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					Learn Not to Burn
Reducing Backyard Burning
   of Household Waste
  What is Backyard Burning?
• Backyard burning (BYB) is the
  uncontrolled combustion of
  household waste in barrels,
  open pits, wood stoves, or
  fireplaces.
 (also known as burn barrels, open
 burning, or household trash
 burning)

                                     2
  Why are we Concerned?
Some consider this an
  issue of the past.




                        But in reality, this is
                          often a common
                        practice in less urban
                          areas of the U.S.       3
      Why are we Concerned?
• Backyard burning causes accidental fires.

• Backyard burning releases toxic chemicals
  into environment that can cause adverse
  health impacts.

• Backyard burning is illegal in
  many places.
                                              4
         2003 Trash Fires in Illinois
                                                                 Property
                                            Number    Injuries   Loss ($)
Outside rubbish, trash or
waste fire                                    1,601          1     34,756
Other outside rubbish fire                      691          0      6,671
Garbage dump or landfill fire                    21          0          0
Construction or demolition
landfill fire                                   89           0            0
Dumpster or outside trash
receptacle fire                               1,043          1     50,800
Outside stationary compactor
trash fire                                       10          0      1,000
TOTAL                                         3,455          2     93,227
Source: Illinois State Fire Marshal, 2004                             5
      Release of Toxic Chemicals
 Direct Exposure
 (e.g. inhalation)       •   Particulate Matter
                         •   Sulfur Dioxide
                         •   Carbon Monoxide
                         •   PAHs
                         •   Metals
                         •   Hexacholorobenzene
   Indirect Exposure     •   Dioxin
(e.g. bioaccumulation)                            6
Direct Exposure           Indirect Exposure
 Health Effects             Health Effects
• Eye and lung irritant   • Reproduction and
                            development effects
• Asthma trigger
                          • Endocrine Disruption
• Emphysema
                          • Immunosuppression
• Other respiratory
  diseases                • Cancer
                                                   7
What are Dioxin-like Chemicals?

• A group of chlorinated organic compounds
  including dioxins, furans, and some PCBs.

• Produced when most materials are burned.

• Occur from incomplete combustion of fuels or
  waste, some chemical manufacturing, and high
  temperature metrological processes. Includes
  some natural sources (e.g. forest fires).
                                                 8
          Dioxin-like Chemicals



• There are 30 different Dioxin-like compounds.
• 2,3,7,8 TCDD is the most studied of the chemical
  class.
• EPA considers dioxins to be “potent animal
  toxicants” and “likely human carcinogens.”
• USHHS and IARC classify 2,3,7,8 TCDD as a
  human carcinogen.                                  9
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                                                                                                                                      the United States for the Years 1987, 1995, and 2000, November 2006.




                                  or              bu
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Top U.S. Inventoried Dioxin Releases
                                                                                                                                      Source: An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in




       10
 U.S. Inventoried Dioxin Releases in 2000
Source: An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in
the United States for the Years 1987, 1995, and 2000, November 2006.

                                              Coal Fired
      Municipal
                            Other            Utility Boilers
     Wastewater
                            11%                    5%
       Treament
         Sludge                                                     Backyard
           6%                                                       Burning of
 Diesel (On and                                                      Waste
   Off Road)                                                          35%
      7%
                                                          Industrial
   Municipal Solid                                         Wood
      Waste                     Medical Waste            Combustion
    Combustion                   Incineration                3%
        6%                           27%
                                                                                   11
   Why are Dioxins a Problem?

• Persist in the environment.
• Shown to be highly toxic in animal and human
  studies – even at extremely low levels.
• Impact reproduction & development, suppress the
  immune system, and can cause cancer.
• Bioaccumulative and remain in the body for a long
  period of time.
• Principal route of exposure is via food intake.
                                                 12
      Evolving Dioxin Science
• The Good News:
  The average bioaccumulation level in humans has dropped
    from 55 ppt (in the 1980’s) to 25 ppt (1990’s)
• The Bad News:
  The level at which health effects are detectable in animals
    and humans is lower than previously estimated.
    Consequently, current exposures remain a concern.
• The Bottom Line:
  We need to take steps to further reduce dioxin exposure.

                                                             14
The BYB concern is not just about
  releases, but also exposure...
       Most BYB occurs in rural
      areas where emissions can
         readily contribute to
     contamination of animal feed
          and grazing lands.



                                    15
    Why is Backyard Burning a
            Priority?
• BYB is the largest remaining quantified source
  of dioxin emissions.
• BYB used by an estimated 20 million
  Americans.
• Proximity to animal feed and food crop
  production increases concern.
• Reducing BYB also reduces other toxic
  releases including metals, PAHs, and
  particulate matter.
• Reducing BYB will reduce accidental fires.
                                               16
              Three Tiered Approach:
              Education, Infrastructure,
                  and Compliance
• Educate government officials and the general
  public on the concerns of BYB.

• Provide information on infrastructure and
  alternatives to BYB in rural areas.

• Strengthen state, tribal, and local ordinances on
  BYB. Support greater compliance with existing
  regulations.
                                                      17
• The GLRC is an Executive Order issued in 2004 .
• Priority setting exercise among Great Lakes
  stakeholders.
• Reducing household trash burning was selected as
  a high priority. The Learn Not to Burn Toolkit is
  a product of the GLRC and the GLBTS
  participants.



                                                  18
      What’s Inside the Toolkit ?
        One Stop Shopping for Resources

• Introduction to the issue and Powerpoint presentation
• Case studies of successful national, regional, and local
  burn barrel programs
• Current trash burning laws in the Great Lakes Region
• Example ordinances on reducing trash burning
• Available brochures and outreach materials
• The Western Lake Superior Sanitary District Toolkit
• Information on infrastructure and waste transfer stations


                                                              19
                 Hubbard County
                   Minnesota
• In 1994, the County banned open trash burning
• The ban has been received positively by citizens
• The County provided two waste transfer stations and 14
  recycling sheds in the county
• The facilities are paid for by a special tax assessment
• Trash burning has been virtually eliminated
• Success is due, in part, to the fact that residents are not
  charged a tip fee at waste transfer stations and recycling
  centers, and also because the county refused to accept
  ashes from burn barrels.

                                                                20
          St. Regis Mohawk Tribe
                 New York
• From 1995-99, the Tribe developed a solid waste
  management plan, planned a waste transfer facility, and
  began an outreach campaign on burn barrels.
• In 2002, banned burn barrels except with a permit and
  began trash pick up service for $2.00 per bag.
• Transfer station was built with funding from USHUD,
  USEPA, USDA, and IHS.
• Compliance with ban has been high, particularly since
  residents have become educated on the topic.



                                                            21
                              Air Defenders


• Interactive program for 5th grade students and up
• Includes lecture, science experiments, video,
  songs, video game and more
• Provides background information for adults or
  parents
• Helps students understand how individual
  behavior impacts everyone’s environment
                                                      22
23
24
 What Can the Public Do?
• Share the message
• Identify other waste disposal methods in
  your community
  – Reduce (avoid disposable items)
  – Reuse (more use means less waste)
  – Recycle (paper, plastics, metallic items)
  – Compost (leaves, yard waste, vegetable wastes)
  – Identify local landfills which accept waste

                                                 25
  What Can Local Officials Do?
• Education, Education, Education
• Find an option for your community within
  our case studies
• Use the Learn Not to Burn toolkit for
  support and ideas
• Contact EPA or your state agency for
  assistance

                                             26
27
             Acknowledgments
• Members of the Burn Barrel Subgroup of the Great Lakes
  Binational Toxics Strategy, in particular our State Agency
  partners and Gina Temple-Rhodes of the Western Lake
  Superior Sanitary District
• Erin Newman, Air and Radiation Division, U.S. EPA
  Region 5
• Jessica Winter, Environmental Careers Organization
  Intern, U.S. EPA
• Susan Boehme, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant
• Elizabeth Hinchey Malloy, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant
• Christine McConaghy, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and
  Education Intern, U.S. EPA
• Ted Smith, U.S. EPA Great Lakes National Program
  Office
                                                          28
Where Can You Get More
     Information?

 Information on the national program,
   links to local programs, and other
  resources may be found on line at:
    www.openburning.org
  www.epa.gov/msw/backyard



                                        29
Get a Toolkit and Reduce Burning in
            Your Area!

 For a copy of the Learn Not to
 Burn Toolkit on CD, please
 contact Erin Newman at
 newman.erin@epa.gov
 or visit our booth at the
 conference this week.

                                  30

				
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