Immigration and International Trade � Visas by r45PE72


        By: Simonetta Simmons
Table of Contents:
   Overview
   Opposing Arguments – Low Skilled Immigrant
    Labor/High Skilled Immigrant Labor/Miscellaneous
   Facts: Immigration In America
   Obama vs. Romney – Immigration Reform
   Visas
   Relevance of High and Low Skilled Immigrant Labor
   Current U.S Legislation
   Policy Proposal
   Sources
   The United States has had a history of immigration
    since its conception in 1492. However, in todays
    immigration discourse, dispute over the need for
    more low and high skilled immigrants as tools for
    U.S global competitiveness versus popular views of
    immigrants as causers of high national
    unemployment is pervasive. At the forefront of the
    discussion lie questions of the relevance of U.S
    issuances of temporary work permits and visas as
    means of leveraging corporate needs for additional
Opposing Arguments – Low Skilled
Immigrant Labor
  Consume    a high amount of government resources
   (health care, education, welfare, etc.) without
   paying a corresponding high rate of taxes.
  Less-skilled American citizens earn less money and
   have fewer job opportunities because they must
   compete with immigrants in the job market
Opposing Arguments – High Skilled
Immigrant Labor
  Wage    Depression/”Cheap genius” – Exploitation
   of highly skilled workers at the expense of highly
   skilled U.S natives who are equally qualified.
  H1-B visa is a “Subsidy for corporations.” An
   excuse for corporations to increase their profit
  “Outsourcing Visa”
Opposing Arguments – Miscellaneous

  National   identity and language is disappearing.
   The great “melting pot” is being replaced by
   divisive multiculturalism.
  More immigrants means more opportunity for
   terrorists, drug dealers and other criminals to enter
   the country
FAIR – Federation for American
Immigration Reform
   FAIR advocates "7 Principles of True Comprehensive
    Immigration Reform":
   1. Reduce the flow of immigrants
   2. No legalization
   3. No Guest-Worker Program
   4. Protect Wages and Standards of Living
   5. More Enforcement
   6. No Asylum
   7. Immigration Time Out (Very strict immigration only
    for "a narrowly focused refugee resettlement program"
    and limit family reunification each year)
Facts: Immigration In America
  Since  2000, the U.S has admitted an average of 1
   million legal immigrants per year
  According to U.S Census Bureau – 12.7% of the U.S
   population was foreign-born in 2006
  Median age of immigrants who have arrived since
   2000 is 28.1 years compared with 35.6 years for the
   native-born population.
  Immigration is helping America avoid the serious
   demographic problems confronting rapidly aging
   societies such as Russia, Italy, Japan and soon China.
Obama – Immigration Policy
   Continue to fulfill the federal government’s
    responsibility to securing our borders
   Demand accountability for businesses that break the
    law by undermining American workers and
    exploiting undocumented workers
   Strengthen our economic competiveness by creating
    a legal immigration system that reflects our values
    and diverse needs; and
   Require responsibility from people who are living in
    the United States illegally.
Mitt Romney – Immigration Policy
   Raise visa caps for highly skilled workers
   Grant permanent residency to eligible graduates
    with advanced degrees in math, science, and
   Secure Border
   Enforce Law
   Oppose Amnesty
   Process of receiving a visa/green-card citizenship
     Legal  immigrating is a difficult process. Most
      immigrants who gain legal permanent residence status
      (green card) are either closely related to a legal
      resident in the US or are sponsored by an employer
      who must demonstrate a lack of sufficient U.S. workers
      available for the position.
     A maximum of 50,000 “diversity visas” are offered
      each year to immigrants from countries that send
      relatively few immigrants to the U.S.
     Only 5,000 permanent residence visas are available
      each year for low-skilled workers.
Visas – Continued
   In addition to green cards, the U.S allocates
    nonimmigrant visas that allow foreigners to come to
    the US temporarily for study, tourism, business and
   Foreigners entering the U.S for temp periods
    outnumber those who are given legal residency.
Visas – Continued
   Education, Business or         Temporary agricultural
    Athletics (O visas)             workers (H-2A visas)
   International cultural         Temporary workers
    exchange visitors (Q visas)     performing other services
   Inter-company transferees       or labor of a temporary or
    (L visas)                       seasonal nature (H-2B
   Specialty occupations in
    fields requiring highly
    specialized knowledge (At
    least a Bachelors degree)
    (H1-B visa)
Visas – Continued
    Training in a program not primarily for employment (H-3 visas)
    Treaty Traders & Treaty Investors (E visa)
    Chili Free Trade Agreement Professional (H-IB1 visa)
    Mexican and Canadian (NAFTA) Workers (TN and TD visas)
    Singapore Free Trade Agreement Professional (H-1B1 visa)

  Department  of Homeland Security -- 33.7 million temp
  visas issued during 2006. 24.9 million came for
  pleasure, 5 million for business, 1.7 million for
  employment, and 1.2 million for study and academic
High-Skilled Labor: H1-Visas
   The H-1B is a non-immigrant visa in the US under
    the Immigration and Nationality Act, section 101 (a)
    (15) (H). It allows U.S employers to temporarily
    employ workers in specialty occupations.
   Must be renewed every three years
   If foreign worker in H-1B status quits or is dismissed
    from the sponsoring employer, the worker must
    either apply for or be granted a change of status
    to another non-immigrant status, find another
    employer, or leave the United States.
Relevance of High-Skilled Labor
   “In an age when attracting the first-round
    intellectual draft choices from around the world is
    the most important competitive advantage a
    knowledge company can have, why would we
    add barriers against such brainpower—
    anywhere?” – Thomas Friedman
Relevance of High-Skilled Labor
  American   companies need to be able to compete
   for top talent in the world. Our producers must be
   able to hire the right workers with the right skills to
   compete in the global marketplace.
  This expansion of global demand occurs during a
   time when the number of native-born Americans
   earning degrees in those fields is woefully
   inadequate. Meanwhile Canada, Britain, Australia,
   and Singapore are competing for the same talent,
   while China and India become more attractive for
   returning expatriates.
Relevance of High Skilled Labor
   According to the study, the H-1B visa program for highly
    skilled foreign professionals “has played an important role in
    U.S. innovation patterns” over the past 15 years. This is
    evidenced by the fact that the number of inventions, as
    measured by patents, has increased when H-1B caps are
    higher due to “the direct contributions of immigrant inventors.”
   In 2008, Bill Gates testified that “Microsoft has found that for
    every H-1B hire we make, we add on average four additional
    employees to support them in various capacities.”
Relevance of High Skilled Labor –
    Successful high-tech companies, Google, eBay, Yahoo!, Sun
     Microsystems, and Intel were cofounded by immigrants.
    Duke University Pratt School of Engineering 2007 study –
     ¼ of all engineering and technology companies launched
     between 1995 and 2005 had at least one key founder
     who was foreign-born. Companies produced $52 billion
     in sales and employed 450,000 workers in 2005.
    Most immigrant-founded companies are in software and
     innovation and/or manufacturing service sectors.
Relevance of High Skilled Labor –
    Foreign  nationals living in the United States were listed as
     inventors or co-inventors on almost a quarter of the
     international patents filed from the United States in 2005
    H1-B visa program is the main channel for American
     companies to higher highly skilled foreign born workers
    H1-B visa allows a worker to enter the U.S temporarily
     for a renewable period of three years. Current law
     maintains a cap of 65,000 visas/year plus another
     20,000 for graduates of U.S. universities who have
     earned at least a master’s degree.
Relevance of High Skilled Labor –
    H1-B workers create employment opportunities for native-
     born Americans by increasing R&D, production, and
    Research shows that for every H1-B visa requested by an
     S&P 500 or technology company, the company typically
     adds five additional workers.
Low-Skilled Labor
  12 million foreign-born people are living in the U.S. without
   authorization, number grows annually by 100,000
  Most illegal immigrants are low-skilled workers and most
   come from Mexico and Central America
  The continuing inflow of unskilled immigrants to the U.S has
   been driven by economic and demographic trends
  Supply of native-Americans who traditionally filled such jobs
   continues to shrink as the American worker becomes older
   and better skilled.
  Low skilled immigrants enable sectors such as retail,
   construction, landscaping, restaurants, and hotels to expand.
   Expansion creates middle-class jobs in management,
   bookkeeping, marketing and other areas that employ
   native-born Americans.
Current US Legislation
   HR 3012 - Fairness for High-Skilled immigrants act
     To amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to
      eliminate the per-country numerical limitation for
      employment-based immigrants, to increase the per-
      country numerical limitation for family-sponsored
      immigrants, and for other purposes.
   Passed in the House, still awaiting Senate approval
    and subsequent presidential signature.
Current US Legislation Continued
   American JOBS Act – “non controversial measure” to
    get American’s back to work
     Spending   $35 billion in additional funding to protect
      the jobs of teachers, police officers, and firefighters
     Spending $30 billion to modernize at least 35,000
      public schools and community colleges.
     Spending $15 billion on a program that would hire
      construction workers to help rehabilitate and
      refurbishing hundreds of thousands of foreclosed homes
      and businesses.
Policy Proposal – High Skilled Labor

  Raise  the current H1-visa cap of 65,000 to attract
   foreign talent and leverage corporate needs for
   high-skilled labor.
  Expand the annual quota of employment based-
   green cards in order to secure valuable workers.
  Make long-term investments in the human capitol of
   their foreign born workers.
  Further investments in U.S education system to
   produce highly skilled American workers in the
Policy Proposal – Low Skilled Labor
  Temporary   worker program - renewed every three
   years as a means to quell illegal immigration –to meet
   demands of growing U.S. labor market (must offer
   enough visas to meet the demands of employers and
  Temporary worker programs must include worker
   mobility – a portable visa that would allow temporary
   workers to freely choose whom the work for with a
   minimum of red tape will enhance bargaining power in
   the marketplace and improve their pay and working
  Investment in greater border security initiatives
   Immigration Policy Institute:
   Migration Information Source --Immigration statistics:
   CATO Institute: Trade and Immigration (
   Globalization and Immigration:
   Trade and Foreign Policy:
   Economic Benefits of Immigration reform:
   Trade and immigration:
   The impact of international migration on international trade: an empirical study of Australian migrant intake from
    Asian countries (
   State Department Diversity Visa Program (
   History of U.S Immigration ( H1-visa debate
   Link to Dr. Malawer’s website: (

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