through drainage system and the existing drainage system is becoming
even more overloaded.
                                                           19                                              Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

The sewerage system is combined. Wastewater from household kitchens, baths and sinks are
typically disposed directly to the drainage channels. However, in the new development areas
these grey waters are discharged to the septic tanks. Many areas have not been connected to the
drainage system and wastewater will soak to the ground or is discharged to the ponds and
reservoirs.

Industrial wastewater is usually discharged untreated directly to the sea through private drainage
channels although the national legislation requires on-site treatment. Some factories have built
own wastewater treatment plants, however, the number of treatment plants is small and
efficiency low.

In Vuon Dao in Bai Chay there is a small 2,500 m3/d wastewater treatment plant, in which part
of the wastewater from tourist area is treated.

The wastewater treatment plant including to the Phase I of the Project is under construction in
Cai Dam area in Bai Chay.


  5.2    Flooding
Flooding is still common in some areas in Ha Long and Cam Pha, but the situation will improve
after finalisation of Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town Sanitation and Drainage Project. The main
causes for flooding are insufficient channel capacity combined with channel blockages caused by
uncontrolled dumping of solid waste and especially in Cam Pha coal mining waste. Some
construction activities have also blocked channels recently.

In Bai Chay there are no significant flooding problems in inhabited areas, except when the
channels are blocked by solid waste and soil deposits from the hillsides. The coastline is
relatively narrow with a high mountainous hinterland, hence storm water is transported to the
bay via the existing drainage and natural channels. During high intensity rainfall, the storm water
flows over the roads near the Halong Hotel where drainage is either insufficient or blocked.

In the populated areas of Hon Gai there is regular flooding especially in the market area during
heavy rainfall. The flooding is due mainly to blocked drainage channels. The most disruptive
flooding occurs on the Road 18 along the Southern coastline at the Kenh Niem area near the
Water Supply Company office. This area is not fully channelled. The Ministry of Transportation
and Communication operates and maintains the drainage channels but not on a regular basis. The
main reason for the flooding is inadequate design of the drainage channels combined with the
blockage of the channels and lack of access for the rainwater to reach the channels. During high
tide the seawater flows to the channels and when the tide coincides with heavy rain there is not
enough slope to drain the area.

The present Yiet Kieu Lake was earlier a bay but construction of a causeway has cut the access
to the sea. A tidal gate has been installed to the causeway and this appears to keep out the tide
from the low-lying area, but during rains there are regularly floods. For the time being through
this area is discharged a large amount of sewage. The main sewage flow is separated from the
central ponds, which are used for aquaculture, but during and after heavy rains the whole area is
flooding causing extremely unhygienic conditions.

The Hon Gai town centre is a low lying flat area, which is drained through four main channels
towards the harbour. During heavy rains certain areas are subject to flooding, particularly the Ha
Long market area beside Le Thanh Tong Road. Because the channels are used also for sewage
this causes serious health risk.
                                                           20                                    Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

In the whole project area the most serious flooding occurs in Cam Pha especially during high
tide. The main drainage channels are encroached upon by unplanned house and infrastructure
construction. The channels are at least partially blocked and do not have enough capacity to
transport all storm water. To the East of Cam Pha at Can Thinh, Cam Phu and Cam Son the
situation is worsened due to the tailings from the mining activities in the hills behind the town.

Phase I has partly solved the flooding problems and rehabilitation of drains in Phase II in the rest
serious flooding area will still improve the situation.


  5.3    Wastewater Quality in Hon Gai, Bai Chay and Cam Pha
In the construction stage of the Phase I the PMU has been cooperating with Preventive Health
Centre of Quang Ninh Province to monitor the wastewater quality of four sewers flowing to the
sea (sewers No. 13 and 21 in Bai Chay, sewer No. 11 in Hon Gai and sewer No. 5 in Cam Pha).
Samples have been taken twice per year during high tide. The monitoring results indicate that the
pollutant concentrations do not vary systematically; however, it seems that the concentrations are
higher in dry season in December than during in the beginning of rainy season in June. Results
of the project performance indicators are presented in Annex 3.

The sewers are combined sewers and water is collected from many different sources. Therefore
new domestic wastewater standard TCVN 6772:2000 cannot be used because that standard
classifies very detailed the effluent according to the size of the hotel, restaurant and other
commercial enterprise. The limits of TCVN 6772:2000 can be used only for the assessment of
wastewater pollution of each separate enterprise. Standards TCVN 6986:2001 and 6987:2001
can be used to assess point-source industrial effluent discharge when the effluent flow is known.
Standard TCVN 7222:2002 is meant for effluent after wastewater treatment plant. None of these
new standards is applicable for the assessment of this kind of combined untreated wastewater
and therefore limits of standard TCVN 5945:1995 Class B (water used for swimming) Industrial
wastewater – Discharge standards are still used as reference.

In Hon Gai BOD values in wastewater varied a lot, some results being well under the limit of
standard TCVN 5945:1995 (class B) and some results many times over the limit. Total
suspended solids were usually higher than the limit. The biggest problem is coliform bacteria,
which very high numbers indicate strong and direct wastewater pollution.

Table 5.1 Water Quality of Sewer No. 11 (Hon Gai)
Parameters                                 2001                      2002                      2003           TCVN
                                Jun           Dec         Jun           Dec         Jun           Dec       5945:1995 B
BOD5 (mgO2/l)                       92            300         32             40         80           8          50
TSS (mg/l)                          24            214        150            195        241          150         100
Coliforms (MPN/100ml)            2.4x104        2.4x108    2.4x106        2.4x106    2.4x106      2.4x106     10,000
Source: Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town Sanitation and Drainage Project - Phase I

Also in Bai Chay BOD and TSS values varied randomly and the two sewers have a little bit
different level of concentrations, some results being well under the limit of standard TCVN
5945:1995 (class B) and some results were many times over the limit. The biggest problem is
coliform bacteria, which very high numbers indicate strong and direct wastewater pollution.




                                                              21                                                          Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

Table 5.2 Water Quality of Sewer No. 13 (Bai Chay)
Parameters                          2001                    2002              2003          TCVN
                              Jun      Dec            Jun      Dec      Jun      Dec      5945:1995 B
BOD5 (mgO2/l)                    42      910             24       40      100       32         50
TSS (mg/l)                      115      330            226      158      223      121        100
Coliforms (MPN/100ml)         4.3x103 2.4x108         2.4x106 2.4x106   2.4x106 1.1x106     10,000
Source: Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town Sanitation and Drainage Project - Phase I

Table 5.3 Water Quality of Sewer No. 21 (Bai Chay)
Parameters                          2001                    2002              2003          TCVN
                              Jun      Dec            Jun      Dec      Jun      Dec      5945:1995 B
BOD5 (mgO2/l)                    67       86             16       56       60       16         50
TSS (mg/l)                      9.5      117            549      227       60      117        100
Coliforms (MPN/100ml)         2.4x104 4.3x104         2.4x106 1.1x106   2.4x106 2.4x106     10,000
Source: Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town Sanitation and Drainage Project - Phase I

In Cam Pha the BOD were very low in June and even in December only 1.3 – 1.6 times higher
than the limit of standard TCVN 5945:1995 (class B). Total suspended solids were only in 2003
higher than the limit. There is also in Cam Pha strong and direct wastewater pollution because
the numbers of coliform bacteria were very high.

Table 5.4 Water Quality of Sewer No. 5 (Cam Pha)
Parameters                          2001                    2002              2003          TCVN
                              Jun      Dec            Jun      Dec      Jun      Dec      5945:1995 B
BOD5 (mgO2/l)                    12      71             1.6      80       4.0       64         50
TSS (mg/l)                       34      64              23      39       185      147        100
Coliforms (MPN/100ml)         2.4x104 1.1x108         9.3x106 2.4x106   2.4x106 2.4x106     10,000
Source: Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town Sanitation and Drainage Project - Phase I


6               ALTERNATIVES OF THE PROJECT

    6.1   Without the Project Situation
The Phase II is the extension and finalisation of the ongoing Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town
Drainage and Sanitation Project Phase I and it is necessary to fulfil the scope of the project,
which was proposed in the Phase I feasibility study in 1998. Without the Phase II there would be
no wastewater collection and treatment in Hon Gai and intended improvements of living and
hygienic conditions would not be reached. Without the project improvement of drainage system
would not be completed in the extension to be agreed and flooding problems would be solved
only partly and in Bai Chay, Hon Gai and Cam Pha.


    6.2   Selection of the Location of Wastewater Treatment Plant in Hon Gai
During the preparation of Phase I EIA for proposed Drainage and Sewerage System (1998)
totally 14 locations for wastewater treatment plant were reviewed.

During Phase II site location PA 2A was chosen from three options at a meeting convened at Ha
Long City PC on 10th April 2003. This site is on the edge of the hill of Deo Sen cemetery, it


                                                           22                                       Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

being chosen principally because the projected number of houses (30) requiring relocation was
smaller than for the other two site options considered.

In mid-April 2004 open coal mining quarrying was noted by the Consultant to be encroaching on
the south-western side of the designated WWTP site. This was brought to the attention of the
PMU who immediately arranged for the mining company to cease excavating in the direction of
the WWTP site. The PMU also arranged a site meeting with the mining company (29th April
2004) at which they were requested to demarcate their official mining area.

The PMU then instructed the Consultant to propose two new alternative sites. The first
(Alternative A presented in Drawing 7) was similar in orientation to the existing, only located
about 100m further in a north-easterly direction along the base of Deo Sen hill; the second
(Alternative B) was the same site orientated through 90 degrees.

The most important criteria in determining the best site was agreed to be the number of houses
requiring resettlement. This in turn necessitated the determination of the likely buffer zone
around the site perimeter, based on Government regulations. The most appropriate standard is
TCVN 7222:2002, and this dictates a 300m buffer zone in the case of open sludge treatment and
a 210m buffer zone (a 30% reduction) in the case of closed sludge treatment. It also allows for a
further 30% reduction (to 147m) in the event tree landscaping is provided around the WWTP site
perimeter.

From recently acquired land use plans it was determined that for Alternative A the respective
number of PAF’s for the closed sludge option with no tree landscaping would be about 105,
whilst for Alternative B the corresponding PAF numbers would be about 125. The final number
of houses to be resettled will be given in RAP. The reason for the greater number of PAF’s than
that determined in 2003 is that earlier evaluations did not take account of the buffer zone. When
taking account of seasonal wind directions it was found that fewer extra PAF’s could be
expected under Alternative A than under Alternative B. The reason for this was the greater wind
protection offered to Alternative A from the Deo Sen hill.

Accordingly, it was recommended to PMU that the Alternative A site be recommended for
adoption to Ha Long PC. This duly transpired in early June 2004.

The original overall site dimensions have been retained being 200 m by 353 m, equating to some
7 ha of land. The design presented is estimated to cover an area of less than 3 ha, covering
preliminary treatment, sequencing batch reactors, gravity thickeners and maturation ponds. A
doubling of capacity to 14,000m3/day in the future is therefore viable.

On the proposed wastewater treatment plant construction site there are no cultural properties,
historical places or buildings or other structures, which should be protected.


  6.3    Selection of Alternatives of Wastewater Treatment in Hon Gai

6.3.1          Wastewater Flow and Load Projections of Phase II
For the needs of wastewater treatment plant design of Phase II have been done wastewater flow
and load projections. Table 6.1 summarises the flow and BOD load projections made in the
Kampsax 1998 Phase I Report and the VIWASE 2003 Phase II Report. The third column gives
proposed figures, based on adjusted population figures and BVI’s experience in Asia. A mass


                                                           23                                  Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

balance diagram based on the proposed flows and loads given in Table 6.1 is presented in Annex
4 and more detailed in Final Inception Report.

Table 6.1 Summary Review of Flows and Loads in 2015 (Final Inception Report 2004)
                                                 2015 Projection Data                     Proposal for Phase II
                                        Units    FS Report 1998        FS Report 2003     Inception Report 2004
Hon Gai population                                    90,571               108,485               108,067
Per capita flow                         l/h/d           130                  130                   130
Infiltration                                           50%                  10%                   50%
Wastewater connected                                   80%                  75%                   75%
First phase                                            50%                  60%                   45%
WWTP inflow                             m3/d           7065                 6981                  7,113

Per capita raw BOD                      g/h/d            60                   50                    50
Septic tank coverage                                   85%                  70%                   70%
Septic/system BOD reduction                            40%                  35%                   35%
BOD from connected septic tanks         kg/d           1,109                1,111                  830
BOD from direct discharge               kg/d            326                  732                   547
BOD load                                kg/d           1,435                1,843                 1,377
BOD concentration                       mg/l            203                  264                   194
In the Final Inception Report it is proposed to design the treatment facility to meet a range of
flows and loads. Due regard will be given to the cost and operational implications of such
flexibility. The 2003 report design parameters have been adopted, but the impact of higher or
lower loads on the design considered. This range has been defined as:
    Upper end: assumes no effective pre-treatment in septic tanks
    Lower end: assumes greater infiltration than predicted by past reports, reflecting
     experience elsewhere in the Asia region.
This is illustrated in Table 6.2 below. Note that the pollutant concentrations given in milligrams
per litre relate to dry weather flow conditions.

Table 6.2 Design Inflow Conditions
 Parameter                               2003 Report Design Input                   Suggested Design Range
 BOD                                            1842 kg/d                               600 – 2440 kg/d
                                                (260 mg/l)                              (80 – 350 mg/l)
 Suspended solids                               1330 kg/d                               600 – 2440 kg/d
                                                (190 mg/l)                              (80 – 350 mg/l)
 COD                                            3684 kg/d                              1200 – 4880 kg/d
                                                                                       (160 – 700 mg/l)
 Total nitrogen                                    370 kg/d                             120 – 488 kg/d
                                                                                         (16 – 70 mg/l)
 Total phosphorus                                   48 kg/d                               12 – 49 kg/d
                                                                                         (1.6 – 7 mg/l)
 Alkalinity (as CaCO3)                                  -                                  200 mg/l
The estimated input BOD load at the WWTP is 1,377 kg/d and input suspended solids load is
984 kg/day. With an effluent standard of 30 mg/l for both BOD and SS, maximum theoretical
pollution loads at 7,133 m3/day will be 213 kg/d both BOD and SS. This means a 84 % removal
for BOD and a 78 % removal for SS. In practice, however, the removal efficiencies will be much
higher. This is because the determining criteria for maturation pond sizing is faecal coliform
level 3,000 MPN/100 ml being specified as a maximum in the effluent. The resulting large ponds


                                                            24                                                    Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

size is such as to virtually guarantee a minimum 90 % BOD reduction though the works, i.e. a
BOD of 20 mg/l.

Nitrogen and phosphorous removal has been designed for an anoxic zone to provide
denitrification to get the total N level down to 10 mg/l or less, as stipulated in the effluent
standards below.


6.3.2          Effluent Discharge Standards
In discussion with PMU it has been agreed to combine the TCVN 7222:2002 and TCVN
6987:2001 standards to produce an appropriate list of design parameters for Hon Gai WWTP.
TCVN 6987:2001 is Industrial Wastewater Quality Standard for Discharging into Coastal Water
Body used for Sport and Recreation and TCVN 7222:2002 General Environmental Requirements
for Central Domestic (Municipal) Wastewater Treatment Plants. This standard defines certain
relevant parameters (but not all of them, for example coliform levels are not stipulated) and has
not as yet been developed to allow application with varying receiving waters. It copes with this
by quoting a range of permissible standards for five of the seven parameters listed. The standard
also attempts to be flexible by allowing the application of industrial effluent standards - such as
TCVN 6987:2001.

Table 6.3 Effluent Standards for use in the Design of Hon Gai WWTP
 Parameter                                        Phase I Design        Proposed for Phase II
 pH                                                  6.5 - 8.5                  6-9
 COD, mg/l                                         Not specified                 50
 BOD, mg/l                                              20                       30
 TSS, mg/l                                              25                       30
 Total N mg/l                                      Not specified                 10
 Amm. N mg/l                                            0.1                 Not specified
 Total P, mg/l                                     Not specified                  4
 Fats, oils & greases, mg/l                              2                        5
 Coliform, MPN/100ml                                  1,000                    3,000
 Dissolved oxygen, mg/l                                 >4                  Not specified
The criteria laid down by PMU was that no standard must be less stringent than the equivalent
TCVN 7222:2002 standard. Examples are suspended solids (SS) and COD, where TCVN
6987:2001 quotes, respectively, a less stringent standard and none at all. PMU have been
advised that the COD value of 50mg/l to be applied is low and that a figure in excess of 100mg/l
would be more appropriate. The 50mg/l limit should, however, be achievable for weak
wastewaters with no industrial component.

The implication of the low nitrogen and phosphorous values is that denitrification must be
included in the design. The preferred method is the inclusion of an anoxic zone in the SBR tank
(thus making the tank larger) rather than the alternative of lime addition.


6.3.3           Choice of Treatment Technology
Much has been done previously by other in evaluating the most appropriate treatment
technology. In practice, for the specific circumstances of the project, there is no one option that
precludes all others and that a number of technologies could be used successfully.

Factors for process selection typically cover: type of waste, including industrial component; land
area available at appropriate site, and relative investment and operating costs. However, it is
                                                           25                                    Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

important that all viable options must: meet be capable of meeting the required effluent
discharge consent; be sustainable based on adequate available local resources including funding
and revenue; provide for future changes in flows and loads and provide sufficient operational
flexibility, and not utilise new untested or novel technologies be harnessed, presenting
unacceptable risk to the municipality.

It is envisaged that to meet the discharge standards, the treatment works must comprise:
preliminary treatment (gross solids, screenings and grit removal); biological treatment;
disinfection and effluent polishing, and biological sludge treatment and secure disposal. An
evaluation of the latter three components is presented in the Final Inception Report. Table 6.4
summarises the comparative analysis of treatment technology options.

Table 6.4 Comparison of Treatment Technology Options
Criteria                                      Chemical                 Lagoon / Pond   Oxidation        SBR
                                              Enhanced Primary         System          Ditch            (Seqvencing
                                              Treatment                                                 Batch Reactor)
Meets consent                                 Not Amm-N                Yes             Yes              Yes
Meets relaxed (no Amm.N) consent              Yes                      Yes             Yes              Yes
BOD reduction                                 30 – 70 %                70 – 90 %       80 - 90 %        80 – 90 %
SS reduction                                  60 – 90 %                60 – 80 %       70 – 80 %        70 – 80 %
Flexibility to future changes in consent      Limited                  Limited         Good             Good
Flexibility to increase in pollutant loads    OK                       Poor – extra    Limited for SS   Limited for SS
                                                                       land            increase         increase
Ability to treat low strength wastes          Good                     Good            Not so good      Good
(e.g. 80 – 120 mg/l BOD)
Robustness to shock loads                     Poor                     Poor            Good             Good
Simplicity of operation                       Good                     Simple          More complex     More complex

Sludge                                        High yield               Difficult to    Lower yield,     Lower yield,
                                              chemical sludge          desludge        easy             easy
                                                                                       desludging       desludging
Odour                                         Low                      Potentially     Low              Low
                                                                       high
Capital cost (1 = low; 5 = high)              2                        1 (excluding    5                4
                                                                       land)
Operating cost (1 = low; 5 = high)            5                        1               4                3
OVERALL ASSESSMENT                            Not acceptable           Good            Good             Best
Biological Treatment

Viable options previously considered included the following biological treatment systems:
lagoon systems; oxidation ditches, and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) activated sludge. Other
options, such as chemically-enhanced settlement, may not be considered viable on the basis of
inability to provide ammonia-nitrogen removal and a heavy dependence on expensive chemicals.

The Phase 1 Bai Chay wastewater system is in the process of implementing SBR technology.
This configuration was chosen on the basis of: system robustness and flexibility; low land
requirement; simple construction; high treatment efficiency: reduced odours, and facility for
removal of treated sludge.

There are several benefits to adopting the same approach as Bai Chay, they are: flexibility to
discharge limit upgrading (e.g. to include enhanced nutrient removal); common operating and
maintenance scheduling; common staff training and development, and maintenance and spares
economies through common ordering and preventative maintenance programmes.


                                                           26                                                    Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

In the case of Hon Gai, land availability is not such a problem and all listed viable technologies
could be accommodated. Nevertheless, pond systems may require further land for future
expansion of capacity.

Comparative to conventional activated sludge or oxidation ditch plant, SBR systems have: lower
structural and equipment costs; lower operation and maintenance costs, and greater flexibility in
managing weaker wastewater loads. Nevertheless, operator knowledge is a critical factor in their
performance and this may be an area of concern.

Whilst the 2003 Phase II FS outlines SBR design without accounting for nitrification capacity,
the overall impact on the adequacy of the allocated land is expected to be negligible, given the
intensive nature of this technology configuration.

SBR is recommend is recommended to be selected for the wastewater treatment method. Other
options, such as chemically-enhanced settlement, may not be considered viable on the basis of
inability to provide ammonia-nitrogen removal and a heavy dependence on expensive chemicals.
The Phase 1 Bai Chay wastewater system is in the process of implementing SBR technology and
for the further operation and maintenance practices it would be good that the two wastewater
treatment plant operated by Ha Long URENCO would have the same treatment technology.

In environmental point of view SBR gives some advantages i.e. the flexibility and ability to treat
low concentration wastewater and it is not so sensitive to shock loads, which are common to the
combined sewer network and high rainfall.

Disinfection and Effluent Polishing

Given the sensitivity of the receiving water, with respect to nearby bathing and tourist amenities,
it is recommended that some form of tertiary treatment is provided in addition to nitrification.
Tertiary treatment facilitates opportunities for higher levels of disinfection, fine particulate
material, phosphorus removal, and denitrification (reduction of nitrate-nitrogen to gaseous
nitrogen). Of these, disinfection is an essential requirement. Table 6.5 summarises the
advantages and disadvantages of a number of technologies against each of these determinands.

Table 6.5 Disinfection and Tertiary Treatment Option Evaluation
 Determinand         Chloride dosing      Ultra-violet      Sand filtration   Maturation         Reed beds
                                          radiation                           ponds
 Disinfection        Effective –          Effective – no    NO                Effective          NO - Habitat for
                     problem of           residuals, but                      multiple shallow   fauna tend to
                     residual Cl in       limited effect                      ponds – sun’s      increase FC count
                     environment          on solids                           UV
 Particulate         NO                   NO                YES – reuse       Yes                Yes
 polishing                                                  opportunity for
                                                            irrigation
 Phosphorus          NO                   NO                NO                Yes                Yes – adsorbed by
 reduction                                                                                       reeds & harvested
 Denitrification     Yes – but residual   NO                NO                Limited by         Yes – reed
                     problem                                                  carbon source      nitrogen fixation
 OVERALL             Negative             High O&M          Inadequate        Multiple benefit   Multiple benefit –
 ASSESSMENT          environmental        cost –            disinfection                         but not effective
                     impact               disinfection                                           disinfection
                                          only

From Table 6.5 it can be concluded that: sand filtration and reed beds should be rejected since
they do not form secure disinfection. Chlorinated disinfection presents a negative environmental
impact with the risk of organo-chlorine formation. Ultra-violet disinfection is not generally

                                                           27                                                    Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

effective on virus-bearing particulates, such as with the likes of cryptosporidium and it is also an
expensive option. Subject to land availability, multiple shallow maturation ponds provide a
combination of secure simple to operate disinfection along with a range of other effluent
polishing benefits.

Biological Sludge Treatment and Secure Disposal

Sludge treatment options include:
      Gravity thickening - digestion - dewatering
      Gravity thickening - lime/alum conditioning - dewatering
      Gravity thickening - open drying beds
      Gravity thickening - tankering to a landfill site
Gravity thickened sludge could be transported to the Deo Sen Landfill to the new Deo Sen
sludge treatment facility which is located very close to the Hon Gai WWTP site (less than 1km)
and is designed to provide drying bed treatment to 56m3/day of septage on a year round basis.
Because it must function through the wet season the real dry-weather design capacity is
112m3/day. The provision of canopies over all or part of the drying beds (as has been done at
Bai Chay WWTP) would increase capacity by 100%. It is estimated that thickened sludge
production at the Hon Gai WWTP when operating at full Stage I capacity (7,000m3/day) will be
in the order of 18m3/day. Hence it can be judged that there is more than sufficient design
capacity to handle WWTP sludges, as well as normal septage loads.

The predicted slow sludge build-up at the Hon Gai WWTP means that any mechanical
dewatering facility installed is likely to be under-used for some time. It is therefore sensible to
start operations by providing tankers to transport thickened sludge to the Deo Sen landfill. One
tanker (9 m3 capacity) will easily suffice initially. Later, as sludge volumes build up at the
WWTP, possibly even after the later extension of the works to accept flows in excess of 7,000
m3/day, serious consideration can be given to installing a sludge plate type facility.


6.4      Selection of the Alternatives of Sewerage and Drainage Improvements in Hon Gai,
         Bai Chay and Cam Pha
In Phase II will be implemented the rest of the sewerage and drainage works which were agreed
in Phase I, but could not implemented for different reason e.g. due the construction of new Hau
Can road in Bai Chay tourist area.

In hydraulic design of sewers has been used Manning’s Formula, which is accepted
internationally for design of open channels, and used also in Vietnam for pipe design. Manning’s
Formula applied in sewer design gives comparable results and its use is therefore recommended
here.

Although it is standard Vietnamese practice to use a minimum size of 300mm sewer in roads, the
adoption of a minimum size of 200mm is normal international practice. A smaller pipe is less
expensive and will give higher sewage velocities. However, the 300mm diameter pipe is less
likely to block, which is the concern of the Vietnamese authorities. This size will therefore be
adopted in the design. Pipe gradients should be such as to give a minimum daily peak flow
velocity of 0.75m/s.

In the design of storm water drainage systems the internationally used Rational Method is
proposed by the Phase II FS. This is in accordance with standard Vietnamese practice. The

                                                           28                                     Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

formula is quoted as Q = CqF (L/s), whereas it is usually expressed as Q = CiA, where C is a
coefficient, I is rainfall intensity and A area of sub-catchment in hectares. However, the end
result is the same. The Mannings formula is proposed for the hydraulic design of drainage
channels.


7               IDENTIFICATION OF THE IMPACTS

    7.1   General Impacts on Socio-Economy
All kind of construction works as well as activities related to these, will lead to certain cause
(activity) and impacts on the environment. In this EIA-study will be analysed and specified both
the negative and positive environmental impacts on the physical, biological and human
environment caused by the construction of wastewater treatment plant in Hon Gai and
rehabilitation and construction of sewerage and drainage system in Hon Gai, Bai Chay and Cam
Pha.

The environmental impact assessment adopts a concise format, where the linkages between
environmental issues (or potential impacts), management measures (or mitigation), net effects
(or residual impacts) and management information (or monitoring) are made explicitly. A
comprehensive summary of these factors and their linkages is presented as tables in Annex 5.
These tables provide the basis to develop and implement a detailed Environmental Management
Plan (EMP) dealing with all phases of the project.

The main impacts in the proposed project area will mainly affect the human and aquatic
environment, in lesser amount the atmospheric and terrestrial environment. The atmospheric and
terrestrial impacts are mainly temporary during construction and rehabilitation and therefore of
short duration. Possible negative impacts on air quality from operation of wastewater treatment
plant can be minimised through mitigation measures. The overall impacts of the project are
positive and are very important step in improving sanitation situation in Ha Long City and Cam
Pha Town.

The improvement of urban sanitation, which is currently badly hampered by frequent flooding,
towards a clean and healthy environment for the population of Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town
as well as the numerous domestic and international tourist visiting the area is essential. The
overall impact of the on going project and the proposed additional works is positive and it is an
important step in improvement of sanitation in Ha Long City and Cam Pha Town. The Phase II
Project includes additional works to the first sanitation project aiming at the rehabilitation and
improvement of the existing sewerage and drainage system of the city.

Improvement of the wastewater collection and treatment in Hon Gai and prevention of flooding
in low-lying areas in Hon Gai and Cam Pha will improve considerably the living and
environmental conditions in the project area. However, untreated wastewater will partly still
flow in the open channels, which cross the residential areas. The negative impacts of untreated
wastewater are mainly concentrated in the city area. The discharge of untreated wastewater to the
sea will continue the contamination of the sea water. However, the concentrations of
contaminants will be diluted by the large amount of seawater.

The water use will increase in the city (new water connections, more household facilities,
conversion from bucket latrines to flush toilets, etc.), which will increase wastewater amounts.
This shall be taken into account in the designs and in dimensioning the improvements in flood


                                                           29                                   Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

prevention. The installation and regular desludging of septic tanks connected to sewers will
improve the wastewater quality.

On any of the proposed construction sites there are no cultural properties, historical places or
buildings or other structures, which should be protected.

The cause and effect relationship of different activities are discussed below in detail according to
the project components.


  7.2    Impacts during Design and Construction

7.2.1          Impacts of Wastewater Treatment Plant in Hon Gai
The wastewater treatment plant will be constructed in Bai Muoi on the vicinity of Deo Sen
landfill, Deo Sen cemetary and mining quarry, where the original landscape has been already
changed. On the proposed construction site there are fish ponds which need dewatering and land
reclamation before construction. Separate socio-economic and detailed measurement survey will
be done for the preparation of Resettlement Action Plan.

During the dewatering and filling there will be noise from pumps, and an increase in channel
water turbidity due to pumping, this can be minimised with avoiding mixing of sediment and
using stabilisation pond. The pond can be dewatered through existing channel to Cua Luc
Estuary on the other side of the road.

During the construction of the wastewater treatment plant the traffic will increase due to the
transportation of excavated material and construction equipment and materials. The excavated
material is normal soil and there is no need for treatment. Working should be avoided during
night from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. The maximum permitted noise level in public and residential areas
is given in Vietnamese standard TCVN 5949:1998.

Construction of some structures might need piling, which will temporarily cause an increase of
noise in the vicinity of the construction sites.


7.2.2          Impacts of Combined Sewers, Interceptor Sewers and Wastewater Pumping
               Stations in Hon Gai, Bai Chay and Cam Pha
Sewers will be constructed in street areas and there is no need for site-clearance and
resettlement. However, some temporary disturbance might be caused to businesses along the
streets during the excavation of sewer trenches.

Pumping stations are constructed next to the streets and in some places some site clearance might
be needed, if there is not enough vacant land available.

There will be temporary nuisance to traffic and traffic congestion is possible due to the
construction. On highway 18 and Hau Can Road in Bai Chay there might be some disturbance
for tourist transportation.

The traffic will increase due to the transportation of equipment, pipes and excavated material.
Dust and noise will increase temporarily in the vicinity of construction sites. Open trenches
might be dangerous if not marked and identified carefully.


                                                           30                                     Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

The excavated material is normal soil and there is no need for treatment of this material.


7.2.3          Impacts on Rehabilitation of Canals and Drains in Hon Gai, Bai Chay and
               Cam Pha and Tidal Gates in Hon Gai
Traffic will increase due to the transportation of equipment and excavated material. There might
be temporary traffic congestion during the works.

Most of the rehabilitation will occur on the ends of channels, but some parts of the channels or
whole channels are located along narrow alleys where it is difficult to use any machines, and
only manual methods can be used. Some channels or part of channels to be rehabilitated are
located under houses or other structures, and this will cause some difficulties both for
rehabilitation and for people living next to the channels. Site clearance might be needed in some
areas. A detailed survey will be done for the Resettlement Action Plan.

Noise will increase temporarily in the vicinity of the channels to be rehabilitated. Working
should be avoided from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. The maximum permitted noise level is given in
Vietnamese standard TCVN 5949:1998. During the removal of sludge, which includes a lot of
solid waste, there might be an increase in foul odours.

Some of the channels are located in the tourist area in Bai Chay, and rehabilitation work might
cause the some disturbance to tourists, therefore it is recommended to do the rehabilitation and
construction work outside the tourist season. However, from the technical point of view
construction work should be done mainly during the dry season when the amount of storm water
and surface runoff is the smallest in the channels.

Rehabilitation and construction of tidal gates have long-term positive impacts by increasing the
possibility to control the flooding. There is no need of resettlement to rehabilitate and construct
tidal gates.

The material to be removed from channels to be rehabilitated in Hon Gai is mostly solid waste,
which has to be transported to the landfills. In Cam Pha coal waste causes a special problem for
the drains. The preliminary rough estimation of the total volume of sludge and excavated earth is
about 10,700 m3, of which about 6,300 m3 should be transported to the landfill and about 4,400
m3 could be used for backfilling (Table 1.2). This material should be transported to a landfill or
other designated area agreed with the URENCO and the Constructor. If the dredged material is
mostly coal waste it can be used as cover material.

The excavated material is normal soil and there is no need for treatment of this excavated
material.


  7.3    Impacts during Operation

7.3.1          Wastewater Treatment Plant
The capacity of the wastewater treatment plant in Hon Gai is about 7,000 m3/d and the capacity
can be increased later to 14,000 m3/d. However, due to the limited sewer network in the
beginning the actual capacity would be much lower. About the half of the population in Hon Gai
will include to the area of wastewater treatment and the wastewater from the rest of the area is
still discharged untreated to the sea through drains and channels. The wastewater treatment plant
is necessary first step to treat the wastewaters in the densely populated Hon Gai area.
                                                           31                                    Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

In general the positive impact of the wastewater treatment is the decrease of pollution load to the
environment and especially to the sea. Wastewater treatment plant will guarantee from its part
that the pollution load to the sea will not at least increase due to the possible increased
wastewater quantity.

Wastewater treatment will have positive impact on the hygienic situation, decrease the risk of
water related diseases, and thus improve the living conditions of the people. The decreased
pollution load to the sea will improve the living conditions for aquatic life and therefore improve
the fishing catches.

The following calculations are based on the latest pollution loads used in the wastewater
treatment plant design. The treated wastewater will be discharged into Cua Luc Bay (named also
Bai Chay Bay or Hon Gai Bay). The concentrations of some typical pollutants according to the
Table 6.3 Effluent Discharge for use in the Design of Hon Gai WWTP used for calculations are
as follows: BOD 30 mg/l; TSS 30 mg/l and coliform bacteria 3,000 MPN/100ml. For calculation
the dilution capacity of Ha Long Bay area were used four different treated wastewater flows
namely 3,000 m3/day; 5,000 m3/day; 7,000 m3/day and 14,000 m3/day. In the beginning of the
use of the wastewater treatment plant the wastewater flow is most probably under the nominal
capacity of 7,000 m3/day.

Table 7.1 Pollution Loads from Treated Wastewater in Four Cases
                Wastewater flows                                     Pollution loads
                   (m3/day)                BOD (kg/day)            TSS (kg/day)      Coliform (MPN/day)
 Case 1              3,000                     90                       90                  90 x 109
 Case 2              5,000                    150                      150                 150 x 109
 Case 3              7,000                    210                      210                 210 x 109
 Case 4             14,000                    420                      420                 420 x 109
Based on JICA study (1999), the volume of water of Cua Luc Bay and Ha Long Bay is estimated
to be about 60 x 106 m3 and 6,300 x 106 m3, respectively. Due to the tide regime water is
currently changing between Cua Luc Bay and Ha Long Bay. This mechanism makes the dilution
and self-purification processes happen even quicker. It can be estimated that dilution capacity
with the proposed load is in Cua Luc Bay 8,570:1 and in Ha Long Bay 900,000:1.

SBR (Seqvencing Bacth Reactor) has been selected for the wastewater treatment process and the
process has been designed to meet the Vietnamese standards TCVN 6987:2001 and TCVN
7222:2002. The preliminary estimated loads and effluent quality using wastewater flow 7,113
m3/d are presented in the table below. The input design loads are presented in Table 6.2. Effluent
from the wastewater treatment plant will be discharged to the nearby large drainage channel,
which discharges to the sea through the new coastal urban development area. Due to the self-
purification mechanism starting in discharge channel and continuing in the sea, the pollutants are
easily diluted and decomposed, which further mitigates the impacts on water quality in Cua Luc
Bay and Ha Long Bay.

Table 7.2 Wastewater Load to Recipient Water (Cua Luc Bay)
Parameter      Input load      Maximum load           Removal          Effluent after   Effluent standard TCVN
               to WWTP          from WWTP             efficiency         treatment         6987:2001, TCVN
                 (kg/d)            (kg/d)                 (%)              (mg/l)              7222:2002
BOD               1,377             213                84 - 90             20 -30                   30
SS                 984              213                    78                30                     30
Total N            278               83                 70 -80                5                     10
Total P            36                11                 70 -80                2                      4

                                                           32                                                Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

The effectiveness and quality of the operation and maintenance of the wastewater treatment plant
is the critical point. During the operation there might be odour problems, if the operation and
maintenance is not done in the proper way and mitigation measures are neglected.

Amount of thickened sludge will be 18 m3/day with the 7,000 m3/day treatment capacity and this
amount could be easily transported to the existing Deo Sen landfill septage treatment facility also
managed by Ha Long URENCO. In Deo Sen there is enough capacity to treat this amount of
sludge.


7.3.2          Sewerage System
Wastewater flow in open channels will decrease when wastewater is collected through the new
interceptor sewer pipes to be constructed in Hon Gai. This will also decrease the discharge of
untreated wastewater to the sea. In the dry season all wastewater will be treated at the
wastewater treatment plant. The foul odour in the vicinity of channels will decrease and the risk
of water related health problems will also decrease due to the improved sanitation situation.

Breakdowns in wastewater pumping might cause serious environmental risks if there are no
spare pumps, electricity supply or enough capacity in the system.


7.3.3          Drainage System
Nowadays both rainwater and wastewater is discharged into the combined system. Sections of
the channels have collapsed and are blocked by solid waste and O&M is neglected, all of which
decreases the flow. After the rehabilitation the flow will increase and there will be no stagnant
water.

In Bai Chay there are several outlets along the beach area, which pose a health and aesthetic
problem. These outlets will be connected to sewer system, and dry season wastewater will be
collected and treated. This will protect the most sensitive areas from further pollution.

In Hon Gai the general environmental situation especially in the central market area is quite bad
due to the inadequate solid waste management, the neglected O&M of the present drainage
channel system and from the impacts of the coal stores. In some cases houses are constructed
almost on the top of the channels causing some of the channels to collapse.

Stinking drainage channels full of solid waste cause a serious health and aesthetic problem.
Rehabilitation of drainage channels will improve the living quality and health situation, but at the
same time there should be an improvement in the solid waste management. Very strong public
awareness campaigns to give people information about the importance of their own contribution
to the quality of the environment and the connection between good sanitary practices and health
will be required. A strong O&M component has to be related to the rehabilitation of the drainage
channels, otherwise the positive impacts will be short lasting.




                                                           33                                     Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment




                PART 2 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN




                                                           34          Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment



8               MITIGATIONS MEASURES

8.1      General
The main mitigative measures are summarised below according to measures during the design,
rehabilitation and operation phases. The mitigative measures, which are outlined in this EIA, will
be further developed in a separate Bidding Document Volume 5 Environmental Management
Plan (EMP) of each contract.

A project’s EMP consists of mitigation, monitoring, and institutional measures to be taken
during implementation and operation to eliminate adverse environmental and social impacts,
offset them or reduce them to acceptable levels. The plan also includes the actions needed to
implement these measures.

The EMP provides details on proposed work programme and schedules. The EMP helps to ensure
that the proposed environmental actions are in phase with the design and construction work. After
discussing and agreeing with the project design engineers, the recommendations will be translated
into a simple, practical and action oriented EMP.

The EMP identifies feasible and cost-effective measures that may reduce potentially significant
adverse environmental impact to acceptable levels. The EMP also includes monitoring and
reporting procedures to ensure early detection of necessary mitigation measures and the progress
of these.

The EMP estimates any potential environmental impact of the above-mentioned measures.
Moreover, the EMP provides linkage with any other mitigation plans required for the project
(e.g. involuntary resettlement). The EMP covers also the Occupational Health and Safety issues.

Costs for all environmentally related mitigation have been developed and included in the EMP
report. Moreover, the plan also includes compensatory measures if the proposed mitigative
measures are not feasible or cost-effective.

The EMP addresses institutional issues. The main focus is on how to strengthen URENCOs so
that it not only can run the system in an environmentally sound manner, but also helps in
building up community awareness and participation.

For the mitigation, monitoring and capacity development the EMP provides an implementation
schedule for the measures and the capital and recurrent cost estimates and sources of funds for
implementing the EMP.


8.2      Mitigation Measures during Detailed Design

8.2.1        Generic Design Instructions
Environmental matters shall be integrated in all the design work and planning of the project. The
designing shall be done by minimising the adverse impacts on environment using as much as
possible existing facilities and selecting the location of new facilities in areas where the
disturbance to environment, people and existing structures is the smallest. Where possible
existing rights-of-way should be used rather than create new ones.


                                                           35                                   Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

According to the Vietnamese Construction Regulation Standard Article 3.3 Protection of Natural
Resources and Environment construction projects should:
    Not cause adverse effect to environment, and technical regulations on scenery and
     environment protection should be observed
    Protect the natural preservation areas, and historical, cultural and architectural places
    Extracting natural resource must ensure the rationality and cause no obstacle to the next
     exploitation
    Respect traditional customs, practices, religions of people living in and around the
     construction area.
In Construction Regulation Standard there are instructions especially for master plan including
general instructions for designing sewerage and drainage system. Urban drainage system should
be assured:
    To discharge all types of urban waste water
    To have suitable solution for treating wastewater so that the urban area is not flooded, and
     environment and water sources are not polluted
In Standard Branch Sewerage and Drainage System and Works, Standard Designs there are more
detailed design instructions. However, also international design standards shall be applied and
used in design work.


8.2.2        Wastewater Treatment Plant Design Instructions
Location of the wastewater treatment plant has been selected in co-operation with the local
authorities paying attention to the approved master plan and the present and future land use.
Densely populated areas have been avoided to minimise the resettlement. On the proposed
construction site there are no cultural properties, historical places or buildings or other structures,
which should be protected.

Buffer zones should be designed around the wastewater treatment plant according to the
standards TCVN 7222:2002. A 147m. wide tree-lined buffer zone is proposed in order to
minimize resettlement and compensation costs. This meets the requirements of TCVN
7222:2002 since the works will have closed sludge treatment.

Until now there is very limited experience about designing and operation and maintenance of a
similar wastewater treatment facility. Therefore the wastewater treatment method has to be
technically easy to manage and complicated equipment should be avoided.


8.2.3        Drainage and Sewerage System Design Instructions
To prevent the possibility of contamination water supply system a special attention shall be paid
to the crossing of water pipes and collectors and other sewers. It is not allowed to install water
pipes going through the sewer manholes or box culverts. If possible the sewers should be
designed in the lower level than water pipelines.

Discharging points of the collectors shall be selected so that the dilution will be maximised. The
discharging points shall have adequate distance from the tidal gates. However, the impact of
busy boat traffic shall be considered, too.




                                                           36                                        Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

8.3        Mitigation Measures during Construction Works

8.3 Mitigation Measures during Construction Work
All work included in the project has to be implemented following the appropriate standards,
specifications and any restrictions on working methods given in the contract document. These
conditions imposed on the contractor will include the environmental mitigation measures
proposed in the EIA and EMP. Compliance will be monitored and supervised during
construction by an international consultant. These measures will comprise a general framework
of environmental constraints and also specific measures dependent on the particular conditions at
each work location.

The following table covers the main impacts and the general framework of environmental
constraints proposed during the construction phase.

Table 8.1 General Environmental Constraints during Construction

     Impact           Environmental Constraints
Noise, Odour,        The maximum permitted noise levels shall be those given in the Vietnamese standard TCVN
Litter and Dust       5949:1998. (The strongest limitations are from 10 pm to 6 am in the vicinity of hospitals,
                      libraries and kindergartens where maximum noise level is 40 dB)
                     Air quality and dust emissions shall be mitigated through dust suppression measures
                      compliant with TCVN 5937:1995
                     Appropriate equipment shall be used to prevent overloading of trucks. Accidental spills,
                      sludge, oils and lubricants from equipment etc. shall be absorbed and collected immediately.
                     At the construction sites dust, litter and public inconvenience shall be minimised by good
                      construction management and supervision.
                     Water shall be sprinkled in streets in the vicinity of construction sites to minimise dust.

Waste Disposal
                   Solid household and commercial wastes shall be collected from work sites and transported to
                     to an approved URENCO the landfill
                   - Dredged or excavated materials shall be removed from the works sites to disposal sites
                     selected by the contractor, provided that they are not contaminated. Any contaminated
                     materials shall be transported to sites approved by URENCO and DONRE
                   - No waste material shall be stored on site for more than 24 hours
                   - Water from excavations or stream diversions shall be discharged only to an existing drain or
                     stream. No discharges shall be made to land or public areas.

Public &           The contractor shall not cause any damage to public or private property during the
Private               construction work and shall compensate the owners for any damage except where damage is
Property              unavoidable due to the permanent works

Health and         The Contractor shall provide appropriate safety equipment, tools and protective clothing to
Safety                the workers and ensure that safe working methods are applied.
                   Facilites shall be provided for worker to wash with clean water during and after the working
                      hours.
                     Clean water and first aid kit shall be available to wash and treat any cuts and wounds.
                     The contractor shall follow the national safety and health regulations during the use of
                      selected earth stabilisation and support methods in excavation work.
                     Protection masks againgst dust shall be provided to the workers.

Traffic and        All works shall be carried out so as not to interfere unnecessarily with public access to and
Transportation        use of roads and footpaths to or from properties.
Arrangements
                     The contractor shall select transportation routes, choose vehicles and distribute loads so that
                                                            37                                                          Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

                       the transportation from and to the site shall not damage roads and bridges
                      The Contractor shall be responsible for any damage to roads and bridges

Working Time       Working time and site arrangements and instructions concerning site clearance, fencing,
and Site               watching and lighting, working at night etc. given in contract documents shall be followed
Arrangements           by the contrcator.

Public
Relations          -    Construction methods at each work location shall be agreed in advance between the
                        contractor and the PMU’s supervising consultant

                  -    The PMU shall announce the construction works and all arrangements in the method
                       statement which are relevant to the public during construction work. The information shall
                       be conveyed to the public by newspapers, TV and radio. Locally the announcement should
                       be given to the ward representatives who will inform the residents. Loudspeakers could be
                       used during the construction work to give the latest information in concerning areas.

Most of these environmental impacts will apply to construction in all of the 22 urban locations
for drainage improvements through new channels and the rehabilitation of streams. However, the
degree of impact at each location will depend mainly on the extent to which residents are
affected since they are most sensitive to impacts of noise, dust, accesses and construction
methods. The general environmental constraints have therefore been used to formulate specific
mitigation measures applicable to the two separate cases of residential and non- residential areas.

The allocation of drainage work sites into residential (R) and non-residential (NR) conditions is
indicated in the table below. The residential case will apply also to sewerage work locations
which are mainly in streets and in view of the public sensitivity to the wastewater treatment plant
we recommend that it should apply to this siten also.

Table 8.2       Environmental Classification of Drainage Works

    Area                    Stream/Drain Location                      Length (m)         Environmental Impact
                                                                                                Situation
Hon Gai          Zone 5 Channel, Cao Thang Road                             220                     R
                 Dong Thanh Channel, Cao Thang Road                         150                     R
                 Dong Thanh Channel (Remainder)                             100                    NR
                 Tech. Construction College Channel                         500                     R
                 Cau 3 Channel, Cao Xanh Road                               350                     R
                 Cau 2 Channel, Cao Xanh Road                               500                     R
                 Ha Lam Channel, Coal Enterprise area                       150                    NR
                 Ha Lam Channel (Remainder)                                 250                     R

Bai Chay         Stream No. 19, Ha Long Road                                200                      R
                 Stream No. 16, Hau Can Road                                300                     NR
                 Stream No. 12, Hau Can Road                                400                      R

Cam Pha          Km 8 Stream                                                500                      R
                 Km 7 Stream                                                530                      R
                 Km 6 Stream                                                960                      R
                 Cay 51 Stream                                              780                      R
                 Nui De Box Culvert                                         700                      R
                 Bridge No. 3 Stream                                        700                      R
                 Cam Son Market Stream                                      250                      R
                                                            38                                                      Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

                  Thanh Nien Mining Stream                                 1770                       R
                  Bridge No. 4 Stream                                       300                       R
                  Brige No. 6 Stream                                        950                       R
                  Western Mechanical Enterprise Stream                     1100                       R
                  Eastern Mechanical Enterprise Stream                     1050                       R

The specific mitigation measures proposed for the two cases are indicated in the two tables
below.

Table 8.3 Mitigation Measures during Construction in Residential Areas

     Impact            Mitigation Measures
Noise, Odour,       The maximum permitted noise levels shall be those in the Vietnamese standard TCVN
Litter and Dust        5949:1998 applicable to residential areas.
                      Air quality and dust emissions shall be mitigated through dust suppression measures required
                       by TCVN 5937:1995 for residential areas
                      Appropriate equipment shall be used to prevent overloading of trucks. Accidental spills,
                       sludge, oils and lubricants from equipment etc. shall be absorbed and collected immediately.
                      At the construction sites dust, litter and public inconvenience shall be minimised by good
                       construction management and supervision.
                      Water shall be sprinkled in streets in the vicinity of construction sites to avoid dust.
                      Streets shall be kept continuously clean of mud, dirt, spillage and waste from the
                       construction activities
                      The contractor shall immediately remove any materials or liquids that cause offensive odours
                       to nearby residents

Waste Disposal
                    Solid household and commercial wastes shall be collected from work sites and transported to
                     to an approved URENCO the landfill
                   - Dredged or excavated materials shall be removed from the works sites to disposal sites
                     selected by the contractor, provided that they are not contaminated. Any contaminated
                     materials shall be transported to sites approved by URENCO and DONRE
                   - No waste material shall be stored on site for more than 24 hours
                   - Water from excavations or stream diversions shall be discharged only to an existing drain or
                     stream. No discharges shall be made to land or public areas.

Public &            The contractor shall not cause any damage to public or private property during the
Private                construction work. He shall adeqautely support all excavations to avoid movement or
Property               undermining of adjacent ground. He shall compensate the owners for any damage except
                       where damage is unavoidable due to the permanent works
                      The contractor shall not sever or interfere with any utility services unless the owner has
                       consented to suitable temporary arrangements

Health and          The Contractor shall provide appropriate safety equipment, tools and protective clothing to
Safety                 the workers and ensure that safe working methods are applied.
                      Facilites shall be provided for worker to wash with clean water during and after the working
                       hours.
                      Clean water and first aid kit shall be available to wash and treat any cuts and wounds.
                      The contractor shall follow the national safety and health regulations during the use of
                       selected earth stabilisation and support methods in excavation work.
                      Protection masks againgst dust shall be provided to the workers.
                      The contractor shall provide and maintain safe temporary accesses through construction sites
                       for residents to reach their properties



                                                            39                                                        Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

Traffic and        All works shall be carried out so as not to interfere unnecessarily with public access to and
Transportation         use of roads and footpaths to or from properties. The width of the contractor’s vehicles shall
Arrangements           not exceed half the available width of any access road, street or alley
                      The contractor shall select transportation routes, choose vehicle weights and distribute loads
                       so that the transportation from and to the site shall not damage roads and bridges
                      Tracked vehicles shall not be used on paved roads
                      Where permanent access routes are to be constructed as part of the works they shall be used
                       in preference to roads through residential areas
                      The Contractor shall be responsible for any damage to roads and bridges

Working Time       Working time shall not extend before 7a.m. nor after 6pm.. There shall be no working on
and Site               Sunday
Arrangements
                   Site arrangements and instructions concerning site clearance, fencing, watching and
                       lighting, given in contract documents shall be followed by the contractor.

Public
Relations          -    Construction methods at each work location shall be agreed in advance between the
                        contractor., DONRE and the PMU’s supervising consultant. Method statements shall be
                        submitted by the contractor simultaeously to the supervising consultant, the PMU and to
                        DONRE. The construction methods for each location shall be agreed by discussion of the
                        method statement at a meeting attended by representatives from the contractor, DONRE,
                        the PMU and the supervising consultant.

                   -    When required by DONRE or the PMU the construction method statement shall be
                        explained and discussed at a meeting with residents or their representatives

                  -    The PMU shall announce the construction works and all arrangements in the method
                       statement which are relevant to the public during construction work. The information shall
                       be conveyed to the public by newspapers, TV and radio. Locally the announcement should
                       be given to the ward representatives who will inform the residents. Loudspeakers could be
                       used during the construction work to give the latest information in concerning areas.


Table 8.4 Mitigation Measures during Construction in Non-Residential Areas

     Impact            Mitigation Measures
Noise, Odour,      The maximum permitted noise levels shall be those in the Vietnamese standard TCVN
Litter and Dust        5949:1998 applicable to non-residential areas.
                      Air quality and dust emissions shall be mitigated through dust suppression measures required
                       by TCVN 5937:1995 for non-residential areas
                      Appropriate equipment shall be used to prevent overloading of trucks. Accidental spills,
                       sludge, oils and lubricants from equipment etc. shall be absorbed and collected
                      At the construction sites dust, litter and public inconvenience shall be minimised by good
                       construction management and supervision.
                      Water shall be sprinkled to minimise dust on those access roads which are predominantly
                       used by the contractor.

Waste Disposal
                   Solid household and commercial wastes shall be collected from work sites and transported to
                     to an approved URENCO the landfill
                   - Dredged or excavated materials shall be removed from the works sites to disposal sites
                     selected by the contractor, provided that they are not contaminated. Any contaminated
                     materials shall be transported to sites approved by URENCO and DONRE
                   - No waste material shall be stored on site for more than 24 hours
                   - Water from excavations or stream diversions shall be discharged only to an existing drain or
                     stream. No discharges shall be made to land or public areas.


                                                            40                                                          Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

Public &            The contractor shall not cause any damage to public or private property during the
Private                construction work. He shall adeqautely support all excavations to avoid movement or
Property               undermining of adjacent ground. He shall compensate the owners for any damage except
                       where damage is unavoidable due to the permanent works
                      The contractor shall not sever or interfere with any utility services unless the owner has
                       consented to suitable temporary arrangements

Health and          The Contractor shall provide appropriate safety equipment, tools and protective clothing to
Safety                 the workers and ensure that safe working methods are applied.
                      Facilites shall be provided for worker to wash with clean water during and after the working
                       hours.
                      Clean water and first aid kit shall be available to wash and treat any cuts and wounds.
                      The contractor shall follow the national safety and health regulations during the use of
                       selected earth stabilisation and support methods in excavation work.
                      Protection masks against dust shall be provided to the workers.

Traffic and         The contractor shall select transportation routes, choose vehicle and distribute loads so that
Transportation         the transportation from and to the site shall not damage roads and bridges
Arrangements
                    Tracked vehicles shall not be used on paved roads
                    Where permanent access routes are to be constructed as part of the works they shall be used
                       in preference to roads through residential areas
                    The Contractor shall be responsible for any damage to roads and bridges
Working Time        Working time shall not extend before 7a.m. nor after10pm..
and Site
                    Site arrangements and instructions concerning site clearance, fencing, watching and
Arrangements
                       lighting, given in contract documents shall be followed by the contractor.

Public
Relations          -    Construction methods at each work location shall be agreed in advance between the
                        contractor. and the PMU’s supervising consultant.

                   -   The PMU shall announce the construction works and all arrangements in the method
                       statement which are relevant to the public during construction work. The information shall
                       be conveyed to the public by newspapers, TV and radio. Locally the announcement should
                       be given to the ward representatives who will inform the residents. Loudspeakers could be
                       used during the construction work to give the latest information in concerning areas.


8.4         Mitigation Measures during Operation and Maintenance

8.4.1            Wastewater Treatment Plant
Very special attention has to be paid to the strengthening of the management system and long-
term O&M training since in practice these will be the weak points, and might put the whole
system at risk if not arranged carefully. SBR (Sequencing batch reactor) as the treatment method
needs trained staff to operate. If the given and agreed O&M guidelines are neglected the
wastewater treatment plant can cause big environmental problems when all wastewater is
discharged from one outlet instead of several and the local impact might be significant.

Handling of sludge has to be done according to the given guidelines. If gravity thickened sludge
will be transported to final treatment to Deo Sen septage treatment facility the transportation has
to be done in closed tankers and only to the agreed treatment facility. Spillages have to be
avoided during loading, transportation and unloading of sludge.



                                                            41                                                        Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

Special attention has to be paid to occupational health and to training of workers to avoid direct
contact with wastewater and sludge. Protective clothing including overalls, gloves and
wellingtons has to be provided to workers.

To mitigate the impacts of the wastewater treatment plant to the neighbouring area, mainly
odour, there will be a 147 meter wide buffer zone with trees surrounding the wastewater
treatment plant.

According to the detailed land use plan (scale 1:1000) of the 112 ha urban area named Bai Muoi
– Cao Thang – Ha Long proposed by Quang Ninh Department of Construction and approved by
Chairman of Ha Long City People Committee dated 28/07/2004 and by Chairman of Quang
Ninh Province People Committee dated 12/10/2004, there is area about 17.4 ha for the
wastewater treatment plant and the buffer zone, and some other activities belonging to this urban
area project. To minimise the impacts of wastewater treatment plant on the urban area project, it
is advised to have a co-operation between the Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage &
Sanitation Project – Phase II and Bai Muoi – Cao Thang – Ha Long Urban Area Project for
proper adjusting the land use plan.


8.4.2           Drainage and Sewerage System
In the operation and maintenance of drainage and sewerage system has to be considered regular
inspection of the condition of sewerage and drainage system. Solid waste disposal into drains,
sewers, channels and sea has to be prevented to keep the drains and sewers open. Illegal housing
in the channel embankments has to be prevented.

In all operation and maintenance operational and safety standards have to be followed.

Regular monitoring of wastewater and sea water quality at discharging points has to be standard
operating practices of URENCO and DONRE.


8.5       Summary of Mitigation Measures

      Table 8.5 Summary of Mitigation Measures
 Phase             Main mitigation measures                                                   Responsible
                                                                                              organisation
 Design             - International and Vietnamese design criteria and standards to be        Design
                      used                                                                    Consultant
                    - Wastewater treatment plant, sewers and pumping stations designed        Design
                      so that need for resettlement is minimised                              Consultant
                    - Works designed to implemented during dry season
 Construction       - Minimise dust, odour, litter, noise and traffic emissions by good       Contractor
                      operation management and site supervision
                    - Appropriate working methods shall be followed                           Contractor
                    - Sites shall be kept clean and safe during and after the work            Contractor
                    - Safety and health regulations shall be strictly followed                Contractor
                    - Protective clothing and operational training for workers is essential   Contractor
                    - Transportation shall be minimised and routes selected to avoid
                      public nuisance                                                         Contractor
                    - Transportation during rush hours and night shall be avoided             Contractor
                    - Tight and proper equipment to transport sludge shall be used to         Contractor
                      avoid accidental spills and odour nuisances

                                                           42                                              Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

                    - Excavated material has to be transported only to the agreed tip sites   Contractor
                    - Construction sites and time shall be informed to the local people in    PMU
                      advance
 O&M                - Minimise dust, odour, litter, noise and traffic emissions by good       Ha Long
                      operation management and site supervision                               URENCO,
                    - Appropriate working methods shall be adopted and followed               Cam Pha
                    - Sites shall be kept clean and safe during and after the work            URENCO
                    - Safety and health regulations shall be strictly followed
                    - Protective clothing and operational training for workers is essential
                    - Transportation shall be minimised and routes selected to avoid
                      public nuisance
                    - Transportation during rush hours and nights shall be avoided
                    - Tight and proper equipment to transport thickened sludge shall be
                      used to avoid accidental spills and odour nuisances. Unloading only
                      to the agreed treatment facility




                                                           43                                              Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment



9               ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND REPORTING

9.1      Generic Environmental Monitoring during Construction and Operation
Generic

Environmental monitoring will be done during construction in three levels; namely as
monitoring of development of project performance indicators done by PMU; monitoring of
implementation of mitigation measures done by the Contractor; and overall regulatory
monitoring of the environmental issues done by DONRE.

Project Performance Indicators

PMU is in charge of monitoring of the Project Performance Indicators. The PMU will prepare to
the WB semi-annual report, which includes among other things reporting of the progress of the
project also environmental project performance indicators, which are the same than in the
Vietnam: Three Cities Sanitation Project – Quang Ninh Sub-Project (Phase I Project). Project
performance indicators are as follows:
       Water quality and flooding
       Health data
       Solid waste collected
       Tourist visits and revenues
       Household sanitation improvements
Monitoring of Implementation of Mitigation Measures

Monitoring duties of the Contractor are specified in the Contract Documents and are related to
the impacts during construction.

Monitoring during the construction shall concentrate on safety aspects. Special attention shall be
paid to the protection of construction sites, excavations and cleaning of the streets.

The Contractor prepares monthly reports, which PMU compiles to quarterly reports to the WB.
The Contractor monitors the implementation of the main mitigation measures listed below i.e.
the quantity of dredged and transported material, number of loads, type of transportation,
measures to keep streets clean, fencing etc.

The quarterly reports include the following:
     List of priority identified in last quarterly monitoring report
     List of progress, which the Contractor has made to solve the problems
     List of issues, which have not been adequately resolved and give recommendations how to
      solve the problems and explain force majeure
All reporting of Phase II will be done through Semi-Annual Progress Report to WB, monitoring
of implementation of mitigation measures done by the Contractors and all other relevant type of
reports already in use in Phase I.




                                                           44                                   Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

 Main mitigation measures during construction                                                   Responsible
                                                                                                organisation
  - Minimise dust, odour, litter, noise and traffic emissions by good operation                 Contractor
    management and site supervision
  - Appropriate working methods have to be followed                                             Contractor
  - Sites have to be kept clean and safe during and after the work                              Contractor
  - Safety and health regulations has to be strictly followed                                   Contractor
  - Transportation has to be minimised and routes selected to avoid public nuisance             Contractor
  - Transportation during rush hours and night has to be avoided
  - Tight and proper equipment to transport sediment and garbage has to be used to              Contractor
    avoid accidental spills and odour nuisances                                                 Contractor
  - Excavated material has to be transported only to the agreed tip sites                       Contractor
  - Construction sites and time has to be informed to the local people in advance               PMU
Overall Regulatory Monitoring

During the operation Ha Long URENCO and Cam Pha URENCO, to whom the facilities will be
handed over, will continue related water quality monitoring reporting to the WB. Copies of
monitoring reports will be sent to DONRE, which performs the state environment management.

The monitoring for the sanitation project is mainly based on the environmental standards of
Vietnam (1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002). There are no specific standards for the
contamination of soil, except the limits for maximum concentration of pesticides and fertilisers.
Water analyses should be carried out in experienced and authorised laboratories.


9.2      Present Water Quality and Wastewater Quality Monitoring
DONRE carries out overall environmental water quality monitoring in Quang Ninh province and
especially in the Ha Long Bay sea area (Annex 1). Vietnam: Three Cities Sanitation Project –
Quang Ninh Sub-Project (Phase I Project) takes wastewater samples twice per year from sewers
No. 13 and 21 in Bay Chay, from sewer No. 11 in Hon Gai and sewer No.5 in Cam Pha. The
parameters to be analysed are BOD5, total suspended solids and coliform bacteria (Annex 3).


9.3      Water and Effluent Quality Monitoring of Phase II
From Bai Muoi wastewater treatment plant in Hon Gai would be analysed the process and
effluent quality at the discharging point to the open channel discharging to the sea. Due to the
several other pollution sources to the channel and especially to the sea it is not possible to
separate the impact of effluent from the impact of other load sources, therefore no analysing
point from Cua Luc Bay, which is recipient water body, is proposed. Wastewater treatment
process will be analysed daily and effluent samples will be taken four times per year.

Table 9.1       Monitoring of Bai Muoi Wastewater Treatment Plant in Hon Gai
Sampling Point                          Frequency         Parameters
Wastewater treatment ponds              Daily             On-site: Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature
Treated wastewater at                   4 / year          On-site: Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature
discharging point to the channel
Treated wastewater at                   4 / year          Laboratory: BOD5, COD, total phosphorous, total
discharging point to the channel                          nitrogen, total suspended solids, faecal coliform
In Bai Chay there is no need to have additional sampling points because there are already now
two sampling points for Phase I in the project area.


                                                           45                                                 Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

In Cam Pha one sampling point would be added to Km 8 Stream and one sampling point to
Eastern of Mechanical Enterprise Stream. Samples will be taken twice per year after the
construction.

Table 9.2       Location of Water Sanpling Points in Phase I and Phase II
Location      Phase I sampling points           Phase II sampling points
Hon Gai       Sewer No. 11                      Discharging point of effluent from WWTP to the drainage
                                                channel
Bai Chay      Sewer No. 13                      No new sampling points
              Sewer No. 21
Cam Pha       Sewer No. 5                       Km 8 Stream
                                                Eastern of Mechanical Enterprise Stream


Table 9.3       Monitoring of Streams in Cam Pha
Sampling Point                                   Frequency      Parameters
KM8 Stream                                       2 / year       BOD5, total suspended solids, faecal
Eastern Mechanical Enterprise                                   coliform
Stream

9.4      Monitoring of Flooding Areas
Monitoring of the flooding areas is proposed to be done in the same way than in Phase I. The
existing monitoring areas for Phase I and the new proposed monitoring points for flooding in
Phase II are presented in the following table. Phase II monitoring areas are presented also in
Drawings 13 - 14.

 Table 9.4      Location of Flooding Area Monitoring
Location      Phase I monitoring areas                                   Phase II monitoring areas
Hon Gai       HG 1: Cay Thap (Bach Dang Ward)                            Cau 2 Channel (Cao Xanh ward)
              HG 2: Foot of Church hill (Tran Hung Dao Ward)             Dong Thanh Channel (Cao Thang
              HG 3: Construction Department Gate (Hong Hai               ward)
              Ward)                                                      Ha Lam Channel (Ha Lam ward)
              HG 4: Foot of Da Tuong hill (Yet Kieu Ward)                Technical Construction College
                                                                         (Hong Hai ward)
Bai Chay      BC 1: Corner of Vuon Dao - Construction                    No need of new monitoring areas
              Guesthouse
              BC 2: Vuon Dao Hotel - Trade Union Hotel
              BC 3: Doi stream
Cam Pha       CP 1: Cat stream (Cam Trung Ward)                          Cam Thach market (Cam Thach
              CP 2: Ba Toa stream (Cam Tay Ward)                         ward)
              CP 3: Bridge 1 (2001)/Tong Hop crossroad (2002 -           Western of Mechanical Enterprise
              2003) (Cam Dong Ward)                                      (Cam Phu ward)
                                                                         Bridge No. 6 (Cam Phu ward)
                                                                         Thanh Nien Mining Enterprise (Cam
                                                                         Phu ward)
                                                                         Quang Hanh area




                                                           46                                              Black & Vea
   Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
   Environmental Impact Assessment

   10              CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING

   10.1     Overall Environmental Management
   Organisation responsible for Ha Long and Cam Pha Sanitation and Drainage Project is Ha Long
   URENCO on the behalf of Ha Long URENCO and Cam Pha URENCO according to the
   decision of QNPPC 300/QD-UB 3.2.1999. Ha Long URENCO and Cam Pha URENCO as the
   statutory providers of the sector services in Ha Long and Cam Pha will be implementing
   agencies of the Project, advised and supervised by Quang Ninh Province People’s Committee
   (QNPPC) and municipal People’s Committees. For practical day-to-day work of this Project
   URENCOs have set up a Project Management Unit (PMU).

   Based on the Decision Ha Long URENCO will act as the Employer, on whose behalf PMU will
   monitor and control the contractor and suppliers and efficiency and adequacy of the work of the
   Engineer.

   PMU, Ha Long URENCO and Cam Pha URENCO shall pay attention to protection of
   environment and implement EMP during construction. PMU shall observe and follow
   resettlement rules and pay resettlement compensations on the behalf of the companies. Technical
   assistance will be used to improve management systems.

                  Figure 10.1 Environmental Implementation Organisation

                                       Quang Ninh People’s Committee



          Ha Long People’s Committee                                      Cam Pha People’s Committee


DONRE

          Ha Long URENCO                   Project Management Unit                   Cam Pha URENCO
                                               Project Manager




                                           Construction Management
                                            Consultants (Engineer)
                                              (Foreign Experts)
                                               (Local Experts)
                                                     Contractors
                                                      Suppliers



   In order to ensure compliance with national policies, strategies and regulations Ministry of
   Planning and Department (MPI), Ministry of Construction (MOC) and Ministry of Natural
   Resources and Environment (MONRE) are expected to participate in controlling the project
   implementation by sending their representatives for periodic evaluation missions.



                                                              47                                       Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

The local Department of Natural Resources and Environment (DONRE) is responsible for
setting technical standards, for promotion of new environmentally sound production technologies
and for monitoring of compliance with environmental regulations. DONRE monitors the quality
of water in rivers and sea.

Several city organisations e.g. City Planning Committee, Investment and Development
Department, Construction Service, Transportation and Public Works Service, Electrical Service,
Department of Science, Technology and Environment, Land Management Service and Water
Supply Company have a critical role as issuers of various permits needed for the execution
works. The post office, railway and the Army will issue the permits related to their utilities and
participate in the field supervision of the works. PMU shall keep close relations with these
organisations in order to avoid any delays in receiving appropriate permits.

Street excavation, dust, noise cuts in services etc. will cause nuisance to the population. PMU
shall be responsible for ensuring that the contractors follow exactly the environmental mitigation
measures specified in the Environmental Management Plan and in the bidding documents for
minimising nuisances to public. PMU shall also take care of adequate public information
concerning the project objectives and progress of the works.

PMU and URENCOs should work closely with phuong authorities to promote community
participation in the planning, management and operation of investments. The population shall be
educated to understand the problems of sanitation and their role in overcoming the problems like
regular de-sludging of septic tanks, regular cleaning and maintenance of the network, proper in-
house plumping and connection to the sewer system, and conservation of assets like manhole
covers and lane paving.

Into PMU has nominated one person in charge of public relations and one person in charge of
environmental monitoring.


10.2     Training
In the Phase I there has been a very strong institutional strengthening component including
comprehensive training programme for PMU and URENCOs. Therefore there is no need for
environmental or other basic training in Phase II.

During the Phase II a special attention should be paid to the training of the Bai Muoi wastewater
treatment plant staff, to guarantee the continuous and smooth operation of the wastewater
treatment plant. Experience from the Phase I training should be collected and if possible, the
training of the O&M staff of Phase II wastewater treatment plant should be organised in the
same way than in Phase I. During the training period the similar wastewater treatment plant
should be already in operation in Bay Chay and on-the-job training could be given there.

The training of the Employer's staff of the facilities to be installed shall be performed by the
Contractor during the erection, commissioning and testing of the facilities. The operation and
maintenance (O&M) staff of the Employer shall be trained during the construction. The
theoretical instruction in the facilities and the component operation and maintenance activities
shall be provided by a professional trainer employed by the Contractor.

Public awareness campaigns are discussed in Chapter 13.



                                                           48                                   Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

11              COST ESTIMATES OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Most of the costs for mitigative measures created by environmental demands are already
included in the investment costs of the proposed project, or they should be part of normal
operation and maintenance procedures. The biggest separate mitigation cost is buffer zone
around the wastewater treatment plant in Hon Gai.

The total annual cost of Phase II environmental monitoring is 20 million VND. In the future in
the operation and maintenance budgets of URENCOs there should be annual reservation for the
whole environmental monitoring of both Phase I and Phase II.

Table 11.1 Annual Monitoring Costs of Additional Wastewater and Water Analysis
        Type of Monitoring                Frequency       Unit cost       Total          Responsibility
                                                                       Annual Cost
 Wastewater Treatment Plant               Four times      1.5          18 MVND        During construction
 Monitoring                               per year        MVND                        PMU hires laboratory
 (1 discharge point sample)                                                           During operation
 (2 river samples)                                                                    URENCO hires
                                                                                      laboratory
 Other Project performance        Twice per               1,0          2 MVND         PMU collects
 indicators                       year                    MVND
 Monitoring of implementation of Monthly                               Includes to    Contractor observes
 mitigation measures                                                   the contract
                      Grand total                                       20 MVND
Table 11.2 Environmental Awareness Campaign Costs
     Locations of Campaings               Frequency       Unit cost     Total Cost       Responsibility
 Environmental awareness                  Once per        4 MVND       68 MVND        PMU / Ha Long City
 campaigns                                phuong                                      and Cam Pha
 9 phuongs in Ha Long City                                                            Women’s Unions
 8 phuongs in Cam Pha
Cost estimation for environmental awareness campaigns including training of trainers and group
meetings is totally 68 MVND if all the remaining 17 phuongs are covered in Ha Long City and
Cam Pha Town.

Monitoring of the safety aspects during the construction includes to the Contract.

Financing of the O&M training related to the Phase II is including to the Contract. The Employer
will pay the salaries of the Employer’s staff assigned for training for the training period. The
Contractor shall report the attendance of the trainees to the Engineer.




                                                           49                                                Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment




                PART 3 PUBLIC INVOLVEMENTS AND CONSULTATION




                                                           50          Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment



12              PUBLIC INVOLVEMENTS AND CONSULTATION

12.1     General
The World Bank’s Operational Policy (OP 4.01) on Environmental Impact Assessment requires
that affected groups and local NGOs to be informed and consulted as a part of the EIA
preparation during at least two stages of the EIA-process: shortly after the EA category has been
assigned and after the draft EIA-report has been prepared. Proper consultation is a requirement
for EIA category A projects. Participation should be enabled during project preparation under
certain conditions and is generally recommended as part of implementation. Projects that require
involuntary resettlement (OP 4.30), consultation on social issues should be included.


12.2     Key principles
The overall goals of the public consultation and disclosure are to inform all stakeholders
(interested and project affected parties) about the important aspects of the proposed project and
solicit their comments, ideas and concerns. Further objectives include:
      Commence consultations at the earliest stages of the project, in order to establish an open
       and participatory process
      Take care that groups being consulted are representative including representatives of
       women and youth associations, ethnic and religious minorities
      Enhance previously acquired knowledge of stakeholder concerns
      Employ culturally and socially appropriate consultation methods and provide all written
       materials and reports and orally in Vietnamese
      Utilise several different, complementary methods of receiving public input such as
       individual and public meetings, opinion surveys and document review
      Document the comments of the stakeholders
      Communicate information received from the stakeholders to the technical/design team
       members, and ensure that legitimate concerns are addressed appropriately
      File the EIA document in the communities affected by the project for public review and
       comments
      Continue to consult the public prior to, and during the construction, operation and
       maintenance phases of project development

12.3     Disclosure
The World Bank, like other donors, lenders and governments around the world, have recognised
that many planned interventions in the past have led to undesirable impacts, often exacerbating
economic inequalities and socio-political injustices. As such, these agencies have developed
guidelines to ensure that meaningful consultation occurs, whereby relevant information is
provided to the stakeholders and their inputs are encouraged. The World Bank’s guideline
entitled Policy on Disclosure of Information requires both public consultation and public
disclosure by the project sponsors in the preparation of an environmental assessment.

The Vietnamese version of the executive summary of draft EIA report was disclosed in all
phuongs including to the project from August 2004. At the same time the full text of the draft
EIA report was available at PMU office and informed to the project affected households. The
final Vietnamese EIA report will be available at PMU office and the Vietnamese summary will


                                                           51                                   Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

be delivered to the ward office and put to the note board. The final EA documents will be
disclosed in InfoShop and VDIC at the World Bank office in Hanoi.


12.4     Public Consultation Meetings
WWTP

The first public consultation meeting was arranged already on 24 April 1998 in Ha Khanh ward
People’s Committee. However, the wastewater treatment plant for Hon Gai was not implemented
during the Phase I of the project.

The second public consultation meeting for the wastewater treatment plant was organised on 3
August 2004 and there were representatives from Ha Khanh, Hong Gai and Bach Dang wards
from where the wastewater is collected and where the wastewater treatment plant will be located.
There were totally eight participants. At the meeting the participants agreed the location of the
wastewater treatment plant, but wanted to have proper mitigation measures to prevent the
negative impacts caused by the wastewater treatment plant, e.g. buffer zone around the site.
Resettlement and site clearance issues were also discussed.
In addition, during the RAP public consultation meeting of 3 December 2004, environmental
issues were raised with the project affected people. There were 23 severely project affected
people in attendance, plus representatives of the communes. The PAPs requested that appropriate
boundaries of the buffer zone be set by the authorities around the wastewater treatment plant to
minimise possible adverse impacts.

The minutes of these last two public consultation meetings, with lists of main participants, are
included together in Annex 6.

Sewerage and Drainage

The public consultation for sewerage and drainage component in Bai Chay and Hon Gai was
organised on 30 November 2004 and there were representatives from Hong Hai, Cao Thang,
Tran Hung Dao, Yet Kieu and Bai Chay wards. There were totally nine participants.

At the meeting the participants supported the sewerage and drainage construction because it will
decrease the flooding problems and improve environmental condition. The participants noticed
that impacts during construction are obvious and requested that construction regulations and
mitigation measures should be strictly followed. The representatives of the wards fully agreed to
support and co-operate with the PMU in the implementation of the project.

The public consultation for drainage component in Cam Pha was organised on 1 December 2004
and there were representatives from Cam Thinh, Cam Phu, Cam Son, Cam Thach and Quang
Hanh wards. There were totally ten participants.

At the meeting the participants made practical proposals for the design how to improve the
streams in their wards. The participants fully supported the project because it will reduce the
flooding problems in the area. The participants also proposed to speed up the construction.

The minutes of these two public consultation meetings on the drainage and sewerage
components, with lists of main participants, are presented in Annex 6.


                                                           52                                  Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment

12.5     Consultation with PAP’s
Project Affected People (PAP’s) by the wastewater treatment plant were present at the pbulic
consultation meeting of 3 December 2004. The minutes of the meeting in Annex 6 indicate that
their main concerns were about odour and the need to provide an adequate buffer zone around
the treatment area. The design of the works layout therefore includes the mitigation measure of a
147m wide tree-lined buffer zone in accordance with Vietnam standard TCVN 7222:2002.

Unforetunately, the public consultation meetings for sewerage and drainage in
November/December 2004 were attended only by local representatives and not by any PAP’s.
Consultation with PAP’s was therefore carried out by distribution of a briefing note to all PAP’s
by ward chairmen in February 2005. The briefing note was prepared by BVI and described both
environmental impacts and the mitigation measures proposed. The note was issued in 11 wards
in order to give PAP’s the opportunity to express their views. Issue was confirmed by letters
from the ward chairmen to the PMU. Copies of the briefing note, lists of PAP’s and letters from
the ward chairmen are included in Annex 6.

Briefing notes were issued to 400 project affected households (PAH’s) as follows:
                Hon Gai         Ha Lam Ward                      3PAH’s
                                Tran Hung Dao                    17
                                Hong Hai                         5
                                Cao Thang                        6
                                Cao Xanh                         10
                Bai Chay        Suoi 12                          9
                                Suoi 19                          11
                Cam Pha         Cam Thach                        114
                                Quang Hanh                       46
                                Cam Thinh                        125
                                Cam Son                          39
                                Cam Phu                          15

No concerns were expressed by any of the PAP’s in response this consultation by 30 April 2005
when this report was finalised. This was confirmed by a letter from the PMU dated 6 May 2005
which is included in Annex 6. The mitigation measures for sewerage and drainage works
proposed by the briefing note and included in the EIA and EMP were therefore assumed to be
adequate.




                                                           53                                  Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment



13              ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND PUBLIC HYGIENE AWARENESS
                PROGRAMME
In the Phase I the community participation activities have been concentrating on septic tank and
other revolving fund related issues. According to the province level and town level decision
community participation boards have been established. It is proposed to make evaluation of these
community activities using participatory methodology where communities, local authorities and
other stakeholders should participate to analyse the results and achievements. The finding of the
evaluation should be used as background information to plan the detailed environmental
awareness programme for communities.

In the Phase I Ha Long City Women’s Union and Cam Pha Women’s Union organised
environmental training and awareness campaigns in 11 phuongs in Ha Long City and 8 phuongs
in Cam Pha to train the people to stop throwing the solid waste to drains and sewers and keep the
streets and residential areas clean. To the awareness campaign included training of the trainers
and meetings on the group level, which was found to be the most effective way. A brochure was
prepared (Annex 7) and it has been delivered to 47,000 households in 16 phuongs in Ha Long
City and 35,000 households in 11 phuongs in Cam Pha Town. There are enough brochures left
also for the training of the groups in remaining phuongs.

In the Phase II it is recommended to continue this group training method, which results are
already noticed to be good and effective. Women’s Unions would be the correct facilitators,
because they have already experience from the Phase I to run the training on group level.
Actually Women’s Unions have already made proposal to continue the training. Community
participation and environmental training of Phase I already covers the central areas of the project
area and therefore it is recommended to have environmental awareness campaign in those areas
which have not got any training until now.

In Ha Long City the proposed phuongs are: Ha Lam, Gieng Day, Ha Trung, Ha Tu and Ha
Phong including to the revolving fund, but not received environmental training until now, and
Hung Thang, Tuan Chau, Dai Yen and Viet Hung not including to the revolving fund.

In Cam Pha town the proposed phuongs are: Cam Thinh, Cam Son and Cam Phu including to the
revolving fund, not received environmental training until now, and Cua Ong, Mong Duong, Cam
Hai, Cong Hoa and Duong Huy not including to the revolving fund.

The training would include two days training for the trainers, quarter leaders and representatives
of WU in phuongs, and after that these trainers organise training of each group separately to have
sustainable solutions and people would have good opportunities to discuss and solve the
environmental problems of their own living area.




                                                           54                                    Black & Vea
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes




                                          ANNEXES




                                                                       Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes




                                               ANNEX 1

                  WATER QUALITY IN HA LONG BAY AREA 2002 – 2003
                               Quang Ninh DONRE




                                                                       Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Tuan Chau Island - swimming area

 No.    Parameters            Units                      Monitoring months                          TCVN 5943:
                                         07/2002     10-11/2002    01/2003        02-03/2003            1995
                                                                                                  (swimming area)
 1      Current velocity     m/s            0.1         0.02            0.18          0.08               NA
                              o
 2      Temperature             C          31.2         24.1            14.2          25.6               30
 3      pH                      -           7.8          7.7             7.8           7.8            6.5 – 8.5
 4      Turbidity            NTU           15.6         20.9             6.6          42.8               NA
 5      Conductivity        mS/cm          40.5         46.2            34.8          44.7               NA
 6      Salinity              %o           22.7         29.1            28.3          26.9               NA
 7      DO                   mg/l           5.5          6.0             4.6           5.8               ≥4
 8      TDS                  mg/l          23.5         29.2            28.5          27.5               NA
 9      TSS                  mg/l          13.7         19.4             5.3           39                25
 10     BOD5                mgO2/l           3           4.5             4.2           4.5              < 20
 11     Total phos.          mg/l           0.6          0.6            1.95          0.56               NA
 12     Total Nitrogen       mg/l         1.357        0.750           0.736         2.210               NA
 13     Fe                   mg/l           0.1         0.04            0.19          0.45               0.1
 14     Pb                   mg/l         0.296        0.172           0.281         0.117               0.1
 15     Cd                   mg/l         0.056        0.340           0.052         0.024             0.005
 16     Hg                   mg/l         0.730        0.233           0.333         0.800             0.005
 17     As                   mg/l         0.460        2.976           3.864         1.167              0.05
 18     Oil & Grease         mg/l            0            0              0.1           0.1                2
 19     Coliforms          MPN/100ml        21           48              24            57              1.000

Bai Chay - swimming area

 No.    Parameters            Units                      Monitoring months                             TCVN
                                         07/2002     10-11/2002    01/2003        02-03/2003         5943:1995
                                                                                                  (swimming area)
 1      Current velocity     m/s            0.3         0.18            0.17          0.32               NA
                              o
 2      Temperature             C          31.6         26.2            15.9          21.8               30
 3      pH                      -           7.8          7.8             7.7           7.8            6.5 – 8.5
 4      Turbidity            NTU           13.7         10.1             9.3           8.2               NA
 5      Conductivity        mS/cm          38.5         45.0            36.1          45.6               NA
 6      Salinity              %o           21.0         28.3            28.2          28.2               NA
 7      DO                   mg/l           6.2          4.9             6.7           6.8               ≥4
 8      TDS                  mg/l          22.0         28.6            28.4          28.7               NA
 9      TSS                  mg/l          12.0          9.3             8.3            6                25
 10     BOD5                mgO2/l           4           4.5             4.7           4.0              < 20
 11     Total phos.          mg/l          0.45          0.6             1.8          0.49               NA
 12     Total Nitrogen       mg/l          1.16         2.30           1.478         2.660               NA
 13     Fe                   mg/l          0.05         0.04            0.11          0.12               0.1
 14     Pb                   mg/l         0.296        0.178           0.394         0.117               0.1
 15     Cd                   mg/l         0.048        0.056           0.052         0.036             0.005
 16     Hg                   mg/l         0.584        0.465           0.750         0.333             0.005
 17     As                   mg/l         0.399        7.440           3.333         0.611              0.05
 18     Oil & Grease         mg/l            0            0              0.1           0.2                2
 19     Coliforms          MPN/100ml        76           48             212           410              1.000




                                                                               Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Cai Lan port

 No.    Parameters            Units                      Monitoring months                             TCVN
                                         07/2002     10-11/2002    01/2003        02-03/2003         5943:1995
                                                                                                    (swimming
                                                                                                        area)
 1      Current velocity     m/s            0.1         0.15            0.26          0.15               NA
                              o
 2      Temperature             C          30.9         26.3            16.0          23.9               30
 3      pH                      -           7.6          7.8             7.8           7.6            6.5 – 8.5
 4      Turbidity            NTU           10.5         13.9            10.5           4.9               NA
 5      Conductivity        mS/cm          31.4         45.4            36.1          46.3               NA
 6      Salinity              %o           17.4         28.4            28.4          28.4               NA
 7      DO                   mg/l           5.7          4.0             6.3           5.6               ≥4
 8      TDS                  mg/l          18.2         28.7            28.5          28.9               NA
 9      TSS                  mg/l           8.0         12.8            10.0           4.6               25
 10     BOD5                mgO2/l          4.0          5.2             5.7           5.5              < 20
 11     Total phos.          mg/l           0.3         0.42             1.8          0.43               NA
 12     Total Nitrogen       mg/l          1.76         1.71            0.51          2.45               NA
 13     Fe                   mg/l          0.06         0.05            0.28          0.14               0.1
 14     Pb                   mg/l         0.059        0.178           0.281         0.196               0.1
 15     Cd                   mg/l         0.016         0.04           0.044         0.036             0.005
 16     Hg                   mg/l         0.511        0.465           0.583         0.600             0.005
 17     As                   mg/l         0.276        4.167           3.684         1.889              0.05
 18     Oil & Grease         mg/l           0.1          0.1             0.1           0.2                2
 19     Coliforms          MPN/100ml        18           11              32           118              1.000

Ha Long Boat station

 No.    Parameters            Units                      Monitoring months                             TCVN
                                         07/2002     10-11/2002    01/2003        02-03/2003         5943:1995
                                                                                                    (swimming
                                                                                                        area)
 1      Current velocity     m/s           0.11         0.15             0.1          0.12               NA
                              o
 2      Temperature             C          32.4         26.9            16.5          21.5               30
 3      pH                      -           7.8          7.8             7.9           7.8            6.5 – 8.5
 4      Turbidity            NTU            9.8         11.4            14.8           7.0               NA
 5      Conductivity        mS/cm          41.2         46.8            37.3          47.3               NA
 6      Salinity              %o           22.6         29.1            28.8          27.9               NA
 7      DO                   mg/l           5.3         5.16             5.8           5.5               ≥4
 8      TDS                  mg/l          23.4         29.3            29.0          28.4               NA
 9      TSS                  mg/l           8.5         10.8            13.6           6.4               25
 10     BOD5                mgO2/l          5.0          4.5             6.1           7.5              < 20
 11     Total phos.          mg/l           0.5         0.46            1.83          0.56               NA
 12     Total Nitrogen       mg/l          0.57         3.34           0.645         3.190               NA
 13     Fe                   mg/l           0.1         0.13            0.26          0.13               0.1
 14     Pb                   mg/l         0.237        0.118           0.113         0.235               0.1
 15     Cd                   mg/l         0.056         0.04           trace         0.024             0.005
 16     Hg                   mg/l         0.584        0.581           0.250         0.467             0.005
 17     As                   mg/l         0.337        6.845           1.228         0.833              0.05
 18     Oil & Grease         mg/l           0.1          0.1             0.1           0.2                2
 19     Coliforms          MPN/100ml        48          119             244            78              1.000




                                                                               Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Sato Island

 No.    Parameters            Units                      Monitoring months                             TCVN
                                         07/2002     10-11/2002    01/2003        02-03/2003         5943:1995
                                                                                                    (swimming
                                                                                                        area)
 1      Current velocity     m/s           0.43         0.28            0.35          0.18               NA
                              o
 2      Temperature             C          31.3         26.2            15.8          21.6               30
 3      pH                      -           7.6          7.8             7.6           8.0            6.5 – 8.5
 4      Turbidity            NTU            7.4         16.2            16.2           6.1               NA
 5      Conductivity        mS/cm          39.4         45.5            38.6          47.1               NA
 6      Salinity              %o           22.3         28.6            29.1          28.8               NA
 7      DO                   mg/l           6.4         5.58             6.2           4.2               ≥4
 8      TDS                  mg/l          23.2         28.8            29.3          29.3               NA
 9      TSS                  mg/l           5.8         14.9            14.8           5.0               25
 10     BOD5                mgO2/l           4            4              4.5           4.2              < 20
 11     Total phos.          mg/l           0.7         0.61            1.68          0.63               NA
 12     Total Nitrogen       mg/l          0.62         1.51           0.722         2.610               NA
 13     Fe                   mg/l          0.07         0.10            0.12          0.09               0.1
 14     Pb                   mg/l         0.237        0.237           0.281         0.117               0.1
 15     Cd                   mg/l         0.048        0.024           0.052         0.030             0.005
 16     Hg                   mg/l         0.438        0.349           0.500         0.600             0.005
 17     As                   mg/l         0.399        3.869           3.158         0.944              0.05
 18     Oil & Grease         mg/l            0            0              0.1           0.1                2
 19     Coliforms          MPN/100ml        21           47              95            40              1.000

Do Bang

 No.    Parameters            Units                      Monitoring months                             TCVN
                                         07/2002     10-11/2002    01/2003        02-03/2003         5943:1995
                                                                                                    (swimming
                                                                                                        area)
 1      Current velocity     m/s          0.175         0.22            0.20          0.06               NA
                              o
 2      Temperature             C          32.4         27.1            15.6          25.1               30
 3      pH                      -           7.2          7.5             7.6           7.6            6.5 – 8.5
 4      Turbidity            NTU            20           18             17.9          16.0               NA
 5      Conductivity        mS/cm           20          21.2           35.58           8.6               NA
 6      Salinity              %o           10.3         10.4           27.97           5.1               NA
 7      DO                   mg/l           6.3          5.9             6.6           5.1               ≥4
 8      TDS                  mg/l          11.5         11.6           28.19           6.7               NA
 9      TSS                  mg/l          18.2         16.4            16.8          12.7               25
 10     BOD5                mgO2/l           5            5              5.5           4.5              < 20
 11     Total phos.          mg/l           0.4         0.56             1.1          0.71               NA
 12     Total Nitrogen       mg/l           2.2         2.03           1.357         2.460               NA
 13     Fe                   mg/l           0.1         0.16            0.11          0.13               0.1
 14     Pb                   mg/l         0.118        0.178           0.281         0.078               0.1
 15     Cd                   mg/l         0.008        0.048           0.037         0.030             0.005
 16     Hg                   mg/l         0.511        0.930           0.500         0.600             0.005
 17     As                   mg/l         0.276        4.167           2.632         0.722              0.05
 18     Oil & Grease         mg/l           0.1           0              0.2           0.1                2
 19     Coliforms          MPN/100ml       420           81              70           195              1.000




                                                                               Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Middle of Cua Luc Bay

 No.    Parameters            Units                      Monitoring months                             TCVN
                                         07/2002     10-11/2002    01/2003        02-03/2003         5943:1995
                                                                                                    (swimming
                                                                                                        area)
 1      Current velocity     m/s           0.22          0.1            0.26          0.21               NA
                              o
 2      Temperature             C          31.1         25.2            15.9          21.5               30
 3      pH                      -           8.0          7.8             7.8           7.9            6.5 – 8.5
 4      Turbidity            NTU            11           9.6            14.3           5.2               NA
 5      Conductivity        mS/cm          38.7         45.7            39.3          41.8               NA
 6      Salinity              %o           22.4         28.9           29.35          29.1               NA
 7      DO                   mg/l           6.5          6.0             6.8           0.3               ≥4
 8      TDS                  mg/l          22.7         29.0            29.8          29.4               NA
 9      TSS                  mg/l           8.6          8.1            12.9           4.0               25
 10     BOD5                mgO2/l           4           4.5             3.0           4.0              < 20
 11     Total phos.          mg/l           0.5         0.53             1.5          0.43               NA
 12     Total Nitrogen       mg/l          1.54         2.07           0.713         2.160               NA
 13     Fe                   mg/l          0.07         0.07            0.19          0.07               0.1
 14     Pb                   mg/l         0.237        0.296           0.056         0.196               0.1
 15     Cd                   mg/l         0.048        0.056           trace         0.042             0.005
 16     Hg                   mg/l         0.867        trace           trace         1.067             0.005
 17     As                   mg/l         0.276        2.679           0.175         0.722              0.05
 18     Oil & Grease         mg/l           0.1          0.2             0.2           0.2                2
 19     Coliforms          MPN/100ml        12          105              52           116              1.000

Dau Go - Thien Cung

 No.    Parameters            Units                      Monitoring months                             TCVN
                                         07/2002     10-11/2002    01/2003        02-03/2003         5943:1995
                                                                                                    (swimming
                                                                                                        area)
 1      Current velocity     m/s           0.28         0.22            0.32          0.26               NA
                              o
 2      Temperature             C          31.8         26.8            17.5          20.9               30
 3      pH                      -           7.8          7.6             7.9           7.7            6.5 – 8.5
 4      Turbidity            NTU            2.1          5.1             9.7           2.8               NA
 5      Conductivity        mS/cm          42.8         46.9            38.7          50.2               NA
 6      Salinity              %o            24          29.3            29.3          29.4               NA
 7      DO                   mg/l           6.5          5.2             6.4           6.2               ≥4
 8      TDS                  mg/l          24.7         29.5           29.34          29.7               NA
 9      TSS                  mg/l           2.3          4.0             8.3           3.0               25
 10     BOD5                mgO2/l           3           3.0             3.5           2.6              < 20
 11     Total phos.          mg/l           0.3         0.54             1.7          0.52               NA
 12     Total Nitrogen       mg/l          1.29         2.24           0.642         3.360               NA
 13     Fe                   mg/l          0.04         0.05            0.34          0.07               0.1
 14     Pb                   mg/l         0.414        0.059           trace         0.196               0.1
 15     Cd                   mg/l          0.04        0.008           trace         0.030             0.005
 16     Hg                   mg/l         1.387        0.698           0.167         0.800             0.005
 17     As                   mg/l         0.460        5.952           0.351         0.944              0.05
 18     Oil & Grease         mg/l            0            0               0            0.1                2
 19     Coliforms          MPN/100ml         5           32              90            58              1.000




                                                                               Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Middle of Ha Long Bay

 No.    Parameters            Units                      Monitoring months                             TCVN
                                         07/2002     10-11/2002    01/2003        02-03/2003         5943:1995
                                                                                                    (swimming
                                                                                                        area)
 1      Current velocity     m/s           0.11         0.12            0.20          0.24               NA
                              o
 2      Temperature             C          30.8         27.7            17.9          21.1               30
 3      pH                      -           7.8          7.8             7.8           7.7            6.5 – 8.5
 4      Turbidity            NTU            8.8          4.8            15.8           4.4               NA
 5      Conductivity        mS/cm          38.3         48.3            39.1          48.5               NA
 6      Salinity              %o           21.6         29.7            30.3          29.1               NA
 7      DO                   mg/l           6.5          6.4             6.2           6.5               ≥4
 8      TDS                  mg/l          22.4         29.9            30.3          29.4               NA
 9      TSS                  mg/l           7.5           4             14.0           4.0               25
 10     BOD5                mgO2/l           2            4              3.5           4.0              < 20
 11     Total phos.          mg/l           0.3         0.68            1.77          0.61               NA
 12     Total Nitrogen       mg/l          0.88         3.80           1.320         1.320               NA
 13     Fe                   mg/l           0.1         0.08            0.36          0.08               0.1
 14     Pb                   mg/l         0.237        0.237           0.113         0.113               0.1
 15     Cd                   mg/l          0.04        0.056           trace         trace             0.005
 16     Hg                   mg/l         0.511        0.930           0.083         0.083             0.005
 17     As                   mg/l         0.215        3.869           0.351         0.351              0.05
 18     Oil & Grease         mg/l            0            0               0            0.1                2
 19     Coliforms          MPN/100ml         3            0              44             0              1.000

Bo Nau – Sung Sot

 No.    Parameters            Units                      Monitoring months                             TCVN
                                         07/2002     10-11/2002    01/2003        02-03/2003         5943:1995
                                                                                                    (swimming
                                                                                                        area)
 1      Current velocity     m/s           0.17          0.3            0.32          0.22               NA
                              o
 2      Temperature             C          31.1         27.1            18.6          20.0               30
 3      pH                      -           7.8          7.7             7.6           7.6            6.5 – 8.5
 4      Turbidity            NTU            3.6          3.3             7.9           3.4               NA
 5      Conductivity        mS/cm          39.7         48.2            35.5          48.6               NA
 6      Salinity              %o           22.3         30.0            27.4          29.1               NA
 7      DO                   mg/l           6.2          6.8             7.0           6.1               ≥4
 8      TDS                  mg/l          23.1         30.2            27.6          29.4               NA
 9      TSS                  mg/l           3.2          2.8             7.1           3.0               25
 10     BOD5                mgO2/l           3            2              2.5           2.0              < 20
 11     Total phos.          mg/l          0.35         0.37             1.1          0.32               NA
 12     Total Nitrogen       mg/l         0.337         2.03           1.840         3.400               NA
 13     Fe                   mg/l           0.1         0.05            0.33          0.09               0.1
 14     Pb                   mg/l            0         0.237           trace         0.117               0.1
 15     Cd                   mg/l         0.473        0.040           trace         0.042             0.005
 16     Hg                   mg/l         0.056        0.465           0.083         0.800             0.005
 17     As                   mg/l         0.511        2.381           1.228         1.167              0.05
 18     Oil & Grease         mg/l          1.04           0               0            0.1                2
 19     Coliforms          MPN/100ml         4            3               0             0              1.000




                                                                               Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Me Cung

 No.    Parameters            Units                      Monitoring months                             TCVN
                                         07/2002     10-11/2002    01/2003        02-03/2003         5943:1995
                                                                                                    (swimming
                                                                                                        area)
 1      Current velocity     m/s           0.06         0.33            0.19          0.20               NA
                              o
 2      Temperature             C          30.3         27.0            18.6          19.7               30
 3      pH                      -           7.6          7.7             7.7           7.5            6.5 – 8.5
 4      Turbidity            NTU            2.8          3.7             6.5           2.2               NA
 5      Conductivity        mS/cm          47.9         48.3            39.9          50.0               NA
 6      Salinity              %o           27.9         30.1            30.4          29.7               NA
 7      DO                   mg/l           6.8          6.6             6.6           6.6               ≥4
 8      TDS                  mg/l          28.3         30.2            30.5          29.9               NA
 9      TSS                  mg/l           2.5          3.2             6.1           2.6               25
 10     BOD5                mgO2/l           2            2              2.5           3.5              < 20
 11     Total phos.          mg/l           0.4         0.31             1.1          0.30               NA
 12     Total Nitrogen       mg/l          1.56         1.63           0.564         4.130               NA
 13     Fe                   mg/l           0.1         0.04            0.09          0.11               0.1
 14     Pb                   mg/l         0.237        0.178           0.056         0.196               0.1
 15     Cd                   mg/l         0.056        0.048           trace         0.042             0.005
 16     Hg                   mg/l         0.511        0.116           0.083         0.933             0.005
 17     As                   mg/l         0.337        5.655           0.526         0.333              0.05
 18     Oil & Grease         mg/l            0            0              0.1           0.1                2
 19     Coliforms          MPN/100ml         5            2               0             0              1.000

Troi River Estuary

 No.    Parameters            Units                      Monitoring months                             TCVN
                                         07/2002     10-11/2002    01/2003        02-03/2003         5943:1995
                                                                                                    (swimming
                                                                                                        area)
 1      Current velocity     m/s           0.12         0.05            0.35          0.08               NA
                              o
 2      Temperature             C          30.0         23.3            15.0          25.7               30
 3      pH                      -           7.8          7.3             7.8           7.5            6.5 – 8.5
 4      Turbidity            NTU           18.3         10.3             9.2          13.8               NA
 5      Conductivity        mS/cm          1.75         23.2           22.16          32.8               NA
 6      Salinity              %o            0.8         15.8           16.87          19.9               NA
 7      DO                   mg/l           6.8          6.3            4.77           5.8               ≥4
 8      TDS                  mg/l          1.04         16.7           17.76          20.8               NA
 9      TSS                  mg/l           18           9.4             9.0          12.5               25
 10     BOD5                mgO2/l           4            7              6.8           7.5              < 20
 11     Total phos.          mg/l           0.2          1.2             3.2           1.0               NA
 12     Total Nitrogen       mg/l          0.89        1.920           0.736         2.730               NA
 13     Fe                   mg/l           0.1         0.16            0.34          0.18               0.1
 14     Pb                   mg/l         0.000        trace           0.225         0.078               0.1
 15     Cd                   mg/l         0.000        0.016           0.004         0.030             0.005
 16     Hg                   mg/l         1.241        0.233           0.417         0.467             0.005
 17     As                   mg/l         0.276        2.381           1.404         0.444              0.05
 18     Oil & Grease         mg/l            0            0               0            0.1                2
 19     Coliforms          MPN/100ml       210          910             678             9              1.000




                                                                               Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes




                                               ANNEX 2

    ESTIMATED POLLUTION LOADS ACCORDING TO THE PREVIOUS STUDIES
              Ha Long Bay Environmental Pollution Study (February 1998)
       The Study on Environmental Management for Ha Long Bay (September 1999)




                                                                       Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

                         Halong City Water Supply and Sanitation Project
                            Sanitation Feasibility Study Volume IIIB
                         EIA for Proposed Drainage and Sewerage System
                                     December 1998 Revised


Impacts According to Water Quality Model

The impacts of the proposed wastewater treatment plants have been calculated by using the
Water Quality Model in the Ha Long Bay Environmental Pollution Study (February 1998). In
the final report the scenario was made for year the 2000 with and without wastewater
treatment.

In that study the dilution capacity of Ha Long Bay is determined by its ability to disperse
pollutants. The mechanism for dispersing pollutants consists of dilution and flushing, which is
provided largely by the tidal water movement. The river runoff entering Cua Luc estuary
(Hong Gai Bay) also contributes to the dilution capacity of the bay, but its contribution is
small in relation to the tidal exchange with Ha Long Bay. Dilution capacity is defined by
pollutant concentrations below the Vietnam national water quality standards or other
appropriate standard.

The dilution capacity depends on:
-              The type of pollutant;
-              The location in the study area (Ha Long Bay and Cua Luc estuary);
-              The level of treatment applied to the pollutant;
-              The methods of disposal whether close to shore or through a marine outfall.

The primary pollutants considered here are:
1. BOD, biochemical oxygen demand, which affects the dissolved oxygen (DO) content in
the receiving water. DO is mainly related to marine ecosystem health and to the ability of the
receiving water to oxidise other contaminants e.g. ammonium nitrogen;
2. Coliform bacteria, which is an indicator of safe water conditions for public health, both
for recreation and edible shellfish;
3. TSS, total suspended solids, derived from land-based contaminant discharges, with storm
water runoff being the main source near the urban areas. The impacts from suspended solids
are related particularly to the coral reefs and aesthetics as reflected in water clarity. The latter
is related mainly to tourist activities and the perception of polluted water from low visibility.

Dilution capacity has been investigated for BOD/DO, TSS and coliform bacteria using the
C2DTD model and the pollution loads with five scenarios. The statistical summaries for the
2000 scenario were viewed using the Seainfo software.

The original five sites for presentation of the scenarios were as follows:
-                Hon Gai, central market area, South shore of Hon Gai
-                Hon Gai east, eastern South shore of Hon Gai, one of the options for a long-
term WWTP;
-                the narrowest point in Cua Luc strait at the entrance to Cua Luc estuary, close
to the originally proposed WWTP site (January 1998);
-                the central Bai Chay coast immediately offshore of the central tourist hotel
and swimming district (where the new package plant will discharge effluent);


                                                                        Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

-               Cai Lan, the future site for major port facilities, located inside Hon Gai Bay,
can be used as a reference for the proposed WWTP sites for both Bai Chay and Hon Gai.

According to the Final Report of the Ha Long Bay Environmental Pollution Study the key
findings from the scenario results are:
 DO level is generally not a problem, and BOD is well assimilated now.
 Coliform bacteria is a potential problem now and in the future. The benefits from the
proposed treatment options are large and treatment appears effective in reducing coliform
levels in the receiving waters near shore. The benefit is significant for Bai Chay in both the
short-term and long-term options.
 TSS from upland runoff dominates conditions in Cua Luc, but may not be the main
source of low transparency in Halong Bay.

             Table 1        Estimated major pollution loads without and with wastewater
                          treatment in Bai Chay and Hon Gai (no treatment in Hon Gai
                          during the first phase of the project) according to Ha Long Bay
                          Environmental Pollution Study Final Report February 1998
                  Baseline scenario      Year 2000 scenario            Year 2000 scenario with WW
                  (1997)                 Without WW treatment          treatment
                  Total Load from        Total      Load from          Total Load from Impact of
                  load    Human          load       Human              load    Human        WWT
                          population                population                 population
 Bai Chay
 BOD                633            494         720            578       138              87            85 %
 (kg/day)
 TSS (kg/day)     1,542          1,070       1,724          1,252       660             188            85 %
 Coliform           478            475         559            555        87              83            85 %
 (1012 /day)
 Hon Gai
 BOD                518            402         597            470      (106)            (70)         (85 %)
 (kg/day)
 TSS (kg/day)     1,051            870       1,200          1,018      (334)          (153)          (85 %)
 Coliform           387            386         453            452       (69)           (68)          (85 %)
 (1012 /day)

Several conclusions have been reached based on the model outputs and the scenario
simulations:
 The water quality model is an effective tool to relate land-based sources of pollutant loads
to receiving water quality conditions. The hydrodynamic model is accurate, and the software
system has proved to be easy to use.
 The model provides a good understanding of the dilution and flushing processes.
 The results show that the dilution capacity of Ha Long Bay is large, which is expected
because of its connection with the Gulf of Tonkin. On the other hand, the dilution capacity of
Cua Luc estuary (Hong Gai Bay) is limited and is related in a large measure to the area of the
estuary. If the bay is reduced in size by reclamation, the dilution capacity will be also reduced.
 Pollutant concentrations are the highest close to shore, and decrease rapidly out from the
shore. Concentrations are reduced to below background in Ha Long Bay. Generally pollution
impacts are confined to within 1-2 km of the shore, and problem areas tend to be localised
around discharge points. For this reason, pollution loads can be reduced through treatment and
will result in improved water quality in the bay.

                                                                               Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

In order to estimate the impacts of the proposed wastewater treatment plant in Bai Chay a
separate calculation was requested from DOSTE. The calculations were done according the
situation pertaining in April 1998. The following baseline information was submitted:

             Table 2 Sewage quantity to be treated
 Year                  Location                 Quantity               BOD will         BOD after
                                                 m3/day                be treated    treatment plant
                                                                        kg/day            kg/day
         Bai Chay
 2008    Cai Dam area – Kenh Dong Pond                     930            338              33.8
 2008    Vuon Dao area                                    1650            600               60
 2015    Vuon Dao area                                    3884           1362              136
         Hon Gai
 2008    North Sato (nearby Deo Sen cemetery)             (7000)        (1400)             (175)
 2015    North Sato (nearby Deo Sen cemetery)            (14000)        (2800)             (350)

The following discharging points were asked to be included to the calculations:


1.   Outfall of Cai Dam shrimp pond nearby Hung Thang island;
2.   Cai Lan new port nearby Ship Building Enterprise;
3.   North Sato island nearby Deo Sen cemetery;
4.   1 km far from Hon Gai Km 5 sea shore.

Pollution loads were calculated for dry season, and winter 1997 was used as baseline scenario.
The model was to be run for BOD/DO and coliform bacteria. The results were inconclusive
and the printed input data appeared not to reflect the scenario requested. The impact of other
load sources was so large that the impact of the proposed wastewater treatment plants did not
show in the results though in the previous presentation in Ha Long Bay Environmental
Pollution Study the impact was clear.

Comparing the baseline condition in 1997 with the 2008 scenario it can be noticed that the
number of bacteria in the shoreline will decrease. However, the number of bacteria is still
over the limit of 1000 MPN/100 ml according to the Vietnamese standard (TCVN 5943-1995)
for acceptable levels of pollutants in coastal waters for bathing and recreation areas.

It can be estimated that if the collection and treatment of wastewater is done in the proper way
there will be an improvement in the aquatic environmental quality. According to the pollution
load model based on the WHO Rapid Methodology the impacts of treated effluent are minor.




                                                                             Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

       THE STUDY ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FOR HA LONG BAY
                       JICA / NIPPON KOEI CO., LTD.
                               September 1999

14 POLLUTION LOAD

  14.1 Setting Sub-catchments
The catchment of the bays was divided into 14 sub-catchments for estimation of pollution
loads, except for Cat Ba island and other islands. The sub-catchments having main rivers (No.
1, 4 to 6, and 14) located in the northern part of the catchment from the east to the west. The
others (No. 2, 3, 8 to 13) are located in along the coast line of the bays, these gradient varies
from 12 to 20 %.

The land use pattern of each sub-catchment was analyzed by satellite image analysis. The
amount of freshwater flowing into the bays from each sub-catchment was estimated based on
the hydrological data and analyzed land use pattern. The estimated total freshwater inflow is
about 980 million m3/year, 82 % of which is discharged from the main rivers (Mip, Troi,
Man, Dien Vong, Mong rivers).


14.2    Specific and Non-specific Pollution Sources
Database

An inventory of pollution sources was taken to develop a database. The various data
especially on the land-based specific pollution sources in the study area were collected by
conducting questionnaire survey by the JICA study team in 1998. The established database
was provided to DOSTE by the JICA study team. It is recommended that database should be
updated in appropriate timing to provide users latest data and information, to accumulate data,
and to analyze time series changes of data. Pollution source inventory data should be updated
as soon as possible when new factory or any change of existing factory concerned as a
pollution source is registered of informed.

Pollution Sources

For pollution load estimation, specific pollution sources in the study area are largely classified
into three groups, namely, domestic wastewater including tourism, industrial wastewater
including coal mining activities, and livestock wastewater based on the types and/or activities.

While normally non-specific pollution sources are classified into two groups, land runoff and
precipitation. Land runoff in the study area consists of pollution loads from forest, agricultural
area, bare areas including denuded area by coal mining and urban areas.



  14.3 Runoff Pollution Load to the Bays
The pollution loads flowing into the bays are calculated based on the generated pollution
loads and runoff ratios. Domestic and livestock pollution loads are estimated by each
population and pollution load units. Pollution loads from industries are estimated by volume


                                                                       Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

of wastewater data obtained by the questionnaire survey for inventory and the Field Survey,
and a typical water quality of each type of factory in Vietnam and Japan.

Runoff ratio depends on land use, type of pollution sources, distance between location of
sources and the bays, and intensity of rainfall. In order to obtain the runoff ratios in the rivers,
calibration is to be considered between water quality taken by the Field Survey and estimated
runoff pollution loads. The pollution loads generated in the sub-catchments locating along the
coastline, flow into the bays directly or via streams with relatively high runoff ratio.

A runoff pollution load is estimated by means of parameters such as runoff ratio and pollution
load units which are set based on the result of the Field Survey. The pollution loads of BOD,
COD, SS, T-N and T-P flowing into the bays are estimated as shown below.

                                        Pollution Loads Inflow (Unit: ton/day)
Items               Domestic           Industries        Livestock       Non-specific          Total
BOD                   3.0                 0.3               1.9              1.9                 7.2
COD                   4.9                 1.9               2.8             12.3                21.9
SS                    8.5                 22.1             16.3            194.0               241.1
T-N                   2.7                 0.5               2.5              9.7                15.5
T-P                   0.3              negligible           1.5              4.2                 6.1
               Notes: Domestic pollution load includes that of tourism



15 MASS BALANCE OF POLLUTANTS IN THE BAYS
Material circulation and balance in the bays should be taken into consideration for the
analysis of organic pollution mechanism in the bays. For the analysis of mass balance of
pollutants in the bays, four representative calculation areas were set, namely, Bai Chay bay,
Bai Chay and Hong Gai, Cam Pha and Cua Ong, and Ha Long bay and Bi Tu Long bay. The
box mixing method was used for calculation. This method is that once pollution loads poured
in each area, the water and pollutants are mixed one tidal period (assumed 24 hours), and
pollutants are conveyed to the outsides with same water volume as inflow. In order to
simplify the calculation, exchange of water between outside of each area was not considered.
BOD was used as an indicator of pollutants.

Primary production, decomposition, settlement, and elution are key components for
clarification of organic pollution mechanism in the bays. These parameters are used to carry
out the material balance calculation as well as to establish water quality simulation model in
the bays. In order to obtain the values of these pollution mechanism parameters of the bays,
the JICA study team implemented tests in situ and laboratory.

The results of calculation for the present condition (1996) are shown below. Standing stock in
the table means BOD left in each line. The results of this mass balance analysis indicate that
the organic pollutant represented by BOD is mainly brought by the primary production.

                                Mass Balance of Pollutants (Unit: BOD ton/day)
              Items Contribution on increase in pollutants         Contribution on decrease Standing
Areas                                                              in pollutants            Stock
                      Pollution      Primary         Elution       Self-          Outflow
                      load inflow    Production                    purification *

                                                                           Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Bai Chay bay               2.9           45.3            0.6            42.4              6.3           0.1
Bai Chay and               7.6           62.3            0.6            65.0              5.3           0.2
Hong Gai
Cam Pha and Cua            2.0          1,234.2         21.3           1,255.1            1.1           1.3
Ong
Ha Long bay               10.3          2,004.2         13.5           2,009.7            10.7          7.6
               Notes: 1) *Self-purification includes decomposition and settlement
                      2) Pollution load inflow in Bai Chay and Hong Gai area includes that from the Cua Luc
               strait


16 WATER POLLUTION MECHANISM OF THE BAYS

  16.1 General Conditions of Water Quality in the Study Area
The results of the Field Survey indicate that the bays’ water, on the whole, had mesotrophic or
slightly eutrophic conditions and little deterioration. However, the water and sediment quality
inshore along Ha Long city and Cam Pha – Cua Ong areas was comparatively influenced by
land-based effluent discharges. It is obvious that run-off pollution loads from the catchment
were limited to the inshore areas, mainly close to untreated effluent discharge points. The
only pollution variable that appears to influence offshore areas was oil, due to the presence of
shipping activities throughout the bays.

SS and iron (Fe) were only problematic variables in some rivers. The rivers experience high
SS loads of more than 1,000 mg/l, which is likely a result of erosion from past and present
denuded areas by urbanization, coal mining, and agricultural activities. The relatively higher
Fe levels, for example more than 20 mg/l, in some tributaries are likely caused by mine waste
in concert with low pH of 2 – 4.

The concentrations of heavy metals in water and sediment of the bays were lower than the
coastal water quality standards in Vietnam or international standards. The almost uniform
distribution of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations throughout the bay sediment
suggests that their concentrations are considered to be natural.


  16.2 Water Quality Distribution in the Bays
Rainy Season

As observed in the Field survey in July 1998, land-based fresh water together with pollutants
is stagnated inshore from the Cua Luc strait to Ha Long bay. Besides, the water in the bays is
stratified wedge-wise by land-based fresh water and is intruded offshore water which shows
relatively higher values of COD, SS, and nutrients than those in the center of the Ha Long
bay.

Observed water quality distribution in the rainy season is consistent with this water mass
structure. Namely, relatively higher values of pollutants are observed inshore and offshore
(COD: 8 – 11 mg/l), while lower values in the center of Ha Long bay (COD: 5 -6 mg/l). Some
parameters such as SS are the highest (about 7 mg/l, except for the areas influenced by stirred
up bottom sediment) at the front of the salt wedge, so called null point, where run-off
pollutants tend to be settled.

Dry Season

                                                                               Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Observed water quality distribution in the dry season was a little different from that in the
rainy season. Salinity in the dry season was higher than in the rainy season due to the little
precipitation. Stratified water in the rainy season disappears in the dry season, so that offshore
water intruded into the inner part of bays. Accordingly, little differences of the water quality
such as transparency were observed throughout the bays in the dry season.


  16.3 Water Quality in the Rainy and Dry Seasons
The observed bays’ water quality parameters of BOD, COD, and SS were around twice as
high in the rainy season than the dry season. One possibility is that land based pollution loads
into the bays in the rainy season are higher than in the dry season. This is mainly due to a high
percentage of the pollutants washed out to the bays by the higher rainfall.

Another possibility is an effect of primary production. Chlorofyll-a values are around twice as
high in the rainy season than in the dry season. This means that photosynthetic rate, namely
generated organic matters by a primary production, in the rainy season is higher than in the
dry season. This relatively active primary production in the rainy season is caused by the
higher land based nutrients washed out by the precipitation, light intensity, and water
temperature compared with the dry season.


17 SIMULATION MODEL DEVELOPMENT

  17.1 Structure of the Model
The objective of developing a numerical simulation model is to estimate changes in key water
quality parameters for the different environmental scenarios derived from the socio-economic
frame. The model was first developed for the current conditions based on the data obtained by
the Field Survey and the existing data for its validation. The model simulated three processes:
hydrodynamics, diffusion, and nutrient cycling in the study area.

The hydrodynamic model was run to provide hydrodynamic conditions to be used in the water
quality modelling. The period of the run was chosen to correspond to the Field Survey period.
Four major tidal constituents were used as tidal forces rather than the single dominating
constituent because of the large range of the amplitudes for tidal current velocities depending
on the time.

Pollutant variables of the different model were SS, and it was simply treated as a single
variable. The diffusion model was run based on the results of the hydrodynamic model. The
nutrient cycling model was also run based on the results of the hydrodynamic model.
Pollutant variables addressed by the model were COD, inorganic nitrogen (I-N), organic
nitrogen (O-N), inorganic phosphorus (I-P), organic phosphorus (O-P), and DO.


  17.2 Validation of the Simulation Model
To validate results of the models, the simulated results were compared to the measured data
obtained by the Field Survey.

The tidal current ellipses extracted from the simulated results were compared to the measured
data for the validation of the tidal components of the simulated currents. The simulated results
rather met with the measured data. The averaged velocities of the simulated results were also
                                                                       Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

compared to the averaged velocities of the measured data. The simulated results roughly met
with the data.

The simulated results of the diffusion model and the nutrient cycling model were compared to
the measured data. The Field Survey data of SS, COD, T-N, and T-P decreased from the load
points to offshore and then increased toward the south and southeast. The simulated results
showed such trend.

On these grounds, it is concluded that the development numerical simulation model can be
used for the projection of future water quality in the bays.




                                                                       Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes




                                               ANNEX 3

                PROJECT PERFORMANCE INDICATORS OF PHASE I 2001 - 2003




                                                                       Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Waste water monitoring results in the executing time of the Project - Phase I (supplied
by PMU):

Monitoring waste water quality at 4 sewers flowing to the sea (02 in Bai Chay, 01 in Hon Gai
and 01 in Cam Pha) at the times of strong tide. The monitoring days from the year of 2001 to
2003 as follows:

2001: 21th June and 19th December in Cam Pha; 22th June and 20th December in Ha Long.
2002:13th June and 23th December in Cam Pha; 14th June and 24th December in Ha Long.
2003: 16th June and 26th December in Cam Pha; 17th June and 25th December in Ha Long.

Monitoring results in each year

Year 2001

 No.       Sampled positions            BOD5 (mgO2/l)             TSS (mg/l)            Coliforms
                                                                                      (MPN/100ml)
                                        Jun.        Dec.        Jun.     Dec.        Jun.       Dec.
                                                                                          4
  1     Sewer No. 11 (Hon Gai)          92.0        300.0       23.5     214.0      2.4x10     2.4x108
  2     Sewer No. 13 (Bai                42         910.0       115      329.5      4.3x103 2.4x108
        Chay)
  3     Sewer No. 21 (Bai               66.5        86.0         9.5     117.0      2.4x104       4.3x104
        Chay)
  4     Sewer No. 5 (Cam Pha)           11.6        71.0        34.4     64.0       2.4x104       1.1x108

Year 2002

 No.       Sampled positions            BOD5 (mgO2/l)             TSS (mg/l)            Coliforms
                                                                                      (MPN/100ml)
                                         Jun.       Dec.       Jun.      Dec.        Jun.       Dec.
                                                                                          6
  1     Sewer No. 11 (Hon Gai)           32.0       40.0       149.5     194.5      2.4x10     2.4x106
                                                                                          6
  2     Sewer No. 13 (Bai Chay)          24.0       40.0       225.5     158.0      2.4x10     2.4x106
  3     Sewer No. 21 (Bai Chay)          16.0       56.0       549.0     226.5      2.4x106 1.1x106
  4     Sewer No. 5 (Cam Pha)             1.6       80.0        23.0      38.5      9.3x106 2.4x106

Year 2003

 No.      Sampled positions           BOD5 (mgO2/l)             TSS (mg/l)            Coliforms
                                                                                    (MPN/100ml)
                                      Jun.         Dec.       Jun.     Dec.        Jun.       Dec.
  1     Sewer No. 11 (Hon Gai)        80.0          8.0       240.5    150.3      2.4x106 2.4x106
  2     Sewer No. 13 (Bai             100.0        32.0       223.0    121.0      2.4x106 1.1x106
        Chay)
  3     Sewer No. 21 (Bai              60.0        16.0        60.0    116.6      2.4x106       2.4x106
        Chay)
  4     Sewer No. 5 (Cam Pha)           4.0        64.0       184.5    147.3      2.4x106       2.4x106




                                                                          Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Monitoring results at each position over 3 years

Sewer No. 11 (Hon Gai)

 No.          Parameters                Year of 2001           Year of 2002         Year of 2003
                                      Jun.       Dec.         Jun.      Dec.       Jun.      Dec.
 1      BOD5 (mgO2/l)                   92        300           32       40          80        8
 2      TSS (mg/l)                     23.5      214.0        149.5     194.5      240.5     150.3
 3      Coliforms                    2.4x104 2.4x108         2.4x106 2.4x106      2.4x106 2.4x106
        (MPN/100ml)

Sewer No. 13 (Bai Chay)

 No.          Parameters               Year of 2001             Year of 2002        Year of 2003
                                      Jun.      Dec.          Jun.       Dec.      Jun.      Dec.
 1      BOD5 (mgO2/l)                   42      910.0          24.0       40.0     100.0      32.0
 2      TSS (mg/l)                     115      329.5         225.5      158.0     223.0     121.0
 3      Coliforms                    4.3x103 2.4x108         2.4x106 2.4x106      2.4x106 1.1x106
        (MPN/100ml)

Sewer No. 21 (Bai Chay)

 No.          Parameters                Year of 2001            Year of 2002         Year of 2003
                                      Jun.       Dec.         Jun.       Dec.      Jun.       Dec.
 1      BOD5 (mgO2/l)                  66.5       86.0         16.0       56.0      60.0       16.0
 2      TSS (mg/l)                      9.5      117.0        549.0      226.5      60.0      116.6
 3      Coliforms                    2.4x104 4.3x104         2.4x106 1.1x106      2.4x106 2.4x106
        (MPN/100ml)

Sewer No. 5 (Cam Pha)

 No.          Parameters                Year of 2001            Year of 2002        Year of 2003
                                      Jun.       Dec.         Jun.       Dec.      Jun.      Dec.
 1      BOD5 (mgO2/l)                  11.6      71.0           1.6      80.0       4.0       64.0
 2      TSS (mg/l)                     34.4      64.0          23.0      38.5      184.5     147.3
 3      Coliforms                           4
                                     2.4x10 1.1x108                 6
                                                             9.3x10 2.4x106       2.4x106 2.4x106
        (MPN/100ml)




                                                                          Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Monitoring results for each parameters over 3 years

BOD5 (mgO2/l)

 No.      Sampled positions             Year of 2001            Year of 2002         Year of 2003
                                       Jun.      Dec.          Jun.      Dec.       Jun.      Dec.
        Sewer No. 11 (Hon              92,0     300,0          32,0      40,0       80,0       8,0
        Gai)
        Sewer No. 13 (Bai               42        910,0        24,0     40,0        100,0         32,0
        Chay)
        Sewer No. 21 (Bai              66,5        86,0        16,0     56,0         60,0         16,0
        Chay)
        Sewer No. 5 (Cam               11,6        71,0         1,6     80,0         4,0          64,0
        Pha)

TSS (mg/l)

 No.      Sampled positions             Year of 2001           Year of 2002          Year of 2003
                                       Jun.      Dec.         Jun.      Dec.        Jun.      Dec.
        Sewer No. 11 (Hon              23.5     214.0         149.5    194.5        240.5     150.3
        Gai)
        Sewer No. 13 (Bai               115       329.5       225.5     158.0       223.0         121.0
        Chay)
        Sewer No. 21 (Bai               9.5       117.0       549.0     226.5        60.0         116.6
        Chay)
        Sewer No. 5 (Cam               34.4        64.0        23.0     38.5        184.5         147.3
        Pha)

Coliforms (MPN/100ml)

 No.      Sampled positions            Year of 2001            Year of 2002         Year of 2003
                                      Jun.      Dec.          Jun.      Dec.       Jun.      Dec.
  1     Sewer No. 11 (Hon                  4
                                     2.4x10 2.4x108                6
                                                             2.4x10 2.4x106       2.4x106
                                                                                            2.4x106
        Gai)
  2     Sewer No. 13 (Bai            4.3x103     2.4x108     2.4x106   2.4x106    2.4x106       1.1x106
        Chay)
  3     Sewer No. 21 (Bai            2.4x104     4.3x104     2.4x106   1.1x106    2.4x106       2.4x106
        Chay)
  4     Sewer No. 5 (Cam             2.4x104     1.1x108     9.3x106   2.4x106    2.4x106       2.4x106
        Pha)




                                                                          Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Flooded situation in the project area when the rainfall is over 50 mm: recorded at 10
positions, in which 3 positions in Cam Pha, 04 positions in Hon Gai and 03 positions in Bai
Chay.

Year 2001

  No.       Positions        Flooded        Flooded       Flood-       Frequ-           Flooded days
                              depth         duration        ed          ency
                               (cm)        (minutes)      times          %
   1     Bai Chay 1           20-30          48-110          7           20      21/ 6; 28/6; 29/6; 16/7;
                                                                                 2/8; 5/9; 26/10
   2     Bai Chay 2           30-40         105-115          5          16       21/6; 28/6; 2/8; 5/9;
                                                                                 26/10
   3     Bai Chay 3           30-40           83             2           4       28/6; 5/9
   4     Hon Gai 1            30-40         57-109           6          20       21/6; 28/6; 29/6; 2/8;
                                                                                 5/9; 26/10
  5      Hon Gai 2            30-40           52-98          3          12       21/6; 28/6; 29/6
  6      Hon Gai 3            30-40            82            1           4       28/6
  7      Hon Gai 4             >40          113-127          2           8       28/6; 2/8
  8      Cam Pha 1            30- 40         90-325          4          12       21/6; 28/6; 14/7; 27/7
  9      Cam Pha 2            30- 40          65-78          2           6       21/6; 28/6
  10     Cam Pha 3            30-40         192-204          2           6       14/7; 27/7

Year 2002

  No.       Positions        Flooded        Flooded       Flood-       Frequ-           Flooded days
                              depth         duration        ed          ency
                               (cm)        (minutes)      times          %
   1     Bai Chay 1           20-40          40-110          4           21      8/5; 1/7; 6/7; 10/7
   2     Bai Chay 2           20-40           35-85          3           15      8/5; 1/7; 6/7
   3     Bai Chay 3           30-40          30-120          3           15      8/5; 01/7; 6/7
   4     Hon Gai 1            20-30           35-90          3           15      8/5; 1/7;6/7
   5     Hon Gai 2            10-30           10-85          7           33      8/5; 10/5; 30/5; 9/6;
                                                                                 12/6; 1/7; 6/7
   6     Hon Gai 3            10-30          17-35           5          25       30/5; 9/6; 12/6; 1/7; 6/7
   7     Hon Gai 4            30-40         40-120           2          10       8/5; 01/7
   8     Cam Pha 1            20- 40        42-112           3          17       8/5; 11/7; 11/8
   9     Cam Pha 2            10-30          10-95           6          33       8/5; 9/6; 11/7; 26/7;
                                                                                 9/8; 11/8
  10     Cam Pha 3           20 ->40        42-175           2          11       8/5; 11/8




                                                                             Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Year 2003

  No.       Positions        Flooded        Flooded       Flood-       Frequ-           Flooded days
                              depth         duration        ed          ency
                               (cm)        (minutes)      times          %
   1      Bai Chay 1          30-40          70-192          3           20      29/5; 22/6; 30/9
   2      Bai Chay 2          30-40          25-150          6           40      29/5; 12/6; 22/6; 25/8;
                                                                                 09/9; 30/9
   3      Bai Chay 3          20-40         25-180           7          47       29/5; 12/6; 22/6; 25/8;
                                                                                 09/9; 10/9; 30/9
   4      Hon Gai 1           20-40         25-120           6          40       29/5; 12/6; 22/6; 25/8;
                                                                                 09/9; 30/9
   5      Hon Gai 2           20-30         15-110           4          27       29/5; 22/6; 25/8; 30/9
   6      Hon Gai 3          20->40          15-90           7          47       29/5; 12/6; 22/6; 25/8;
                                                                                 09/9; 10/9; 30/9
  7       Hon Gai 4          30->40         30-120           4          26       25/8; 29/5; 22/6; 30/9
  8       Cam Pha 1           20-40         30-110           5          24       24/5; 29/5; 24/7; 10/9
  9       Cam Pha 2           20-30         60-100           4          19       29/5; 22/6; 24/7; 10/9
  10      Cam Pha 3           30-40         25-135           5          24       24/5; 29/5; 22/6; 24/7;
                                                                                 10/9

Notes :

 No.
 1        Bai Chay 1        Corner of Vuon Dao - Construction Guesthouse
 2        Bai Chay 2        Vuon Dao Hotel - Trade Union Hotel
 3        Bai Chay 3        Doi stream
 4        Hon Gai 1         Cay Thap (Bach Dang Ward)
 5        Hon Gai 2         Foot of Church hill (Tran Hung Dao Ward)
 6        Hon Gai 3         Contruction Department Gate (Hong Hai Ward)
 7        Hon Gai 4         Foot of Da Tuong hill (Yet Kieu Ward)
 8        Cam Pha 1         Cat stream (Cam Trung Ward)
 9        Cam Pha 2         Ba Toa stream (Cam Tay Ward)
 10       Cam Pha 3         Bridge 1 (2001)/Tong Hop crossroad (2002 - 2003) (Cam Dong Ward)

 Frequency = Flooded Times/Observed Times
 Data obtained from Quang Ninh hydrometeorology station




                                                                             Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Health indicators recorded at 5 wards in the project area while executing the project (phase
I) show that there has been no typhoid, cholera, dysentery or malaria case. Nevertheless, the
number of diarrhoea cases have been significant as below table:

                                                                 Number of diarrhoea cases
  No.                 Areas surveyed
                                                        Year of 2001 Year of 2002 Year of 2003
 1      Bach Dang ward (Ha Long City)                        50             66              53
 2      Bai Chay ward (Ha Long City)                         30             42              49
 3      Ha Khanh ward (Ha Long City)                         12             20              19
 4      Cam Trung ward (Cam Pha Town)                        40             65              49
 5      Cam Binh ward (Cam Pha Town)                         27             46              27
                       Total                                159            239             197
Source: PMU, phase I


Solid waste quantity collected:

     No.                Areas                                          Quantity (m3)
                                                  Year 2001             Year 2002             Year 2003
     1     Ha Long City                            125,092               112,158               114,480
     2     Cam Pha Town                             36,270                45,735                47,365
           Total                                   161,362               157,893               161,845




                                                                             Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes




                                               ANNEX 4

                 WASTEWATER INFLOW AND LOAD MASS BALANCE –
                    HON GAI COLLECTOR SEWER CATCHMENT
                            Final Inception Report 2004




                                                                       Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes




                                         Wastewater generated:
                                           107,130 population
                                                              3
                                        @ 130L/h/d = 13,927m /d
                                       @ 50 g/h/d = 5,356 kg BOD/d
                                             & 5,356 kg SS/d




                                              Septic tank system:
   Functioning septic tank              70% wastewater water passes
                                                                                       No septic tank
  @ 35% BOD reduction =                  through effective septic tanks
      2,437 kg BOD/d                                                             No BOD reduction = 1,607
                                                  Discharge:
  @ 65% solids reduction =                                  3                             kg BOD/d
                                                 13,927 m /d
       1,312 kg SS/d                                                             No solids reduction = 1,607
                                               4,044 kg BOD/d
                                                                                           kg SS/d
                                                2,919 kg SS/d




                                         75% connected to secondary
                                              drainage system
                                                         3
                                                10,445 m /d
                                              3,033 kg BOD/d
                                               2,189 kg SS/d




                                       45% to be intercepted initially by
                                           new system to WWTP
                                                         3
                                                 4,700 m /d
                                              1,365 kg BOD/d
                                                985 kg SS/d




                                         Allow for 50% Infiltration into
                                         existing secondary drainage
                                                     system
                                                           3
                                                   7,050 m /d
                                                1,365 kg BOD/d
                                                  985 kg SS/d




                                                                            Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes




                                               ANNEX 5

             ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE PROJECT COMPONENTS




                                                                       Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Table 5.1 Identification, mitigation and monitoring of the impacts related to wastewater treatment

ISSUE           EXTENT               POTENTIAL IMPACTS                                MITIGATION MEASURES                                       NET EFFECTS              MONITORING,
                                                                                                                                                                         FOLLOW-UP
Air emissions   Local during         Minimal emissions of NOx, CO, CO2 and            Minimize dust and traffic emissions by good               Periodical short-term    Not required.
                construction and     particulates from the engines of the             operation management and site supervision.                impacts during
                operation.           rehabilitation equipment and traffic will have                                                             operation.
                                     a small and a short term effect on local air     Minimize the odour problems with proper operation
                                     quality and an infinitesimal effect on global    and maintenance especially during sludge removal.
                                     greenhouse gases. Dust emissions from
                                     traffic related to the construction works.       Establish buffer zone with trees around the
                                     During operation there might be odour from       wastewater treatment plant.
                                     ponds and during the sludge removal.

Noise           Locally during       Short-term noise associated with de-watering     Avoid working in residential areas during the night       Minimal impacts          Not required.
                construction in      and construction of oxidation ponds.             between 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. (TCVN 5949:1998)
                the vicinity of      Minimal short-term noise effect in populated
                construction sites   areas.                                           Minimise construction noise by using anti-vibration
                and along                                                             mountings and noise insulation on equipment
                transportation                                                        whenever possible. Contractor has to provide ear
                routes.                                                               protectors for workers when noise level in the
                No noise during                                                       working place exceeds 85 dB and train how to use
                operation.                                                            them.

                                                                                      Select transportation routes to minimize extra traffic.

Construction    Local                De-watering and land reclamation is needed.      During de-watering mixing of water and bottom             Permanent change of      Strict supervision
of WWTP                              Aquatic ecosystem will be disturbed.             sediment has to be avoided to keep turbidity level        land use type.           of construction
                                     Spills of oil and lubricant from construction    low.                                                      Permanent change         works is required
                                     equipment.                                                                                                 from aquatic to          from contractor.
                                                                                      Spills to water and soil have to avoid with careful       terrestrial ecosystem.
                                                                                      handling of petrol, oil and lubricants.




                                                                                                                                                Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Table 5.1 (continued)
Operation of    Areal long-term     Discharge of untreated wastewater to sea will   Operation and maintenance instructions have to be        Positive long-term       Regular
WWTP            during operation    decrease.                                       strictly followed.                                       impacts on seawater      monitoring of
                                    Health risks caused by untreated wastewater     Transportation of sludge has to be done according to     quality.                 treatment
                                    will decrease.                                  the instructions.                                        Improvement of           process.
                                    Treated effluent will have minor impacts on     Safety instructions have to be strictly followed.        health situation.
                                    seawater quality.                               Protective clothing has to be provided to the workers.   Improvement of
                                    Occupational health risks possible.                                                                      living condition of
                                                                                                                                             aquatic life.

Location of     Areal long-term     Discharge of treated effluent will have minor   If possible the effluent should be discharged through    Long-term impacts        Regular
outfall                             local impacts on water quality in receiving     mangroves to increase further the reduction.             on water quality.        monitoring of
                                    water body.                                                                                                                       water quality in
                                                                                                                                                                      the vicinity of
                                                                                                                                                                      outfall.




                                                                                                                                             Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Table 5.2 Identification, mitigation and monitoring of the impacts related to sewer construction


ISSUE            EXTENT             POTENTIAL IMPACTS                          MITIGATION MEASURES                         NET EFFECTS                    MONITORING, FOLLOW-
                                                                                                                                                          UP
Air emissions    Local during       Minimal emissions of NOx, CO, CO2          Minimize dust and traffic emissions by      Short-term impacts during      Not required.
                 construction       and particulates from the engines of the   good operation management and site          construction works.
                                    rehabilitation equipment and traffic       supervision.
                                    will have a small and a short term
                                    effect on local air quality and an
                                    infinitesimal effect on global
                                    greenhouse gases.
                                    Dust emissions from traffic related to
                                    the construction works.
Noise            Local during       Short-term noise associated with           Avoid working in residential areas during   Short-term impacts.            Not required.
                 construction in    construction of new collector sewers.      the night between 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.
                 the vicinity of    Minimal short-term noise effect in         (TCVN 5949:1998)
                 construction       populated areas.
                 sites and along                                               Minimise construction noise by using
                 transportation                                                anti-vibration mountings and noise
                 routes.                                                       insulation on equipment whenever
                                                                               possible. Contractor has to provide ear
                                                                               protectors for workers when noise level
                                                                               in the working place exceeds 85 dB and
                                                                               train how to use them.
                                                                               Select transportation routes to minimize
                                                                               extra traffic.
Wastewater       Areal              Amount of wastewater is decreased in       Spare pumps have to be provided to          Overall long-term positive     Monitoring of operation and
collection and                      open channels.                             every pumping station and there has to be   impacts. Decrease of           maintenance practices.
pumping                                                                        reverse system and enough capacity to       wastewater odour.
                                    Foul odour in the vicinity of channels     avoid overflow.                             Improvement of coastal
                                    will decrease.                                                                         water quality. Decrease of
                                                                               Electricity supply has to be guaranteed.    health risks.
                                    Breaks in wastewater pumping might                                                     Pollution risk if pumps are
                                    cause serious environmental risks.                                                     not working, and untreated
                                                                                                                           wastewater will flow to sea.




                                                                                                                                             Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Table 5.3 Identification, mitigation and monitoring of the impacts related to drainage channel rehabilitation and extension


ISSUE            EXTENT             POTENTIAL IMPACTS                               MITIGATION MEASURES                           NET EFFECTS                 MONITORING,
                                                                                                                                                              FOLLOW-UP
Air emissions    Local during       Minimal emissions of NOx, CO, CO2 and           Minimize dust and traffic emissions by good   Minimal impacts.            Not required.
                 construction in    particulates from the engines of the            operation management and site supervision.
                 the vicinity of    rehabilitation equipment and traffic will
                 rehabilitation     have a small and a short term effect on local
                 sites and along    air quality and an infinitesimal effect on
                 transportation     global greenhouse gases.
                 routes.
                                    Dust emissions from traffic related to the
                                    construction works.
Noise            Local during       Short-term noise associated with the            Avoid working in residential areas during     Short-term impacts.         Not required.
                 construction in    rehabilitation of channels and transportation   the night between 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. (TCVN
                 the vicinity of    of excavated material and construction          5949:1998)
                 rehabilitation     material. Minimal short-term noise nuisance
                 sites and along    in populated areas.                             Minimise construction noise by using anti-
                 transportation                                                     vibration mountings and noise insulation on
                 routes.                                                            equipment whenever possible. Contractor
                                                                                    has to provide ear protectors for workers
                                                                                    when noise level in the working place
                                                                                    exceeds 85 dB and train how to use them.

                                                                                    Select transportation routes to minimize
                                                                                    extra traffic.
Rehabilitation   Areal              Overall positive impacts due to the             Rehabilitation has to be carried during dry   Overall long-term           Regular monitoring of
of channels                         improvement of hydraulic capacity of            season to avoid big amounts of storm water    impacts if solid waste      the condition of the
                                    channels.                                       in channels and minimize the nuisance to      management will be          channels to prevent
                                    Decrease of flooding areas due to removing      tourism.                                      improved at the same        blockages caused by
                                    of blockages in channels.                       Very strong public awareness campaign has     time.                       solid waste.
                                    Decrease of health risk.                        to be continued to train people not to use
                                                                                    channels as dumps.




                                                                                                                                           Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes




                                               ANNEX 6

                           PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENTS




                                                                       Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes


                         Public Consultation Meetings
                    Wastewater Treatment Plant Component

Two public consultation meetings were undertaken for the wastewater treatment plant
component, these being as follows:

    1. On 3rd August 2004 a public consultation meeting took place at the office of the Ha
       Khanh ward Peoples Committee. This meeting, led by PMU Director Mr Pha and
       attended for the Consultant by the Environmental Specialist (local) and
       Sanitation/Drainage Engineer, focused mainly on the WWTP but also involved
       discussion on drainage and sewerage.

    2. On 3rd December 2004 a further public consultation meeting was held at the office of
       the Ha Khanh ward Peoples’s Committee, the focus being on resettlement issues, with
       an associated strong environmental bias. BVI’s Resettlement Specialist led the
       meeting, with support again from the Consultant’s Sanitation/Drainage Engineer. Mr
       Pha represented the PMU.




                                                                       Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

                                               Translation
    MINUTES OF THE PUBLIC CONSULTATION MEETING
HALONG CITY & CAM PHA TOWN DRAINAGE & SANITATION PROJECT PHASE II
     SEWERAGE AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN HON GAI


Time           :            3p.m 3rd August 2004
Venue :        Office of Ha Khanh People Committee


I. PARTICIPANTS :

Representative of:

I.1. Halong City and Cam Pha Town Drainage and Sanitation Project Management Unit
:

        1. Mr. Phan Cam Pha : Director of PMU
        2. Ms. Pham Thi Hue: PMU staff

I.2. Consultant (BVI and WECO)

        1. Mr. Nguyen Dang Anh Thi: Local Environmental Specialist (BVI)
        2. Mr. Nguyen Trung Kien: Drainage/Sanitation Engineer (WECO)

I.3. PC of Ha Khanh phuong and related resident group

        1. Mr. Nguyen Thanh Son: Chairman
        2. Mr. Nguyen Quoc Bao: Group leader of resident group 17/K3

I.4. PC of Hong Gai phuong

        1. Mr. Pham Quoc Phuong Vice Chairman

I.5. PC of Bach Dang phuong

        1. Mr. Nguyen Cao Duc: Land use staff

II. CONTENT

The participants listened to Phan Cam Pha, who introduced the Project including: Sewerage
system and wastewater treatment plant capacity of 7,000 m3/day in Hon Gai; other
components to reduce flooded situation for Hon Gai, Bai Chay and Cam Pha; and
procurement of equipment. Mr. Pha emphasized the importance of wastewater treatment plant
in Hon Gai. The location of wastewater treatment plant is according to the Master Plan and it
also has had the agreement among PMU and other related departments.




                                                       1/2             Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Mr. Son was interested about buffer zone for wastewater treatment plant and the wastewater
treatment technology. Mr Pha answered this question.

Mr. Thi introduced the EIA report preparation and he presented generally the environmental
impacts of Project as well as mitigation measures in the stages of Design, Construction,
Operation and Maintenance.

Mr. Phuong was interested about storm overflow chambers and he was explained by Mr.
Kien.

Mr. Bao fully agreed the location of wastewater treatment plant. However, he advised to take
care of the impacts of the wastewater treatment plant on the surrounding area. He said that he
is supporting the project vigorously.

Mr. Son said that he also supports the project but he advised the consultant to propose
practical mitigation measures. He also suggested PMU to care about resettlement plan and site
clearance as well as the capacity of canal to receive treated water. Mr. Pha recorded his ideas.

The minutes is accepted and signed by all parties.

The meeting finished at 4.15 pm on the same day


     Halong City and Cam Pha Town                                 PC of Ha Khanh phuong
         Drainage and Sanitation                                         (Signed)
        Project Management Unit
          Signed and stamped)




          PC of Hong Gai phuong                                   PC of Bach Dang phuong
                 (Signed)                                                 (Signed)




            Resident group 17/K3                                        Consultant
                  (Signed)                                               (Signed)




                                                       2/2                   Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

     HALONG CITY AND CAM PHA TOWN DRAINAGE & SANITATION PROJECT PHASE II
            MINUTES OF PUBLIC CONSULTATION MEETING (3)
                      HON GAI WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT


Date/Time: 3rd December 2004/2.00PM
Venue:                 Office of Ha Khanh Ward People Commitee


I.      PARTICIPANTS

Representatives of:

I.1. Halong City and Cam Pha Town Drainage and Sanitation Project Management Unit

        1. Mr. Phan Cam Pha, Director of Quang Ninh PMU
        2. Mr. Bang, Officer of Quang Ninh PMU

I.2 Consultant (BVI and WECO)

        1. Mrs Lam Thi Mai Lan: Local Resettlement Specialist (BVI)
        2. Mr Ng Trung Kien: Drainage/Sanitation Engineer (WECO)

I.3 Local Authority

        1. Mr. Son: Chairman of Ha Khanh Ward People Committee
        2. Mr. Khau: Head of the project’s affected Hamlet 3 of Ha Khanh ward,
        3. Mr. Viem: Head of the project’s affected Hamlet 2 of Ha Khanh ward
        4. Heads of those living in Hamlets 2 and 3;

I.4 Local Community:

        23 PAPs from Hamlets 2 and 3.

II: CONTENT

Purpose
The purpose of the meeting was two fold: (i) to brief the PAH’s on the proposed works and to
explain the environmental and resettlement impacts to the local community; and (ii) to discuss
and record the views of the affected community to enable suitable mitigation measures to be
introduced during the design and construction phases.

Presentations
Mr. Son, Chairman of Ha Khanh WPC, introduced the participants of the meeting.

Mr. Pha explained the background of the project on resettlement and environmental issues. He
explained current Quang Ninh Province policy on resettlement and compensation, referring to
current experience on Phase I. This was followed by reference to environmental issues and
likely mitigation measures, again with reference to measures adopted for the current Phase I
project works.

                                                       1/4             Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

Mr. Kien started by describing the technical aspects of the planned wastewater treatment
plant: process design, the number and type of treatment units to be constructed on the site. He
then went on to talk about environmental aspects, explaining how a buffer zone around the
site had been established in full conformance with Vietnamese regulations, quoting TCVN
7222:2002, the relevant standard for domestic waste treatment. Mr Kien explained that the
buffer zone had been minimized by providing off-site sludge treatment and incorporating
trees as screening around the perimeter of the treatment plant site.

Mrs Lan then explained her role as specialist for consultant BVI producing a Resettlement
Action Plan (RAP), as required by Quang Ninh Province and the funding agency, the World
Bank. There would be houses to be resettled resulting from both the 7 ha treatment plant site
itself, and the effect of the buffer zone required by Vietnamese regulations. Her aim was
firstly to explain the rights of the project affected peoples (PAP’s) with regard to current
government regulations on resettlement, particularly the compensation aspect and likely
resettlement site. She then wanted to hear the view of the affected peoples: their questions;
their priorities; their needs; their concerns; and any suggestions they may have on minimizing
negative impacts. These views would be incorporated into her Resettlement Action Plan.
General Discussion
Despite the resettlement and environmental impacts described to them, nearly all the PAP’s
present (22 out of 23), expressed their general support for the project and respected the Quang
Ninh Province selection of Ha Khanh as the site for the WWTP. Subject to satisfactory
clarification of queries raised on environmental and resettlement issues (see below) the
affected residents of Ha Khanh agreed to comply with resettlement orders.

Mr. Pham Huy Viem, Head of Hamlet 2 made some general comments which are shown on
the attached annex.

Environmental Issues

Having been informed of the environmental impacts and mitigation action plans for WWTP
construction and operation, the PAP’s main concern was that the buffer zone boundary be
carefully determined by those concerned – Quang Ninh Province officials and their
consultants. What they wanted avoided is a situation that has arisen in connection with the
Deo Sen landfill site and Deo Sen cemetery, where [reportedly] inappropriate buffer zones
have resulted in environmental nuisance to local residents not relocated under the respective
resettlement schemes.

In view of these previous problems, the PAP’s present at the meeting implored the Quang
Ninh PMU and their consultants to do their utmost to minimise the negative environmental
impacts of this new initiative.

Resettlement Issues

The PAP’s asked for full clarification on the compensation and resettlement policy to be
adopted. They wanted to know what compensation they will get and where they were likely to
be resettled, and when. Mr Pha answered that the proposed resettlement site was Cao Xanh.
He then went on to enlarge upon earlier discussion by detailing for the PAP’s the current
policy on resettlement of Quang Ninh Province, enlarging on the standard procedures for
public information and consultation and on compensation.

                                                       2/4              Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes



The PAP’s asked to be allowed to make their own decisions on resettlement options, with
adequate time. For the consultant Ms Lan advised that the consultation process would be
continued throughout the RAPs implementation. The residents were assured that inventory
data collected now from each PAH for the purpose of establishing losses will be updated as
necessary during the implementation stage.

The PAP’s concurred that the affected residents fall into two categories. In the first category
of those more willing to be resettled are those who are poorer or those who are currently being
impacted by the Deo Sen landfill and cemetery interventions (mainly people of Hamlet’s 2
&3). In the second category of those less willing to be resettled are the wealthier residents
who possess land.

Of large concern to the PAP’s is the loss of agricultural land that will arise. Because land use
provides an important source of income for many PAPs, unemployment will result. In answer
to this cocern Ms Lan described the rehabilitation assistance policy of the project.

Conclusions
Mr. Son Chairman of the WPC, summarized the meeting’s result by confirming overall
community support for the project. He asked the affected people to maintain their life styles
as they currently are until the RAP has been formally approved by the World Bank and the
required land acquisitions have been made. Finally, the Chairman requested that the PMU
ensure that the transition period be made as short as possible to minimize any negative
environmental and resettlement impacts on the local ward people.

The minutes are accepted and signed by all parties.

The meeting finished at 4.30 PM on the same day.

Project Management Unit                               Ha     Khanh    Ward               People
                                                      Commitee(Chair Man)
(Signed and Stamped)                                  (Signed)




Head of Hamlet 2                                      Head of Hamlet 3
(Signed)                                              (Signed)




BVI and WECO (Consultant)
(Signed)




                                                       3/4               Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes




      ANNEX TO PUBLIC CONSULTATION MEETING OF 3rd DECEMBER 2004

                Comments of Hamlet 2 Representative – Mr Pham Huy Viem


1.      Every project has a goal of serving people. Nevertheless, because the proposed
        WWTP site on this project is to be adjacent to a resident area, I consider it potentially
        unfeasible. I suggest that the WWTP site be moved to the area of the old Thanh Cong
        Coal Mine in Group 17, Area II.

2.      I think the the Government should produce an action plan of resettlement for the local
        residents. The residents should be informed in advance prior to project start of the
        location(s) they will be resettled (km from present site).

3.      I want to know to what extent the odour from the treatment plant will affect local
        residents [outside the buffer zone] in the hot season.

4.      Most of the local residents earn their living in various ways like fishery, vegetable
        growing and farming in general. After their land is acquired, I want to know how these
        people will make a living and who will be responsible. I need a specific answer.

5.      Finally, I would like to know if this project has been approved by the People’s Council
        of all three levels.


Head of the Hamlet 2 Resident Area
Signed


Pham Huy Viem




                                                       4/4                Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes


                          Public Consultation Meetings
                       Drainage and Sewerage Components

Two public consultation meetings were held in connection with the drainage and sewerage
components.

        1. On 30th November 2004 a public consultation meeting was held at the office of
           the Halong Urban Environmental Company, the purpose being to discuss and get
           feedback from the phuongs on environmental issues related to the planned
           sewerage and drainage for Bai Chay and Hon Gai. The PMU was headed by Mr
           Pha, Project Director and the Consultant represented by the (local) Environmental
           Specialist and Sanitation/Drainage Engineer.

        2. On 1st December 2004 a similar public meeting with phuong heads attendance
           was held at the Cam Pha office of the Urban Environment Company. Again, Mr
           Pha represented the PMU and the Environmental Specialist and
           Sanitation/Drainage Engineer attended for the Consultant.




                                                       1/4             Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

                                               Translation
    MINUTES OF THE PUBLIC CONSULTATION MEETING
HALONG CITY & CAM PHA TOWN DRAINAGE & SANITATION PROJECT PHASE II
                DRAINAGE AND SEWERAGE IN HON GAI


Time           :            2 p.m 30th November 2004
Venue :        Office of Ha Long Urban Environment Company


I. PARTICIPANTS :

Representative of:

I.1. Halong City and Cam Pha Town Drainage and Sanitation Project Management Unit
:

        1. Mr. Phan Cam Pha : Director of PMU
        2. Mr. Hoang Van Bang : PMU staff

I.2. Consultant (BVI and WECO)

        1. Mr. Nguyen Dang Anh Thi: Local Environmental Specialist (BVI)
        2. Mr. Nguyen Trung Kien: Drainage/Sanitation Engineer (WECO)

I.3. PC of Hong Hai phuong

        1. Mr. Ho Dinh Cam

I.4. PC of Cao Thang phuong

        1. Mr. Chu Quoc Cuong

I.5. PC of Tran Hung Dao phuong

        1. Mr. Pham Van Tho

I.6. PC of Yet Kieu phuong

        1. Mr. Be Duc Toan

I.7. PC of Bai Chay phuong

        1. Mr. Ha Hong Son




                                                       1/3             Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

II. CONTENT

The participants listened to Phan Cam Pha, who introduced the reason and contents of the
public consultation meeting, the origin and objectives of the Project and the components of
the Project. Mr. Pha described preliminary the environmental impacts of the project.

Mr. Kien, to act on Mr. Pha’s authority, detailed the components of the project in Hon Gai
and Bai Chay. When listening to Mr. Kien’s presentation, the representatives of phuongs
asked some questions in order to know the components in their management areas.

 Mr. Tho offered a suggestion to study the existing underground works for reasonably
designing pipelines. Mr. Pha and Mr. Kien recorded his ideas.
 The representatives of phuongs fully agreed that : for executing the project, it is obligatory
to excavate some areas. Therefore, the basic issue is to have reasonable execution methods as
well as to apply proper mitigation measures in construction stage.

Mr. Thi introduced the EIA report preparation and he presented generally the environmental
impacts of Project as well as mitigation measures in the stages of Design, Construction,
Operation and Maintenance.

Mr. Son admitted that the impacts in construction stage are obvious, but his interesting things
is the effectiveness of project in drainage, sewerage and wastewater treatment for his
communication.

Mr. Pha introduced the communication component of project and explained the effectiveness
of project.

Mr. Tho guaranteed that he will announce the project, its impacts as well as mitigation
measures to the people living in his area. He also suggested a cooperation between PMU and
local authority.

Mr. Cam said that he fully supports the project but he advised the PMU to announce the time
of construction in detail. He also suggested the construction supervising consultant need to
supervise strictly the bidders.

Mr. Toan said that he also supports the project and he is very happy because the project
includes components in his management area. He asserted that the people in his phuong
strongly support the project because the objectives of project is reduction of flood and
improvement environmental condition.

The representatives of phuongs fully agreed to support and to cooperate with PMU in
implementation the project.

Mr. Pha recorded all ideas of the representatives of phuongs as well as undertook to apply
mitigation measures to mitigate the impacts of project.

The minutes is accepted and signed by all parties.

The meeting finished at 3.30 pm on the same day


                                                       2/3               Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

     Halong City and Cam Pha Town                                       Consultant
         Drainage and Sanitation                                         (Signed)
        Project Management Unit
          Signed and stamped)




           PC of Tran Hung Dao                                     PC of Yet Kieu phuong
                 (Signed)                                                 (Signed)




         PC of Cao Thang phuong                                    PC of Bai Chay phuong
                 (Signed)                                                 (Signed)




          PC of Hong Hai phuong
                 (Signed)




                                                       3/3                   Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

                                               Translation
    MINUTES OF THE PUBLIC CONSULTATION MEETING
HALONG CITY & CAM PHA TOWN DRAINAGE & SANITATION PROJECT PHASE II
                      DRAINAGE IN CAM PHA


Time           :            2 p.m 1st December 2004
Venue :        Office of Cam Pha Urban Environment Company


I. PARTICIPANTS :

Representative of:

I.1. Halong City and Cam Pha Town Drainage and Sanitation Project Management Unit
:

        1. Mr. Phan Cam Pha : Director of PMU
        2. Mr. Nguyen Anh Tuan : PMU staff
        3. Mr. Nguyen Quoc Kien : PMU staff

I.2. Consultant (BVI and WECO)

        1. Mr. Nguyen Dang Anh Thi: Local Environmental Specialist (BVI)
        2. Mr. Nguyen Trung Kien: Drainage/Sanitation Engineer (WECO)

I.3. PC of Cam Thinh phuong

        1. Mr. Bui Dang Chien

I.4. PC of Cam Phu phuong

        1. Mr. Nguyen Tien Nhu

I.5. PC of Cam Son phuong

        1. Mr. Do Kim Anh

I.6. PC of Cam Thach phuong

        1. Mr. Pham Van Cuong

I.7. PC of Quang Hanh phuong

        1. Mr. Truong Van Pha




                                                                       Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

II. CONTENT

The participants listened to Phan Cam Pha, who introduced the origin and objectives of the
Project and the components of the Project, included drainage system in Cam Pha Town. He
explained the reason and contents of the public consultation meeting. He also expressed
himself to listen the comments as well as to cooperate with local authorities for project
implementation.

Mr. Nguyen Trung Kien, to act on Mr. Pha’s authority, detailed the components of the project
in Cam Pha. When listening to Mr. Kien’s presentation, the representatives of phuongs asked
some questions in order to know the components in their management areas. Mr. Pha and Mr.
Kien answered their questions.

Mr. Nguyen Dang Anh Thi introduced the EIA report preparation and he presented generally
the environmental impacts of Project, especially for Cam Pha’s drainage, as well as mitigation
measures in the stages of Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance.

Mr. Bui Dang Chien suggested PMU and consultant to study the ground levels of the streams
when designing and constructing. He also proposed to construct step by step for mitigating the
impacts in a large area. He said that the people in his phuong strongly support the project
because of their imperativeness about flooding situation.

Mr. Nguyen Tien Nhu suggested PMU and consultant to select proper streams for mitigation
social impacts in the construction stage.

Mr. Do Kim Anh said that he acknowledged the government’s attention in investment of the
project, especially for the streams in Cam Son phuong. He hope the project will be carried out
more quickly and he would like to disclose the project components for every people to
understand and support the project.

Mr. Pham Van Cuong offered his suggestion to PMU and consultant to study the practical
situation of drainage in Cam Thach to reach high effectiveness in the stages of design,
construction and operation. On behalf of people living in his area, he expressed his gratitude
to PMU who cares about drainage issue in his area.

Mr. Truong Van Pha suggested to study the rainfall for proper designing of the streams.

Mr. Pha recorded all ideas of the representatives of phuongs.

The minutes is accepted and signed by all parties.

The meeting finished at 3.45 pm on the same day




                                                                       Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes

     Halong City and Cam Pha Town                                       Consultant
         Drainage and Sanitation                                         (Signed)
        Project Management Unit
          Signed and stamped)




          PC of Cam Son phuong                                   PC of Cam Thinh phuong
                 (Signed)                                                (Signed)




         PC of Cam Thach phuong                                    PC of Cam Phu phuong
                 (Signed)                                                 (Signed)




        PC of Quang Hanh phuong
                (Signed)




                                                                             Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes




                                               ANNEX 7

             MATERIAL FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS CAMPAIGN




                                                                       Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes




                                               ANNEX 8

                       APPROVAL OF PHASE II FEASIBILITY STUDY




                                                                       Black & Veatch International
Ha Long City & Cam Pha Town Drainage & Sanitation Project – Phase II
Environmental Impact Assessment - Annexes




                                      DRAWINGS




                                            Black & Veatch International

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:181
posted:7/27/2012
language:
pages:117