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ENERGY EFFICIENT COMPUTING - GREEN COMPUTING

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					National Conference on Role of Cloud Computing Environment in Green Communication 2012
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                  ENERGY EFFICIENT COMPUTING - GREEN COMPUTING

                                           A.M. ANITHA MATHEW
                     I M.E. Computer Science and Engineering, Sun College of Engineering and
                                           Technology - Erachakulam.



          ABSTRACT:
               Green Computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently.
          Green computing is essential to protect, our children, our health, and our future. It can also save
          money. Green Computing concentrates on energy efficiency, reducing resource consumption and
          disposing of electronic waste in a responsible manner. Green computing is the environmentally
          responsible use of computers and related resources. Computers today have become a necessity
          not only in offices but also at homes. No doubt, computers have made doing various tasks very
          easy and efficient; they pose a great problem which is effecting the environment adversely. As
          the number of computers is increasing day by day, so is the amount of electricity consumed by
          them which in turn is increasing the carbon content in atmosphere. This problem has been
          realized by people and measures are being taken which help in minimizing the power usage of
          computers. Superficially, this can be called as Green Computing.

          1. INTRODUCTION
                Green computing or green IT, refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT.
          Green computing is defined as "the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and
          disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems - such as monitors, printers, storage
          devices, and networking and communications systems - efficiently and effectively with minimal
          or no impact on the environment."
                 Green computing, the study and practice of efficient and eco-friendly computing
          resources, is now under the attention of not only environmental organizations, but also
          businesses from other industries. In recent years, companies in the computer industry have come
          to realize that going green is in their best interest, both in terms of public relations and reduced
          costs. The field of "green technology” encompasses a broad range of subjects - from new energy
          generation techniques to the study of advanced materials to be used in our daily life. Green

          Department of CSE, Sun College of Engineering and Technology
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          technology focuses on reducing the environmental impact of industrial processes and innovative
          technologies caused by the Earth’s growing population. It has taken upon itself the goal to
          provide society’s needs in ways that do not damage or deplete natural resources. Mainly this
          means creating fully recyclable products, reducing pollution, proposing alternative technologies
          in various fields, and creating a center of economic activity around technologies that benefit the
          environment.

          1.1. How did Green Computing Start:
                 Green computing started as early as 1992, when the EPA (Environmental Protection
          Agency) created Energy Star, which is a voluntary labeling program that promotes energy
          efficient computing equipment and technologies. It was because of this program that many
          computer manufacturers launched sleep mode and millions of computer users around the world
          began to adopt this policy to help save energy when they were not using their computers. The
          term green computing began to be used around this same time as well, and began to become a
          goal that more companies strive to meet over the years.

          2. CAUSE FOR GREEN COMPUTING

          2.1. Uses lot of electricity
                 Most of the natural resources are being used to get the electricity, that all have some
          impacts on the environment.
          2.1.1. Impact of Electricity to the Environment
                  The Electric power produces more pollution to the environment. They are Air pollution,
          Water Pollution and Land pollution. Fossil fuel power plants release air pollution and require lot
          of water. Nuclear power plants release lot of radioactive energy and hazardous waste. Even
          renewable energy sources affecting water and wild life and even hurting the food chain too. Air
          pollution impacts on Climate change, Acid rain, Ozone, Air toxics Water pollution impacts on
          Consumption of water resources, Polluting water bodies Land pollution impacts on Degrade and
          devalue the land, impacting ecosystem and aesthetics.
                 Global warming and the problem of minimizing environmental impact from fossil-fuel
          emissions have raised to the top of the global public policy agenda. As a result, businesses and
          consumers alike have started to embrace environmentally sustainable products that offer low



          Department of CSE, Sun College of Engineering and Technology
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          carbon solutions that can not only reduce their global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but can
          do so by more efficient energy consumption and lower costs.
                 Smart deployment of more efficient computing resources, starting with green PCs, has
          become a key focus for many businesses and consumers looking to reduce their own energy
          consumption and carbon footprint. This is fuelled by an increase in public awareness of the
          effects of climate change, recognition by businesses and consumers that reducing energy usage
          can save costs and by government regulation covering everything from energy efficiency to
          power management and reduction of hazardous materials to e-waste disposal.
                 Every year, the Information and Telecommunications Technology (ICT) industry
          generates 2% of the world’s carbon emissions. That’s the same as one year’s worth of air traffic.
          Today’s typical PC consumes approximately 100 to 200 watts of electricity, less than most
          household appliances and many other electronic devices. And there are nearly one billion PCs in
          use world over, accounting for 39% of these carbon emissions, which is equal to a full year of
          CO2 emissions, from approximately 43.9 million passenger vehicles.

          2.2. Creates lots of toxic waste
                 Most of us are updating our computers, throwing our outdated computer resources,
          peripherals, and other hardware devices etc, these are the hazardous toxic waste we are
          producing that really damaging the environment now a days.

          2.2.1. Impact of Toxic waste to the Environment
                 The computer crowding our landfills contains lead, mercury, cadmium, beryllium and
          traces of many other hazardous materials. Incineration, this releases heavy metals like lead,
          mercury and cadmium into air and ashes. Even recycling the electronics can harm the workers
          and the environment surrounding them. So, we are putting a clean stain on the environment. We
          can’t stop using computers and we can’t stop using electricity. Those are more important parts of
          our lives and economy. But we can do something to make the environment healthy. These are the
          some of the main causes for the Green Computing.




          Department of CSE, Sun College of Engineering and Technology
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          3. ENERGY EFFICIENT COMPUTING PRACTICES
                  Energy efficient computing practices range from simple end-user solutions such as
          turning off unused equipment to larger scale and more complex infrastructure and organizational
          strategies such as data center consolidation and maximizing server capacity.

          3.1. Power Management
                 Energy Star power management features - standard in Windows and Macintosh operating
          systems - can place monitors and computers into a low-power “sleep mode” after a period of
          inactivity. Simply touching the mouse or keyboard “wakes” the computer and monitor in
          seconds.
                  A PC in active status uses between 60 to 90 watts of electricity; a PC in sleep or standby
          mode uses 2 to 3 watts (and a PC that is turned off uses 1 watt).
                  A typical desktop PC system includes the computer (desktop or laptop), monitor, and
          printer. A desktop computer might need 65 - 250 watts of electric power when in use, and a color
          monitor, another 40 - 150 watts.
                  A laser printer can need as much as 400 watts or more when printing, although
          considerably less if in standby mode. Ink-jet printers can use 12 - 30 watts while printing, but
          less than 5 watts while turned on but sitting idle. As an example, consider the old, but still
          functioning, HP 4V laser printer that I use in my home office. It draws so much power when
          running that the lights flicker. The rated printer power consumption is 28 - 110 watts standby and
          380 watts printing. The HP LaserJet 4V printer is designed to conserve electricity by dropping
          from 380 watts while printing to 110 watts when in standby mode, and then to 28 watts in
          power-save mode. However, the other computer printer in my office is a HP 4315 Officejet All-
          in-One, which is rated to use 18 watts maximum. Information about the 22 - inch monitor in my
          home office shows it uses 42 watts in operational mode, 0.90 watts in standby, and 1.50 watts in
          sleep mode. When researching whether to get a larger monitor, One 24 - inch monitor had an
          operational power consumption of 110 watts and standby power consumption of 2 watts, while a
          27 - inch monitor had an operational power consumption of 41 watts and standby consumption
          of 0.65 watts. These wide differences among electronic devices’ use of energy impact calculating
          their cost of use.
                  To get cost estimates for colleges and universities requires factoring in the current
          electric prices in kilowatts (kWh) multiplied by estimated hours of use multiplied by how many
          Department of CSE, Sun College of Engineering and Technology
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          computer systems are on campus. While a number of factors (including the specific computer,
          monitor, and printer and how much the PC is used) go into calculating the annual energy costs of
          a desktop computer system, conservative estimates cite the cost (in terms of energy use) at
          perhaps $100 per year.
                  By enabling power management settings, computers and monitors go into a low-power
          sleep mode after a period of inactivity. Power management has the potential to save up to $50
          per computer annually. Despite the significant savings, according to Lawrence Berkeley National
          Labs, only 5% to 10% of organizations have deployed these settings on computers. And
          according to U.S. EPA estimates, if all office computers and monitors in the U.S. were set to
          sleep mode when not being used, the country could save more than 44 billion kWh or $4 billion
          worth of electricity and avoid the GHG emissions equivalent of about five million passenger
          vehicles each year.
                  Desktop power management is one of the most effective technologies that businesses can
          use to improve the environmental footprint of their IT. It isn’t expensive or disruptive and it
          provides a rapid and strong return on investment. In most cases, its introduction results in an
          immediate and sustained reduction in energy use by corporate IT.
          3.1.1. Practices for Power management
                  Deactivating screensavers is a simple way that desktop users can make their computers
          more efficient. When a screensaver is running, the computer remains in active mode, rather than
          moving directly to sleep or standby mode. Commercial software packages are available that can
          activate power management features across a network of centrally managed computers. Features
          are available to ensure that sleep settings do not interfere with software updates, backups and
          other activities.
                  Another power management option is called undervolting. Programs are available that
          allow the user to manually adjust the voltages supplied to the CPU, which reduces both the
          amount of heat produced and electricity consumed. Some CPUs can automatically undervolt the
          processor depending on the workload.
                  Server virtualization allows one machine to simultaneously run different operating
          systems and applications, allowing several physical systems to be combined as virtual machines



          Department of CSE, Sun College of Engineering and Technology
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          onto a single system. It is mainly used in data centers, where it helps to reduce hardware costs,
          space requirements, and power/cooling requirements.
                  Data Center Consolidation also called co-location; data center consolidation is the
          process of combining multiple computer server installations into a single facility. Co-location
          decreases energy consumption by reducing cooling costs when servers are moved from multiple
          locations, each of which must be separately ventilated, to a central, efficiently-designed and well
          ventilated facility.
           Hardware Efficiency: Hardware can be made more efficient through the use of LCD or
              LED, as opposed to CRT (cathode ray tube), monitors, and more efficient power supplies
              (PSUs). Energy efficient technologies that are being refined and may become more practical
              in the future include solid state drives, green (recyclable) computers, and low-performance
              computers that would meet the computing needs of those who are not “power users.”
           Turn off monitor: This mode allows you to turn off the monitor, if the system is idle for
              more minutes. Use LED, LCD monitors instead of CRTs it will reduce a lot of power. By
              turning off your monitor you can save half the energy that is used by the system. So turn off
              the monitor when download in progress or when it is in idle for some minutes.
           Turn off hard disks: This mode allows you to turn off hard disks if it is idle.
           System Standby / Sleep: This mode allows you to save a lot of power, Automate this option
              to save power. It will turn off the monitor, hard drive, sound card, graphics and video cards
              and almost everything. The current state of your system will be saved in RAM. If you want
              to use it again, you can move the mouse or touch the keyboard to make everything turn on.
              Draw back in this option is if there is a power outage then the unsaved things will be gone.
           Hibernate: This mode allows you to shut everything down. But the difference from sleep/
              standby mode is how it is storing your information in the RAM; it will write all the
              information to the hard drive and shuts everything down. This allows you to shut down
              memory as in standby by you cannot. But memory doesn’t use much power.

          4. BENEFITS
                The production of electricity is the largest single source of air pollution, due to the
          burning of fossil fuels. A power plant used to generate electricity, burns oil, coal, or natural gas
          that emits gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. These gases, in turn,
          cause acid rain, smog and global warming. Conserving energy reduces the amount of fuel that
          Department of CSE, Sun College of Engineering and Technology
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          has to be consumed, thereby reducing the amount of pollution generated. Obviously, energy-
          efficiency is a positive step toward reducing air pollution.
                 The ever rapid growth of technologies and innovations brings forth many ways on how
          green computing will have a positive impact, along with great benefits. The benefits of green
          computing are large, not only from just the consumer, or business, or country's standpoint, but a
          global benefit. Green computing helps reduce energy demands, waste, and money of how we use
          technology which positively effects the environment, and our costs. Though the method of green
          computing can also benefit in simple ways, methods such as turning off your computers during
          the night. By simply turning off your computer during the nights, you ultimately can save up to"
          67 percent annually in your electric bill", along with reducing greenhouse gases. Overall the
          benefits of green computing will result in saving money, reducing costs, and conserving energy,
          along with helping the environment.

          5. ETHICAL ISSUES
                 Going green is not only a fashion statement, it is a real movement that begun back in
          1992 with "The Energy Star Program" (Brandrick, 2009). It has become a way of life for many
          big corporations to try and reduce the amount of energy waste that they would normally excrete
          and nowadays it is not only expected to be done by such corporations but also by small
          businesses and individuals alike who have a moral responsibility to their community.
                 Due to the widely known need to save energy and natural resources of our ever dyeing
          planet many manufacturers have come out with ideas on how to make your device energy
          efficient, the problem is that with good inventions come the useless ones and those are made to
          assume a purpose that it is not properly attributed. Some manufacturers will label a product as
          energy efficient just so it can be sold but sadly it will not work.
                 Consumers can easily be deceived to buy such products that end up causing more harm to
          the environment "considering the materials and energy used to manufacture it" such products are
          truly a waste. Like the "Eco Button that promised its consumers that they would save energy and
          money" on their PC but there was a downloadable content available on the internet that would
          provide the same results. It is not moral or ethical for such manufacturers to lie on the efficiency
          of their product but it's not illegal to say that the product was misinterpreted by the consumer.


          Department of CSE, Sun College of Engineering and Technology
National Conference on Role of Cloud Computing Environment in Green Communication 2012
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          6. OPPORTUNITIES
                 Advancements in green computing have become vast. There are so many new ways of
          combining ecology with technology that we practically are trying a bit of everything. Such as
          using solar technology, solar technology now is being used on keyboards and mice now to
          reduce energy costs.
                 Another green computing method is eliminating certain materials that are hazardous to
          the environment, and replacing them with cleaner and efficient materials which are
          biodegradable and eco-friendly. Even now certain computer components such as processor units
          have reduced heat emissions, and monitors as well with their advancement of flat screens.

          7. CONCLUSION
                Overall the effects of green computing with its benefits, practicality, and uses are all
          positives. All which are great for not only the individual, but also all around the globe. By going
          "green" in technology we help promote an eco-friendly and cleaner environment, along with our
          own benefits by reducing costs, conserving energy, cutting down on waste and greenhouse gases.
                 Green computing has definitely come a long way, but with so many new innovations
          coming along in regards of preserving the environment, it is safe to say that green computing is a
          great development.
                 Green computing requires that we compute in a way that preserves our health, the ability
          of unborn children to be healthy, and the Earth to be healthy as it flourishes and supports us. It
          saves the power consumption and reduces amount of heat produced from the electronics.

          8. REFERENCES
              http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSE Quarterly Magazine
                 volume/Three
              ApproachestoGreenComputing/182580
              http://green-pc.blogspot.com/
              http://www.plantops.umich.edu/utilities/energy_management/computing/
              Related links from www.google.com




          Department of CSE, Sun College of Engineering and Technology

				
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