Great Lakes 101 by T8QqX451

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									    Great Lakes “101”




A primer on regional resource management
          systems and structures
                 Program Agenda
 Overview of Great Lakes resources
 Organization for resource management


 Water quantity management


 Water quality management


 Biological resource management


 Summary




                                         2
                 Program Agenda
 Overview of Great Lakes resources
 Organization for resource management


 Water quantity management


 Water quality management


 Biological resource management


 Summary




                                         3
                            Overview of
                  Great Lakes Resources
Great Lakes cover 94,000 square miles and
drain area about twice that size
Basin includes all or parts of eight states and
two Canadian provinces
   Population of 35 million (U.S. and Canada)
Contain about 9 quadrillion gallons of water, or
18 percent of the world’s freshwater supply
   Coastline of 10,000 miles


                                                    4
        St. Marys River
                      L. St Clair   L. Erie              L. St. Lawrence
                                          210’             L. St. Francis
                         750’
                                                              L. St. Louis
                        L. Huron
                             Niagara R.
                                              802’       St. Lawrence River
1330’
             923’
                                                 L. Ontario
             L. Michigan
          L. Superior
                 Program Agenda
 Overview of Great Lakes resources
 Organization for resource management


 Water quantity management


 Water quality management


 Biological resource management


 Summary




                                         7
                         Organization
Great Lakes resources are managed by two
countries, eight states and two provinces
 Three international
agreements between
the U.S. and Canada
serve as a platform
for managing most of
the water resources


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                            Organization
 A system has been
established to oversee and
implement these agreements
that involves Bi-National
Organizations and the
Governments.
 These groups share common
goals of the agreement, but
have differing responsibilities.


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                            International Joint
                                  Commission
   Mandate:
      Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909
      Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement


   Mission:
     Prevent and resolve disputes over transboundary,
     water use, water quality and air quality issues
   Organization:
        3 Commissioners per country (appointed)
        Staff in Washington, Ottawa and Windsor
        Several boards, council and working groups
                                                         10
                                  Great Lakes
                          Fishery Commission
   Mandate:
      U.S.- Canada Convention on Great Lakes Fisheries
     (1955)
   Mission:
        Research on fishery management
        Eradication of sea lamprey
   Organization:
        4 Commissioners per country
        Staff in Ann Arbor, Michigan
        Lake Committees and councils
                                                          11
                         Organization –
               Binational Organizations
Bi-National organizations (IJC
and GLFC) were created to
administer and/or provide
oversight to these agreements
 An extensive network of
international and interagency
boards and committees has
been established under these
agreements to provide advice,
make decisions, and implement
specific actions
                                          12
Structure of International
      Organizations
                           Organization –
                                      The Parties
 Although only the Federal governments of the
U.S. and Canada signed the agreements, the
term Parties is used to refer to the Federal, state,
provincial and tribal agencies responsible for
their “on-the-ground”
implementation
 A number of interagency
committees and working groups
have been established to
coordinate their actions and report
on progress
                                                       14
Structure of Governmental
      Organizations
                 Program Agenda
 Overview of Great Lakes resources
 Organization for resource management


 Water quantity management


 Water quality management


 Biological resource management


 Summary




                                         16
                          Water Quantity
                           Management
Great Lakes are drinking water source to 40
million residents in U.S. and Canada
U.S. draws more than 40 billion gallons from
Great Lakes a day (half for power production)
Levels and flows of Great Lakes are only
partially controlled
 Diversion of water from Great Lakes to other
watersheds has been subject of litigation and
legislation
                                                 17
               Boundary Waters Treaty
   1909 treaty between U.S. and Great Britain
 Provides mechanism for prevention and
resolution of water disputes
   Created the International Joint Commission (IJC)
 IJC established
Boards of Control
to manage flows
and uses of water
at key points

                                                       18
                   Niagara River Treaty
   1950 treaty between U.S. and Canada
 Provides for diversion of Niagara River water
for hydropower production
 Tasked the IJC to oversee implementation of
the Treaty
 Created Int’l Niagara
Committee to monitor
flows and report to
State Dept.

                                                  19
             International Joint Commission
                           Boards of Control
Boards of 1-5 members each from U.S and
Canada regulate flows in accordance with IJC
approved regulation plan
     Balance hydropower, navigation
    and other needs
     Maintain levels within specified

    range
     Measure flows, monitor control

    facilities, conduct studies
     Install ice booms

Advise IJC and conduct public
meetings                                       20
                                     The Parties
              Implementation of Treaty
Structures that control flows are
operated by federal government,
state and provincial power
authorities, and private
hydropower
Committee on Basic H&H
coordinates data collection and
management
Other agreements related to,
but separate from BWT
                                                   21
                               Other Agreements
                    Great Lakes Charter
Non-binding agreement between Great Lakes Governors
and Premiers, created in 1985 to establish principles for
water resource management of Great Lakes, Connecting
Channels and tributaries
Section 1109 of WRDA 1986 gave each Governor veto
power over any new diversions
 Annex to Charter signed in 2001 pledges development of
binding process for decisions on new diversions and
consumptive uses
 Water Management Working Group established to lead

development of Annex 2001 process

                                                            22
                 Water Quantity Management
                          Current Actions
IJC completing Reference Study to evaluate
potential changes to the 1958-D regulation plan
affecting levels and flows in Lake Ontario and the
St. Lawrence River
IJC planning future Reference Study on Lake
Superior regulation plan
 Council of Great Lakes Governors have
completed public review of second draft plan for
regulating future diversions and consumptive
uses
                                                     23
                 Program Agenda
 Overview of Great Lakes resources
 Organization for resource management


 Water quantity management


 Water quality management


 Biological resource management


 Summary




                                         24
                            Water Quality
                            Management
 Water quality has been severely degraded by
pollution from industrial and municipal
discharges, as well as agricultural and non-point
sources
 Toxic pollutants have caused fish tumors,

consumption advisories, and other use
impairments
 Contaminated sediments in
many tributaries and harbors
contain a legacy of pollution
from decades of abuse
                                                    25
                      Great Lakes Water
                      Quality Agreement
 Executive Agreement between US and Canada
signed in 1972, amended in 1978 and 1987
   Restore and protect Great Lakes ecosystem
Promote consistent standards and regulations
between Parties
 Lakewide Management Plans (LaMPs) to
reduce or eliminate loadings of critical pollutants
Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) to eliminate
beneficial use impairments at Areas of Concern
                                                      26
              International Joint Commission
                             Advisory Boards
 Boards and Council created
to advise Commissioners
   Board/Council actions
      Review progress in
     implementing Agreement
      Conduct studies and develop

     guidance to support
     implementation of Agreement
      Provide input to, and

     implement IJC biennial
     priorities
                                               28
                                      The Parties
                   Implement Agreement
 Interagency committees
established to coordinate
implementation and reporting
LaMPs led by EPA and EC with
agency and stakeholder input
RAPs are locally driven with state
or provincial lead
U.S. implementation largely from
existing regulatory and restoration
programs
                                                    29
                   Other Plans and Agreements
                Great Lakes Restoration
   Binational Toxics Strategy
     EPA/Environmental Canada led plan for virtual
     elimination of persistent toxic substances
   Great Lakes Regional Collaboration
     U.S. initiative developed in response to Executive
     Order 13340
     Collaboration composed of federal, state, tribal and
     municipal partners with nongovernmental observers
      Strategy for protection and restoration of Great Lakes
     drafted by Teams aligned with eight issue areas
     identified by Governors
                                                                30
                    Water Quality Management
                          Current Actions
 Parties continue development and
implementation of RAPs
   Parties to update LaMPs in 2006
 Parties to initiate review of the Water Quality
Agreement (required every 6 years), which may
result in an amendment
 IJC focuses attention on priority issues on
biennial basis (current priorities include chemicals
and human health, land use and climate change
impacts, and aquatic invasive species)
                                                       31
                 Program Agenda
 Overview of Great Lakes resources
 Organization for resource management


 Water quantity management


 Water quality management


 Biological resource management


 Summary




                                         32
                      Biological Resource
                            Management
 Recreation in the Great
Lakes is multi-billion dollar
industry, with over 4 million
registered recreation boats
Biological resources of the
Great Lakes have been stressed by pollution and
development in coastal areas
 Great Lakes fishery has been highly altered by
introduction of non-native species, both
intentionally and unintentionally
                                                   33
                    Convention on Great
                        Lakes Fisheries
 Executive Agreement between U.S. and Canada
signed in 1955
 Mechanism for
planning fishery
management,
research, and sea
lamprey control
Created Great
Lakes Fishery
Commission
(GLFC)
                                                34
               Great Lakes Fishery Commission
                           Advisory Boards
 Board and Committees created
to advise Commission
 Board/Committee actions

     administer research
     identify emerging issues

     support Lakes Committees




GLFC facilitated development
of Joint Strategic Plan


                                                35
                                        The Parties
                  Implement Convention
 Day to day management of
fisheries by state, provincial and
tribal agencies
 Actions integrated by Lake

Committees
 Joint Strategic Plan developed by

state, provincial, tribal and federal
agencies



                                                      36
             Biological Resource Management
                         Current Actions
Sea lamprey control activities continue by
GLFC and Parties
Joint Strategic Plan being used to prioritize
projects under Great Lakes Fishery & Ecosystem
Restoration Program




                                                 37
                 Program Agenda
 Overview of Great Lakes resources
 Organization for resource management


 Water quantity management


 Water quality management


 Biological resource management


 Summary




                                         38
                                      Summary
                Binational Management
 Three binational agreements serve as platform
for managing most Great Lakes resources
 Binational commissions have structure of boards
and committees that provide advice and make
recommendations
Governments (Parties) are responsible for
management actions and have structure of
committees to coordinate efforts


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                                               Summary
                         Binational Management
Not all resources are fully addressed by the
binational agreements:
       invasive species (other than Sea Lamprey)
       land use, urban sprawl
       soil and water conservation
       climate change
Management of physical, chemical and
biological resources not integrated


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