APES Chapter 24 Study Guide
1. In what state is the Love Canal located?
2. Name the company that was responsible for dumping toxic and cancer-
causing wastes into an old canal excavation called the Love Canal.
3. After Love Canal was abandoned, what was it sold and used for?
4. The Love Canal illustrates which of the following?
a. that preventing pollution is safer and cheaper than cleaning it up
b. that political officials are alert and sympathetic to their constituents
c. that pollutants can be stored safely underground for a long time
d. that polluting companies can escape from the costs and
responsibility of their actions
5. The U.S. is about 5% of the world’s population and produces about what
% of the world’s solid waste?
6. Garbage produced directly by households and businesses accounts for
what % of the solid waste produced in the U.S.?
7. What is the single largest category of U.S. solid waste?
8. The amount of solid waste produced in the U.S. in 1996 could fill a convoy
of garbage trucks that would stretch around the world how many
9. What is the % of the recycling/composting rate of U.S. municipal solid
10. What % of the solid waste produced in the U.S. is buried in landfills or
11. Consumers throw away enough aluminum to rebuild the entire U.S.
commercial airline fleet about every _____________________.
12. Which of the following is not one of the four properties that make waste
e. Carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic
13. The EPA does not consider a material hazardous if a small business
produces how many pounds of waste per month?
14. How many tons of hazardous waste are produced for each person in the
U.S. per year (according to the EPA)?
15. What % of U.S. hazardous waste is not regulated by hazardous waste
16. Hazardous waste that is legally designated and in a controlled form make
up what % of the total hazardous waste produced?
17. Which of the following strategies should be given top priority in a low
18. Which of the following strategies would be given lowest priority in a low
19. Scientists estimate that in a low waste society what % of solid and
hazardous waste could be eliminated throug reduction, reuse, and
20. Industrial ecology tries to
a. maximize the input of energy per unit of output
b. maximize the input of matter resources per unit of output
c. make resource use an open system
d. adjust inputs and outputs to the carrying capacity of the
21. What program is the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M)
22. The Xerox Corporation is an example of a shift towards what type of
23. Coca-Cola and Pepsi conducted studies that showed their glass soft drink
bottle (16 oz) cost ____________ that of throwaway bottles.
24. An environmentalist would say that the best way to handle soft drink and
beer containers would be to use _______________________.
25. Which country has a beverage container deposit fee that is 50% higher
than the cost of the drink to encourage refillable bottles?
26. If an environmentalist was at the checkout counter which of the following
would he/she most likely say or do?
a. Plastic please
b. Paper please
c. I brought my own bag
d. Walk out of the store
e. Either plastic or paper
27. From the following list which would be the least desirable place for a used
a. In an incinerator to produce electricity
b. Asphalt pavement
c. In the foundation of a low-cost passive solar home
d. In the landfill
28. True/False: Compost is most completely described as soil conditioner and
organic fertilizer. If the statement is false, make it true.
29. What is the most desirable type of recycling?
30. Which of the following substances can be recovered from soild waste?
31. Which of the following would critics of recycling be most likely to claim?
a. There is abundant landfill space in all areas
b. It is not worth the effort
c. There is no solid waste problem
d. Incineration is the safest and most efficient way to dispose of solid
e. It does not make sense to recyle if it costs more than landfilling or
32. An environmentalist would say the primary benefits of recycling are?
33. List some obstacles to recycling.
34. List some ways in which those obstacles to recycling can be overcome.
35. In 2000, the U.S. recycled what % of all its wastepaper?
36. Recycling paper
a. Decreases profuction costs
b. Conserves water and landfill space
c. Creates jobs and saves money
d. Saves energy
e. All of the above
37. One of the following is not a problem with plastic materials. Which is it?
a. They are unnecessarily and excessively used as single-use and
throw away packaging
b. They are made of man different types of resins
c. They can harm animals that swallow them or become entangled in
d. Toxic lead and cadmium can leach out of plastics
e. They decompose readily in landfills
38. Which of the following would be most difficult ot recycle?
39. List some reasons why plastic is desirable.
40. Which TWO of the following would be the most desirable in reducing
a. Recycling and reusing hazardous wastes
b. Deposit in ocean trenches
c. Perpetual storage
d. Conversion to less hazardous and non-hazardous materials
f. Substitution of safer products that do not produce hazardous waste
41. Name the country with the most comprehensive and effective hazardous
waste detoxification program.
42. Is bioremediation most effective for toxic chemicals or specific organic
43. What does phytoremediation use to remove contaminants?
44. Name the two states that banned the method of incineration.
45. List the components of a modern state-of-the-art landfill.
46. What do sanitary landfulls generally have problems with?
47. What does underground anaerobic decomposition in landfills produce?
48. How could deep well injection of hazardous waster result in the
contamination of groundwater?
49. Where do most legal U.S. exports of hazardous waste go?
50. In the U.S. what is the maximum legal level of lead in the blood?
51. Which of the follwing sources of lead in the U.S. would probably cause the
a. Lead glazing in ceramicware used to serve food.
b. Lead solder from seamed food cans
c. Paints used in older buildings
d. Atmospheric lead that settles on the ground
e. Chewing on lead pencils
52. Name some ways in which chlorine is used.
53. Name some ways in which chlorinated organic solvents can be replaced.
54. Which of the following could replace chlorine bleaching of wood pulp and
a. Carbon dioxide
b. Dihydrogen oxide
c. Titanium dioxide
d. Hydrogen peroxide
55. How are the majority of dioxins in the U.S. released into the atmosphere?
56. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 does all of the
a. Requires the EPA to set standards for hazardous-waste
b. Requires all firms that handle more than 100 kg of hazardous waste
per month to have a permit stating how such wastes are to be
c. Provides guidelines and financial aid to establish state waste
57. The Superfund program pays
a. The doctors’ bills and lawyers’ fees for pollution events
b. For testing for lead in paint, water, and air samples
c. To monitor hazardous wastes
d. To clean up inactive or abandoned hazardous waste dumping sites
a. Cleaning up contaminated Dept. of Energy sites used to make
nuclear weapons will run between $100 billion and $400 billion over
b. Pollution prevention is cheaper than cleanup strategies
c. Cleaning up toxic military dumps is estimated to cost $100-200
billion over 30 years
59. Total cleanup bill will cost U.S. taxpayers ___________ per day/
________________ per hour nonstop for almost ____________ years.
60. Environmental justice movement attempts to dismantle
a. Discriminatory land-use practices
b. Disparate citing of risky techniques
c. Differential enforcement of environmental regulations
d. Exclusionary zoning ordinances