Beyond the Brainstorm: by HC120727002253


									Beyond the Brainstorm:

   Deepening online collaborative
       dialogue for learning
          Simmons College
            January, 2010
Sarah Haavind, Ed.D. ~

Lesley University, School of Education
New Venue: new opportunities
Anytime, anywhere, but “scheduled
 Asynchronous, text-based reflective,
Collaboration at a distance.
Shift away from lecture-based to
 learner-centered, inquiry-based or
 online pedagogy.
       Starting Point & Bridge
• How do we take advantage of online
  discussion opportunities to foster
  collaborative dialogue, or collaborative

• How do we define the instructor's role when
  students are working as a group?

• How do we define the learner’s role?
  Fostering Collaborative Presence
 Set a community culture;
 Construct discussion prompts that are
  inherently collaborative;
 Explicitly teach participants HOW to engage
 Nurture collaborative presence by facilitating
  from the side/coaching;
 Assessments that support and recognize
  collaborative efforts.
                   Research on
   Collaborative Online Pedagogy
 Sloan Consortium (Sloan-C)
 Hiltz & Goldman (2005)Learning Together
 The International Review of Research in
  Open and Distance Learning (IRRODL)
 Garrison & Anderson (2003) E-Learning in
  the 21st Century
 Collison et. al. (2000) Facilitating Online
         Research (continued)
 White & Weight (2000) The Online Teaching
 Bender (2003) Discussion Based Online
  Teaching to Enhance Student Learning:
  Theory, Practice & Assessment
 Roberts (2004) Online Collaborative
  Learning: Theory & Practice
 Roberts (2006) Self, Peer and Group
  Assessment in E-learning
   Setting a Community Culture
 Make expectations explicit (Learner Support
  Agreement, Up-front info)
 Weekly announcements that remind
  participants of upcoming responsibilities and
 Respond to Tech and “What do I do?”
  questions asap
 Sit on your hands when questions about
  content appear. Online wait time!
 Peer Moderating with training/support.
    Purposeful Discussion Spaces
   Student Lounge
   Technical Questions
   Questions about Content
   Class Debriefing Meetings
Community Building
            Quick and helpful
            Community-
             building activities
            Virtual Cafe for
            Safe environment
             for risk-taking
       Expectations for Learners
    You and your peers are expected to read
        everything in course discussions.
 Be succinct (re-read, refine);
 Enter a new message subject for
  each post;
 Cite phrases you are building on.
5 Keys: Facilitating the Learning
 Generative questions for dialogue
 Grounded questions for dialogue
 Interventions for wandering discussions &
  Landscapes, not summaries
 Rubrics that support deepened dialogue
 Assessments that support deepened
 Cast a Wide Net, Avoid Generic
     “What did you think?”
 What did you underline or note in the
  margins and why?
 What did you learn from the reading?
 What connections with your own experiences
  did you make?
 What disagreements did you have with the
 What questions did the activity bring to the
          Grounded Questions
   Given what the author suggests, what
    new steps might you take in your
   Is video clip A or B more useful in your
    context and why?
   What observations can you make about
    your data, having tried the new protocol?
   How does this author illuminate patterns
    in current events?
Explicit Teaching of HOW to
  engage collaboratively
NOT:                INSTEAD:
Post two or three   After posting your
responses to this   initial thoughts, ask
discussion.         a question, build on
                    someone else’s
                    observation, extend
                    an idea, or
                    otherwise engage
                    with one another’s
Facilitating Beyond Brainstorming

What if no one posts in three days?

What if eighteen ideas get floated in
 the first 24 hours?

What if disagreement emerges and
 flaming takes place?
     New Voices are needed
 Generative Guide    Personal Muse
 Conceptual          Role Play
  Facilitator         Reflective Guide
 Mediator
Guiding...               Leading...
 I was intrigued…        I loved that Ann
 Mary’s comment,          said, “…”
  “…” got me              Great comment,
  thinking…                John! Thanks for
 John’s note              pointing out…
  that…made me            Good point, Mark…
    Guide on the Side/    Expert in the middle/
     Expert Learner        Tells what I think
=)      ;-) 8-) Tone ^-^ :-z :^)
•   Neutral       •   ????
•   Nurturing     •   !!!!
•   Informal      •   !
•   Curious       •   Devil’s Advocate
•   Imaginative   •   Explaining
•   Whimsical     •   Telling
•   Analytical    •   Praising
•   Humorous      •   Suggesting
   Critical Thinking Strategies
Id Direction
Sort for Relevance
Focus on Key Points
Honor Multiple Perspectives
Making Connections

  Full Spectrum Questioning
      Guiding Interventions
In an earlier dialogue, Louine asked
    What about moderators that "play the devil's advocate" to
       encourage discussion???
Bob builds on that thought now, asking,
    Why would we want to have a voice different than our
       own? What purpose does it serve and I think there is a
       question of honesty here? I know that sometimes in f2f
       settings that you will play the devils advocate and in this
       way stimulate discussion.
They were clearly on to something. But now, after reading
  and thinking so much more about online moderators' voice
  and tone, what are your thoughts about the common face-
  to-face "devil's advocate" voice/tone for cyber-learning?
    Nurturing their Community
Avoid public praise (you in the middle)
Wait til next week (!) to answer a
-- or point to it again
Effusively praise in private feedback
Explicitly teach people how to engage
Foster pragmatic dialogue
         Rubric for Postings
Completed: Single entry, no interaction
 with other participants’ postings evident.
Collaborative: The response builds on
 the ideas of another one or two
 participants and digs deeper into
 questions or issues, contributes half-
 baked ideas for others to add to, or asks
 the group a question.
          Rubric (continued)
The post integrates multiple views and/or
 provides a seed for reflection evinced
 by other participants' responses in its
The post highlights a tension or
 contributes language, a metaphor or a
 study tool that serves to deepen the
 Evaluation: Ongoing assessment
• Postings make assessment
 continuous, on-going.
• Evidence of learning is embedded in
  student contributions alongside
  assignments and projects.
• Cycles of peer-review and revision
  prior to submission for instructor
  feedback are included.
           Activity Design Features
that explicitly promote collaborative dialogue
Should the US allow greater use of irradiation to decrease food

        10 points for posting your initial comments (by Thursday)
        10 points for adding something to the
          discussion…knowledge, a website, a question for
          clarification, etc. (by Friday)
        10 points for responding to at least two others (by Sunday)
        10 points for your final thoughts about the topic (Monday or
        Before making your final comment you should read all other
          comments posted. Your final comments may include
          something you learned, something that surprised you, a
          summary, a shared thought, what you consider important
          about the topic, what you still wonder about, etc.
Discussion Design without Collaborative

  Think about the following questions and make a
   comment to the discussion called
   “Environmental Problems.” What do you think is
   Earth’s most serious environmental problem?
   What caused, or causes, the problem? How do
   you think this problem should be dealt with?
        Collaborative Course Design
UN Simulation class
Wk 2: Meet the Delegates
Wk 3: Who Is That Man?
Wk 4:Discussion: What is the UN?
      OK everyone now that you are all “experts” on how the UN is
       organized let’s see what you think. In this discussion you can
       post answers to questions or ask questions. I would like to
       stress that for classroom discussion you should * not * only ask
       questions. Posting questions and not doing any more than that
       is easy. I want to know your ideas as well. I’ll get things started
       with this: What do you think are positive aspects or strengths of
       the way the Security Council is organized?
            UN Simulation (cont.)
Wks 5-10: Prepare & present Nation reports.
       Those students not reporting on a country will be graded on the quality
         and frequency of their participation in the weekly discussions on the
         countries assigned last week. You must comment frequently and in a
         relevant manner on each report…I will be looking for a relevant
         comment/question from each student on each report listed. You must
         also check back to see what the reporters have responded to your
         comment…The person who reported on this country and topic is
         responsible for facilitating discussion and answering questions students
         may have.

Wks 11-14: UN Simulation with each delegate representing
 their nation in the context of a global challenge.
Sarah Haavind, Ed.D. ~

Lesley University, School of Education

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