SNC 1DO LESSON PLANS

                            Unit 2: Biology – Sustainable Ecosystems (24
Students will investigate factors that affect ecological systems and the consequences of changes
in these factors. Relationships between ecological balance and the sustainability of life will be
                                 Ontario Curriculum objectives:
                                  R=relating science (R1-R2)
                                 D=developing skills (D1-D5)
                               U=understanding concepts (U1-U5)
                                    Text: Science 10, Nelson

                                           Lesson One
            Summary: (R2,D1,U1)         Homework:
            -Extinction Note            -complete Ecology Jargon assignment
            -“Lorax” movie              -read p.14
            -define ecology terms       -do p.15, #1-4


Extirpation: -
A species no longer exists where it once did.
Might be reversible

e.g. Wolves in Montana/Idaho/Wyoming had a $400 bounty per wolf, resulting in extirpation by
the 1930’s
Lack of wolves had an effect on the populations of –coyotes, squirrels, foxes, ravens, vultures,
grizzly bears, elk (disease), vegetation

Canadian wolves were successfully reintroduced in 1996

Extirpation: -
Death of every member of a species
Not Reversible

e.g. Passanger Pigeons, Dodos

Causes: -
Inability to adapt (climate changes)
Pressure of Competition

Catastrophe (fossils show records of mass extinctions)

Ecology Jargon assignment, defining Ecology, Abiotic, Biotic, Community, Ecosystem, Ecotone,

                                            Lesson Two
            Summary: (D1,D5)                    Homework:
            -define ecological terms            -complete "Food Web" #1-3
            -describe food webs                 -read p. 34-35
            -do food web activity               -do p. 39, #5,6

                                 FACTORS IN AN ECOSYSTEM

Biotic Factors: The living things in an ecosystem are called biotic. These factors also include
dead material that is decaying
Abiotic Factors: The non-living things in an ecosystem are called abiotic. (e.g. wind, light,
temperature, moisture, soil)

Community: the living things interacting in a certain area
Ecosystem: living and non-living things interacting in certain area eg. home, forest, pond

                                          FOOD CHAINS

-food chain shows flow of energy through these organisms (arrow shows flow of energy)


This food chain indicates that a seed is eaten by a rat, which is then eaten by a cat

-food chains show one possible pathway of energy, while a food web shows many pathways
grass--> -->dog

This food web indicates that a rate ate both grass and seeds and could be eaten by both a cat or

                                     ECOLOGICAL TERMS

omnivore: organism that eats both plants and animals e.g. raccoon, human, black bear
herbivore: organism that eats plants e.g. cow, horse, deer
carnivore: organism that eats animals e.g. cat, dog, shark, polar bear

decomposer: small organism that feeds on/ breaks down dead organisms e.g. fungi, bacteria
scavenger: larger organism that feeds on dead organisms e.g. crow

predator: organism that hunts and eats an animal
prey: animal that is hunted/eaten by a predator

consumer/heterotrophs: organism that eats others for food (e.g. animals)
producer/autotrophs: organism that makes it's own food (e.g. plants)
niche: role of organisms in the environment (eg. bunny eats carrot, feeds wolf, makes more
habitat: where an organism lives (eg. bunny lives in burrow)

                                          Lesson Three
            Summary: (U2)                              Homework:
            -describe energy flow                      -complete food chain activity
            -list two laws of thermodynamics           -read p.32,33
            -summarize photosynthesis/respiration      -do p.33, #1,3
            -describe solar energy conversions
            -define and describe albedo
            -start Ecological Pyramid assignment

                                        ENERGY FLOW

ENERGY: ability to do work (stored energy is called potential energy)

Two Laws of Thermodynamics
-Energy is not created or destroyed, it just changes forms in a closed system
-Energy tends to become the most random form (thermal...heat)
Energy way be lost from the earth because it is not a closed system...

Two examples of energy changing forms:

sunlight energy is converted into sugar (stored chemical) energy
red + blue light + 6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + heat
red and blue light + carbon dioxide + water -> sugar + oxygen + heat
cellular respiration:
sugar (stored chemical energy) is converted into ATP (useful chemical energy)
C6H12O6 + 6O2------> 6CO2 + 6H2O
sugar + oxygen -> carbon dioxide +water

                                         Energy flow on Earth

                              Sun light (radiant energy) hits producers
                                          (some heat is lost)
                         Sugar (from photosynthesis) is made in producers
                                  (some heat is lost from producer)
                        1 consumer obtains energy by eating the producer
                               (some heat is lost from 1 consumer)
                       o                                           o
                      2 consumer obtains energy by eating the 1 consumer
                               (some heat is lost from 2 consumer)
                     Top consumer obtains energy by eating the 2 consumer
                         (some of the top consumers heat lost from earth)
                           (remember: the earth is not a closed system)

                                          SOLAR ENERGY

Solar energy: Sunlight (radiant energy) is turned into sugar (stored chemical energy) in plants

red + blue light + 6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + heat
red and blue light are added to carbon dioxide and water to produce sugar, oxygen and heat
-only 0.023% of suns light energy is converted into sugar energy
44% of light heats the earth
1% of light creates wind
25% of light causes water to evaporate
30% of light is reflected back off the earth

Percentage light reflected off the earth is called the ALBEDO
light is reflected best off...sand, snow, clouds...this results in cooling of earth (as less heat energy
is absorbed)

hot weather -->causes water evaporates to form clouds
clouds ---> increase albedo, as light is prevented from hitting the earth
high albedo ---> cool earth
cool earth ---> clouds condense
less clouds ---> hot weather.....CYCLE REPEATS

                                              Lesson Four
             Summary: (R1,U1,U5)                                    Homework:
             -describe pyramids (numbers, biomass, energy)          -read p.36-38
             -finish Ecological Pyramid assignment                  -do p.39, #1,9,12,14
                                                                    -read pg. 40-44
                                                                    -pg. 44, #1,2
Trophic Level – feeding level in food chain

Pyramid of Numbers: constructs which show numbers of organisms in each level of food chain
-usually numbers decrease as one moves up food chain
eg. 10 000 blades of grass are eaten by locust which are eaten by 5 birds
        5 birds
        900 ants
        10 000 grass

These constructs do not produce a proper pyramid in all cases
e.g. a tree is consumed by 4000 caterpillars which are eaten by 5 birds which are preyed on by
1500 lice

                                            1500 lice
                                              5 birds
                                         4000 caterpillars
                                           1 apple tree

Pyramid of Biomass: constructs that show the total mass of organisms, and works better to show
energy flow
eg. using the total masses of the organisms in the previous pyramid of numbers, a pyramid of
biomass would be:

                                             2 kg lice
                                           15 kg birds
                                        200 kg caterpillars
                                        2000 kg apple tree

Pyramid of Energy: constructs that show the total energy of organisms in a food chain
-these are the best way to show flow of energy through a food chain

                                             1 kJ lice
                                           10 kJ birds
                                        100 kJ caterpillars
                                        1000 kJ apple tree

approx. 90% energy is lost with each transfer in the food web (remember the second law of

Roles in Ecosystems

Removal of Species -effects the whole ecosystems, eg. removal of mice results in more bugs,
less owls, robins and plants

Addition of Species (Invasive Species) –effects the whole ecosystem, e.g. competition,
predation, disease

The Starling – 60 birds released in central park in 1890, 200 million starlings in North America
The Zebra Mussel – came aboard a boat from western Asia, now they exist through waterways in
North American (costs Ontario hydro 1 million a year in maintenance)

The Fox in Australia –introduced in 1870 for hunting

-do ecology jargon terms, crossword

                                               Lesson Five
             Summary: (U4)                                       Homework:
             -view “pole to pole”
             -review ecology work

                                           ECOLOGY VIDEO

View ecology video, review notes

                                               Lesson Six
             Summary: (R2,D4,U2,U4)                             Homework:
             -ecology quiz                                      -complete carbon cycle
             -describe energy flow and nutrient cycles          sheet
             -describe the water cycle and carbon cycle         -read p.62-64
                                                                -do p.65, #1-6

                                         NUTRIENT CYCLES

Unlike energy, nutrients are not lost from the earth and flow are able to move in cycles

Complete water cycle descriptions and fill out worksheets on the water cycle.


Leaching: loss of nutrients in the soil and build up in water

ground water – melted snow/rain moves into the soil via gravity
percolation – movement of water through the soil
water table – an area of soil saturated (full) of water (higher after rainfall)

leaching results when nutrients dissolve into groundwater and go down to water table

-plants send roots down to get nutrients from water table

Carbon cycle

-carbon is the key element for living things

-each year 50-70 billion tonnes of carbon is recycled between plants and animals
-organic carbon is found in sugar (photosynthesis, cellular respiration) and used for life functions
-organic carbon is also found underground as peat, coal (crushed plants) and oil (crushed
animals)...FOSSIL FUELS
                                                   -2             -1
-inorganic carbon is mostly found in ocean as CO3 , and HCO3
-some inorganic carbon is also found in the earth’s crust (e.g. limestone produced by crushed
animals) and a little as atmospheric CO2 (carbon dioxide)
Combustion of fossil fuels produces CO2 + H2O and can produce C and CO
Humans impact carbon cycle by combustion of fossil fuels leading to more CO 2 in the air
Humans are also responsible for removing plants which results in less CO2 removed from air by
These human activities result in an increase in atmospheric CO2 by a rate of 1% every four years
and could result in global warming

Do carbon cycle sheet

                                            Lesson Seven
             Summary: (R2,U2,U4)                          Homework:
             -describe the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles -do worksheets on cycles
                                                          -read p.66-68
                                                          -do pg. 69, #1-12

                                        NITROGEN CYCLE

-nitrogen is a nutrient used to make protein which is a major part of all living things
-most (70%) of the air is N2 (nitrogen gas)
-nitrogen is only useful as NO3 (nitrate) to make protein
Nitrogen Fixing =making nitrogen compounds into useful NO3
Lightning produces (fixes) nitrates in air, which plants absorb from rainwater
Bacteria in some plants fix nitrogen into nitrates inside "nodules" in plants eg. clover, soybeans,
peas, alfalfa
Decomposers make nitrates from detritus (fertilizers)
Denitrification –some bacteria make nitrates into nitrites and then nitrogen gas, returning it to air
Nitrates are also lost from soil by leaching away with water
Examine pictures on pg.66-67
Complete nitrogen cycle diagram using the text

                                      PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

-phosphorus is a nutrient used to make DNA (genetic material) needed by all living things
Complete phosphorus cycle diagram using the text

                                            Lesson Eight
             Summary: (D2,U3)                     Homework:
             -describe hierarchy of life          -finish population assignment
             -define population terms             -read p.77
             -describe histograms                 -do p.80, #3 (a),(b),(c)
             -do population assignment
                                        HIEARCHY OF LIFE

HIERARCHY OF LIVING THINGS: a construct to arrange organisms from smallest and simplest
to largest and most complex
Cells –smallest things with all characteristics of life
(1)Organisms –able to carry out life functions on own
      -unicellular organisms: must live as single cells eg. bacteria, amoeba
      -simple multicellular organisms: may live as single cell or in groups, eg. slime mold
      -complex multicellular organisms: must live as group of cells, eg. rabbit, dog, human
(2) Population –number of one species that live in one area at one time
(3) Ecosystem/Community –group of populations interacting with abiotic factors (small area)
(4) Biome –group of ecosystems with characteristic climate and populations (large area)
(5) Biogeographical region –large area with many biomes, continent
(6) Biosphere –surface of planet with living organisms

Biotic Potential: maximum population size that can be maintained
immigration –individuals entering the population from other areas

natality –birth rate

    Four factors affect birth rate:

    1)     Birth potential –number of babies per birth

    2)     Number of offspring likely to survive to have offspring of their own

    3)     Procreation- number of times reproduction occurs per year

    4)     Length of Reproductive life- number of years an individual can reproduce (e.g.
         elephants- 75 yrs)

Environmental Resistance: factors decreasing population size such as...
mortality –death rate
emigration –individuals leaving the population to other areas

Open Populations –all factors acting, most natural ecosystems
Closed Populations –no immigration or emigration, only natality and mortality, occurs in labs,
game reserves
The whole earth is a closed population

Population Histograms
-useful when studying long living organisms
-provides a profile of age groups
-double histograms provide a profile by sex
-the shape allows you to predict changes

Do population assignment
                                           Lesson Nine
            Summary: (U3)                                Homework:
            -describe additional population terms        -finish population activity
            -do population activity                      -read p. 78,79
                                                         -do p. 80, #5

                                      POPULATION TERMS

In ecosystems, populations interact with each other and abiotic factors
Populations staying the same/balanced = EQUILIBRIUM (homeostasis)
Populations are DYNAMIC, going up and down in size
Populations which go up and down in cycles have DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM

Carrying capacity: maximum population size of a given species that an ecosystem can support
without reducing its ability to support the same species in the future

Critical number: a number of organism below which will result in the extinct of a species

threatened species: populations that are declining rapidly
endangered species: populations close to critical number

Recruitment rate: amount of a species that are able to reach reproductive age

k-strategy organisms: few offspring are produced, but most reach reproductive age.
-better for stable environments (eg. humans)

r-strategy: many offspring are produced, but few reach reproductive age.
-better for unstable environments (eg. spiders)

Work on lynx and rabbit graph and chart for population activity

In ecosystems, populations interact with each other and abiotic factors
Populations staying the same/balanced = EQUILIBRIUM (homeostasis)
Populations are DYNAMIC, going up and down in size
Populations which go up and down in cycles have DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM

                                            OH DEER

Play "Oh Deer"
complete and hand in "Oh Deer"

                                           Lesson Ten
            Summary: (R2,D1,D3)                                      Homework:
            -describe bioaccumulation                                -read p.54
            -describe First Nations interactions in the ecosystem    -do p.54, #(e),(f)
                                                                     -do pg. 58, #4


-as nutrients are consumed, so are toxins/poisons (eg. Pesticides such as insecticides,
herbicides, fungicides and bactericides)
-some toxins are released in urine or sweat
-small amounts of fat soluble (dissolve in fat) toxins build up in body fat of consumers
-secondary consumers eat many of these, and build up even more toxin
-each higher trophic level (feeding producers, consumers) builds up more and more
-top trophic level (top consumer) has the greatest buildup of toxin
...the buildup of toxin in an organism at a greater rate than it is lost is called bioaccumulation (e.g.
…the increase in concentration of a substance that occurs in the food chain is called
eg. peregrine falcons bioaccumulate DDT (pesticide) by this process, and produce thin egg
shells, resulting in near extinction of this species.
(now DDT is banned because of it's damaging effects)

-insecticide resistance develops if there are any survivors of the initial insecticide spraying (page
-these insects pass on the genetic differences that allowed them to survive to their offspring
-this ensures that the next generation of insects will be insecticide resistant

                                     ONTARIO FIRST NATIONS

Two major Native groups lived in different areas of Ontario, and had different season lifestyles:

       IROQUOIS                                                           ALGONQUIN
   Southern Ontario-         Middle Ontario- moderate,         Northern Ontario- colder, rockier
   warmer, less rock                some rock
    Carolinian forest        Canadian shield/Carolinian                  Canadian Shield
   Iroquois language                                              Algonquin language spoken
5 nations present (later       Huron, Ottawa present               Ojibwa, Nipissing present
    SPRING IN THE                                                  SPRING IN THE NORTH
planting of three "sister"                                tapping of maple sugar occurs
crops occurs                                              collection of waterproof birch bark for
beans (fixed nitrogen)                                    canoes, containers, firewood
corn (provide shade for                                   collection of cedar for canoe frames,
other crops)                                              houses built at river ends
squash (energy)                                           fish shallow waters for bass, trout,
                                                          sturgeon, perch, catfish as they spawn
                                                          pine resin and spruce gum were used to
                                                          seal canoes
   SUMMER IN THE                                                   SUMMER IN THE NORTH
farm the "three sisters"                                  gather stone for tools, weapons
                                                          gather berries, nuts
 FALL IN THE SOUTH                                                   FALL IN THE NORTH
harvesting of crops                                       nets used for catching whitefish in lakes
   WINTER IN THE                                                  WINTER IN THE SOUTH
consume crops, stay                                      go north for hunting on ancestral hunting
put                                                      grounds
                                                         moose were hunted further north
                                                         deer hunted to the south
                                                         beavers hunted in both areas
                                                         animals were used for food/clothes

-in 1318-1320, a "little ice age" started when massive flooding caused a period of cooling in North
-both Algonquin and Iroquois moved southward for a few hundred years instead of adapting to
the new environments in their area, then moved back when the climate warmed up.

                                           Lesson Eleven
            Summary: (D3,U1)                                       Homework:
            -Describe abiotic factors in ecosystems                -read p. 22,23
            -work on “Life in the Soil” microviewer                -do p. 47. #11(a)
                                                                   -read p. 28
                                                                   -do p. 47, #11(b)


light consists of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
- visible light ranges from wavelengths of red=700nm to violet=390nm
red-orange-yellow-green-blue-indigo-violet (roygbiv)
Infra red light has a larger invisible wavelength (heat produces infra red)
Ultra violet has smaller invisible wavelength (sun produces ultra violet)

Plants need certain intensities of light in order to carry out photosynthesis
formula for photosynthesis: red/blue light + carbon dioxide + water produce sugar + oxygen

Seasonal changes in plant and animal behaviour may be triggered by light (e.g. migration,

                                        (II) TEMPERATURE

Temperature is a measure of the heat content in a body
-ecosystems do not have a constant temperature

-organisms can survive over a range of temperatures (range of tolerance)

Animal optimum temperatures
-poikilotherms (cold blooded) -temperatures of the organism is similar to the environment, change
(eg. reptiles)
-homeotherms (warm blooded) –temperature of the organism is constant (eg. humans are 37 C)

                                               (III) WIND

Wind is the movement of air
Good effects of wind:
–moisture is blown inland
-plant pollen, seed, fungus spores are moved to help with reproduction

Bad effects
-erodes soil
-blows off vapour needed for life
-blows trees over

                                             (IV) MOISTURE

Moisture is the water present in an ecosystem, which all organisms need

There is a range of moisture and an optimum moisture much like temperature (range of

Precipitation: rain, snow etc. that brings moisture into an ecosystem

Relative Humility: % of water in the air
eg. if the air has 100% relative humidity, no more water can evaporate into the air

Transpiration: leaves lose water in stoma (openings) on the bottom of leaves

Plant responses to moisture levels:
-deciduous plants drop leaves in order to conserve water during winter, dry seasons
-coniferous plants use modified leaves to conserve water and do not drop leaves

Animal responses to moisture levels:
-some animals have exoskeletons to prevent water loss (eg. insects, shellfish)
-some animals have waterproof skin to conserve water (e.g. humans)
-some animals stay in moist areas in order to conserve water (e.g. earthworms)

                                               (V) SOIL

Soil is a mixture of clay (small), silt (medium), sand (large) and loam (mix)

 SOIL     Infiltration  Water Aeration
 TYPE      (ability of Holding   (ability
            water to (ability to of air to
            soak in)    store     move
                       water) through)
SAND        Good        Poor        Good
 SILT      Medium     Medium        Medium
 CLAY       Poor        Good         Poor
LOAM       Medium     Medium        Medium
Soil Layers

Litter: Top of soil made of decomposed leaves

Topsoil: Mix of small particles of rock and humus (decayed plants and animals) –black in colour

Subsoil: Mostly small particles, less decayed matter –lighter in colour

Bedrock: Rocks

                                          Lesson Twelve
              Summary: (U1,U4)                                   Homework:
              -view video on Northern Conifer Forest             -read p.88-90, 92
              -do biome worksheets                               -do p.93, #1-4

                                 NORTHERN CONIFER FOREST

-view video on Northern Conifer Forest

BIOMES FOUND IN CANADA - a biome is a collection of ecosystems that are similar
Temperate Deciduous Forest, Tundra, Grassland, Boreal forest

Do Biome Worksheets

                                          Lesson Thirteen
              Summary: (D7)                                    Homework:
              -describe aquatic ecosystems                     -finish worsheets
              -do aquatic ecosystem worksheet                  -read p.126-131
                                                               -do p.131, #1-9

                                    AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS
- less phosphorous and nitrogen  less life per volume
- less oxygen  limits activity
- pressure increases with depth (one atm per 10 m)

Structures of Lakes and Ponds:

Littoral Zone: shallow part where plants rooted in the ground still get enough light

Limnetic Zone:
Area of open lake where there is enough light for photosynthesis
Plankton live there

Profundal Zone: (not in ponds)
Not enough light for photosynthesis
Nutrients from falling organic matter

Types of Lakes:
Oligotrophic: deep, cold, high oxygen levels, water is clear (e.g. Lake Superior)

Eutrophic: shallow, warm, low oxygen levels, water is murky (e.g. Lake Erie)

Oligotrophic lakes become Eutrophic lakes over time

Do worksheet on aquatic ecosystems

                                          Lesson Fourteen
            Summary:(U4)                                             Homework:
            -video on aquatic ecosystems
            -work on Pond Life microviewer

Video on aquatic ecosystems (hydrosphere: area of earth covered with water)

Do Pond Life microviewer

                                           Lesson Fifteen
            Summary:(D4,D5,U5)                               Homework:
            -describe water pollution                        -read p. 148-149
            -show Bill Nye “Deserts”                         -do p. 149, #1-6
            -worksheet on water pollution

                                        THE GREAT LAKES
-Largest fresh water system on Earth, contains 18% of world’s fresh water, 30% of Canada’s
population lives next to it

-only 1% of the water of the great lakes goes to the oceans each year

Chemicals entering the great lakes: pesticides, fertilizer, industrial outflow, bacteria from sewage

                                       WATER POLLUTION

-Water quality depends on indeed use for swimming, boating, drinking or watering

Three main indicators of water quality:


-dissolved oxygen

-biological oxygen demand

Thermal Pollution is when industry releases warm water back into the ecosystem

                                          Lesson Sixteen
            Summary: (R1,D4,D5,U5)                                   Homework:
            -do “air pollution and human health” microviewer         -read p. 116-118
                                                                     -do p. 151, #1-5

                                          AIR POLLUTION

Do microviewer “Air Pollution and Human Health”

Finish Sheets


            Summary: (U4)                                              Homework:
            -review Biology Unit
            -view video on Crying Wolf Update
VIDEO- Crying wolf update

-analyze "crying wolf update" video

-review for test on Biology Unit

                                      Lesson Eighteen
            Summary: (R1,R2,D4,D5,U5)                        Homework:
            -complete test review
            -start Biome Project

- Biome Project/Library

                                      Lesson Nineteen
            Summary:(R1,R2,D4,D5,U5)                    Homework:
            -complete Biome Project                     -read p. 114-115
                                                        -do p. 115, #1-3

                                       Lesson Twenty
            Summary:                               Homework:
            -Test on Biology


To top