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					Delaware
Early
Learning
Foundations:

               Infant/Toddler


               Delaware Department of Education
                          Sept. 2010
                                   Acknowledgements


Much appreciation needs to go to the Advisory Revision Work Group and the local focus group
members for their contributions to this effort. A significant amount of time and effort was put
towards this project by each participant. Many hours were put into this document and the
revision would not have happened without the dedication of each Work Group member.

Appreciation also goes to our expert reviewers who responded with helpful and constructive
feedback during the final draft period: Dr. Martha Buell, Sandy Petersen, and Dr. Jay Ludwicki.
Thank you to our consultant and group facilitator Jana Martella. Finally, thank you to the
University of Delaware’s Institute for Excellence in Early Childhood and Evelyn Keating for
the final effort in getting the Foundations edited, formatted, and printed.




             For more information on this document, please contact:

                  Early Development and Learning Resources (EDLR),
                          Delaware Department of Education,
                               401 Federal St., Suite 2,
                                  Dover, DE 19901

              Additional copies can be accessed at the EDLR website:
  http://www.doe.k12.de.us/infosuites/students_family/earlychildhood/default.shtml
Delaware Early Learning Foundations: Infant/Toddler

Dear Early Childhood Professional:

  Our youngest children are one of our most precious resources. So much happens to them during their
earliest years. What occurs around them during their early years has a powerful impact on their growth and
development. Our job as adults is to provide them with a nurturing, safe, but exciting world. We need to do
this in ways that are interactive, supportive, caring, and responsive.

  The enclosed document is the revised Delaware Early Learning Foundations: Infant/Toddler. The
Foundations have two purposes. The first is to provide a broad picture of what happens to children as they go
from infancy to toddler-hood. Children develop as a result of the many things that happen while they are
involved with the adults who care for them. They develop as they observe and participate in the many activities
that happen during their early lives. Secondly, this document is intended to serve as a way for adults to ensure
that they are making available appropriate and needed activities to support children’s growth and development.
For those individuals in early care and education settings, the document is intended to be used as a broad
instructional guide for planning experiences.

   The Delaware Early Learning Foundations for Infant/Toddler were originally created in 2007. Since that time
much new information has become available about children’s development. It became clear that it was
appropriate to update the Foundations to reflect this new information. In the process of updating the Founda-
tions we received considerable feedback from professionals that wanted more information to help with planning
their work with children. You will see that the format of the document has changed to reflect what professionals
said was important.

  Early Success, Delaware’s plan created to strengthen the system of early care and education throughout
the state, has a goal that targets having Ready Children. One of the critical components that will help the state
reach that goal is an objective within the plan that reads: Each child will be provided the opportunity to learn
as outlined in the Delaware Early Learning Foundations. These opportunities will be developmentally
appropriate and individualized for each child.

  During the everyday routines of our youngest children, it is the interactions with them and how we respond
with our words, actions, gestures, and emotions that become the teachable moment and are so important to
help them grow and develop successfully. Within the world of children, it is the adults who can plan for and/or
take advantage of those experiences to further children’s knowledge and growth. We hope you find this
document helpful as you plan for, interact, respond, and develop supportive learning relationships with our
youngest children.

Dr. Jim J. Lesko
Director, Early Development and Learning Resources
Delaware Department of Education


                                                                                                                    1
                                                                      Directions for Use


Plans for How the Document Will Be Used                                          diapering, reading stories, play time, outside, and other experiences that
Children grow and develop as whole human beings, each with their                 occur daily become natural opportunities to help children grow and
unique skills and abilities developing simultaneously. Children’s language       develop.
skills improve and become more complex as their motor skills mature.
They become much more social human beings as they become better at               As you look through the Foundations, you will see that children’s skills
responding to others. Their cognitive skills become stronger as they are         have been divided into the domains of Social Emotional, Language and
better able to move and problem solve and experience new ideas and               Literacy, Discoveries, and Physical Development and Health. Similarly the
activities. All of this is important as you look at and use the Foundations      domains have been divided into four different growth periods: Young
for Infant/Toddler.                                                              Infant (0-6 months), Older Infant (6-12 months), Young Toddler (12-24
                                                                                 months) and Older Toddler (24-36 months). This was done to help the
It is important to understand that children develop multiple skills              professional see the sequence of individual skills as they develop and
(language, motor, cognitive, social, and emotional), often at the same           mature and to assist with understanding the broad array of skills children
time, within and during the many activities they experience daily. Children      develop as they move from infancy to toddlerhood to preschool. In
also develop individual skills at different times. For a period of time they     dividing the skills by domain and age there is no intent that these skills
may grow a lot in language while ignoring their motor skills. Then               would be taught individually. Instead, the division of skills is intended to
suddenly, they will put a lot of effort into their motor development and their   assist professionals with a framework for planning activities.
language development stabilizes.
                                                                                 Activities that are carefully planned and implemented constitute intentional
The Foundations is a document intended to be a curriculum framework              teaching. Intentional teaching has been demonstrated to be a powerful
and used as a guide for daily and monthly planning. The Foundations are          learning tool. While involvement in materials and with peers is essential
linked to the skill expectations children will develop as they grow. It is the   for learning – it is the careful planning of those tasks to ensure that
hope that the Foundations will provide a curricular guide for programs.          engagement supports learning that is critical to the learning process. An
Learning opportunities are intended to be sets of broad-based activities         important component to the planning process is the concept of making
through which children are exposed to new learning concepts, thus having         sure that the environment is adequately ready to support learning.
the “opportunity” to acquire new skills, practice those skills, as well as       Professionals need to make sure there are a sufficient number of
master previously learned skills. As development progresses children             materials across learning domains and the materials are in good shape
build upon earlier skills and develop more complex skill sets. While             and vary across time.
certainly not complete – the Foundations provide a solid basis upon which
professionals can plan their daily, monthly, and annual instructional            This document is primarily intended for early childhood professionals.
activities.                                                                      However, it cannot be emphasized enough the necessity to involve
                                                                                 families in young children’s learning. Families are always the first teachers.
Equally important is the understanding that throughout infancy and tod-          Professionals often need additional information and support. Sharing
dlerhood, children develop their skills in an integrated way during the          information about what is happening in the program/setting and then
course of the day. Skills typically do not develop in isolation, nor do we       providing suggestions of activities families can do at home to reinforce
typically teach skills in isolation. Instead, adults are supporting children’s   and share in the process is crucial.
development during many of the activities we do every day. Meal times,



                                                                                                                                                                  2
                                                            Organization of the Document
Domains                                                                         to note that these are not definitive lists – but are instead brief examples of
The Foundations document is organized into four domains:                        some skills you might see children demonstrating after having participated
   • Social Emotional                                                           in a learning opportunity. The skills listed in this column should NOT be
   • Language and Literacy                                                      used as a checklist as it is not inclusive of all skills children will demonstrate.
   • Discoveries                                                                Instead, they are intended to be a “check-in” for professionals to see that
   • Physical Development and Health                                            children are acquiring some of the skills they should be taking away from
                                                                                the activities.
Each domain (section) begins with a brief summary of the key messages
about development for that topic area. This is followed by a chart              The fourth column “What you can do to support...” is a listing of some
containing the sub-domains, learning opportunities, listings of actions         possible activities that professionals can provide that are linked with the
children might do, and a listing of supportive practices.                       learning opportunities. It is important to remember that this list is only a
                                                                                brief sample of some practices and there are MANY more activities that
SUB-DOMAIN To support ongoing       What you might           What you can       professionals can plan for and provide to support children’s learning.
           learning and development see children             do to support
           the child is given an    do:                      a child’s          Age
           opportunity to:                                   development:       The domains have been divided into four different growth periods: Young
                                                                                Infant (0-6 months), Older Infant (6-12 months), Young Toddler (12-24
The first column “Sub-Domain” involves breaking down the topic areas
                                                                                months) and Older Toddler (24-36 months). It is intended that these four
into smaller subsections. An example can be found in the Social
                                                                                divisions give some indication about when professionals should be
Emotional Domain, the learning opportunities are divided into subsections:
                                                                                planning for these learning opportunities to occur and what supportive
Self-Awareness, Self-Regulation and Attachment/Social Relationships.
                                                                                practices to make available.
The purpose is to help the professional see the different topic areas within
domains.                                                                        The learning opportunities repeat themselves across age groups. So there
                                                                                is the same learning opportunity for Social Emotional in Young Infant through
The second column “To support ongoing learning...” is the listing of the        Older Toddler: “Express feelings, emotions, and needs in a responsive
learning opportunities. In this revised Foundations document, there are         environment.” What is different are the behaviors the children may
some new learning opportunities and in some cases a revision of previous        demonstrate and the practices the professional may use to support learning.
learning opportunities. The learning opportunities are not listed in any
hierarchical order though they may be grouped by sub-domain topical             Children vary quite a bit in development and professionals need to take this
areas as indicated above. It is important to remember that these                into consideration. There is substantial growth between the first few weeks
opportunities are learning situations that the professional will plan for and   of life and the age of three. To put this growth in perspective, it was most
implement with children. In the Language and Literacy area, one of the          helpful to frame the differences using growth periods. It is more important to
learning opportunities is: “shows interest in rhymes, books, stories, and       know where each child is developmentally to better plan for activities, while
songs.” With this learning opportunity the professional will plan for many      keeping in mind that children’s development will vary.
different activities for children to “play” with language. This may include
singing while having a diaper changed, reading nursery rhymes, reading a        Summary
story during a quiet time, chanting during a transition activity, and making    The Foundations document is intended to be used as an instructional guide
up nonsense words that sound the same.                                          for early childhood professionals. As individuals plan annual and short-term
                                                                                lesson plans for infants and toddlers, the Foundations can be used to
The third column “What you might see children do” came as a result of           assist in the development of instructional activities. It is hoped that
responses from the field. Professionals wanted to know what they should         professionals will use the Foundations and the information contained within,
see children doing as a result of the learning opportunities. It is important   as they plan their daily, weekly, and year-long classroom activities.
                                                                                                                                                                      3
 Delaware Early Learning Foundations: Infant/Toddler

                       Guiding Principles


✔ All children are learners.


✔ Children learn through play.


✔ Every child is unique and is accepted for his/her differences in
  development, culture, home environment, and learning style.


✔ Parents/families are the child’s first teachers—they play a key
  role in preparing children for success in school through being
  involved in their child’s education from birth.


✔ Quality early learning experiences are essential to prepare a
  child for success in school.


✔ The learning opportunities provided need to be
  developmentally appropriate for all children.


✔ A developmentally appropriate learning environment supports
  learning and development.


✔ It takes partnerships among families, early care and education
  professionals, schools, health care providers, and other
  community resources to promote children’s development and
  school success.




                                                                     4
                                                                    SOCIAL EMOTIONAL

Babies come into the world ready to connect with the people around them,         and keep them safe as they explore. Children need help from caregivers
as well as their surroundings. Change happens rapidly during the first           to learn how to get along with others. They need places where people
year of life. By their third birthday babies progress from being able to alert   understand their unique temperaments, learning styles, and interests.
the caregiver with a hungry cry to communicating complex desires and             Caregivers respond by setting limits, redirecting, and bringing impulsive
labeling basic emotions.                                                         behavior under control. When caregivers predict and prevent problem
                                                                                 situations, talk about feelings and label emotions, they help children
In the first twelve weeks of life babies are oriented toward their caregiver.    develop language to communicate, and to help with self-control.
They respond to touch, being rocked, and familiar sounds. They focus
visually on faces, looking intently at their caregiver when being held.          By the time children are three, they are active and curious, and they are
Newborns can call for help with a cry, calm down when fed, held, or              also aware of their own feelings. When upset, they are able to calm
rocked. They are curious about new objects they can see, or new sounds           quickly. Young children need support to learn social and emotional skills.
they can hear. They often want what is familiar. Babies are social and           Professionals need to prepare intentional, interactive learning opportunities
curious, but they are most tuned to their basic needs. During these first        to help young children learn the skills they need to develop resiliency.
three months, caregiving should be responsive to these needs, so babies          Research shows that crisis moments are not the best teachable moments,
develop trust and start to learn to soothe themselves when upset.                when children are in conflict. Professionals should select occasions when
                                                                                 children are calm and attentive to engage in interesting demonstrations.
When babies are between 4 and 8 months of age they become more                   Children often require ongoing support by patient caregivers as they
aware of the world around them. They are still focused on people but are         practice concepts related to understanding feelings, calming down,
more willing to sit on laps facing out towards the world. They smile and         developing friendships, and solving problems.
laugh more frequently and make sounds as they interact with others.
They still need to be held and comforted when upset. As babies begin to          The three sub-domains of Social Emotional development include:
move around, rolling over, crawling, and creeping, their world gets bigger.
They explore from a secure base, liking to have familiar people and toys          • Self-Awareness – recognition of self as separate person with strengths
around them.                                                                        and needs, likes and dislikes
                                                                                  • Self-Regulation – ability to comfort self and manage emotions
After 8 months of age, as babies start to walk, then run and climb, they          • Attachment/Social Relationships – connections between child and
need to develop self-control to be successful in all that they attempt.             other people
Toddlers are very curious and active, needing caregivers to be consistent




                                                                                                                                                                 5
                                               Social Emotional Young Infant (0-6 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                 To support ongoing learning       What you might see a young infant          What you can do to support a child’s
                           and de velopment the child is     (0–6 months) do:                           development:
                           given an opportunity to:
Self-Awareness             SE1 Express feelings, emotions,   •   Cry, smile, coo                        •   Be responsive to baby’s cries
(recognition of self as         and needs in a responsive    •   Use a variety of facial expressions    •   Identify signals and respond to baby
separate person with            environment                  •   Begin to communicate needs                 in soothing manner (Ex: change
strengths and needs,       SE2 Discover own body                 through cries and gestures                 diaper, feed, comfort)
likes and dislikes)                                          •   Show distress by crying and/or         •   Use words and/or facial expressions
                           SE3 Recognize and respond to          kicking legs                               to respond to baby’s expressions of
                               name                          •   Move hands and feet, begin to look         emotions
                                                                 at fingers                             •   Position baby to allow him/her to see
                           SE4 Begin to develop              •   Turn head toward caregiver when            his/her hands and feet and begin to
                               independence                      hears name                                 develop an awareness of his/her
                                                             •   Cry to get needs met                       body
                                                             •   Use sounds, body movements, and        •   Point to and label body parts
                                                                 eye contact to promote interaction     •   Use baby’s name during
                                                             •   Stop crying when needs met                 conversations throughout the day,
                           SE5 Begin to develop a sense                                                     including during daily routines such
                               of accomplishment                                                            as diapering
                                                                                                        •   Respond quickly with words or
                                                                                                            actions
                                                                                                        •   Respond to baby’s signals
                                                                                                        •   Respond quickly to baby’s cues with
                                                                                                            words or actions until needs are met
Self-Regulation            SE6 Begin to develop calming      •   Stop crying when adult gently rocks    •   Pick up baby when cries
(ability to comfort self       and coping skills                 or talks to baby                       •   Swaddle, gently rock baby
and manage emotions)       _________________________         •   Close eyes, suck on fist, turn head    •   Sing or hum to baby
                           SE7 Develop self-control              away from distractions                 •   Gently rub baby’s back or stomach
                                                             •   Calm self by sucking thumb, fingers,   •   Talk to baby in soothing voice
                                                                 pacifier or toy                        •   Develop routines for eating and
                                                             •   Cry to be picked up                        sleeping based on individual needs
                                                             •   Stop crying when picked up or hears        of family and baby to prevent anxiety
                                                                 caregiver’s voice                      •   Plan with family to meet baby’s needs




                                                                                                                                                    6
                                                Social Emotional Young Infant (0-6 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                To support ongoing learning         What you might see a young infant          What you can do to support a child’s
                          and de velopment the child is       (0–6 months) do:                           development:
                          given an opportunity to:
Attachments/              SE8 Express feelings through        •   Cry, grimace                           •   Establish staffing patterns that help
Social Relationships           facial expressions, gestures   •   Coo, begin to smile, move arms and         baby develop a relationship with a
(connections between           and sound                          legs excitedly                             primary caregiver
child and other people)                                       •   Look at caregiver’s face               •   Softly talk or sing to baby to help
                          SE9 Build a trusting relationship   •   Turn toward sound of familiar              him/her calm down
                              with a caring adult                 caregiver’s voice                      •   Talk to baby about his/her feelings
                          _________________________           •   Imitate gestures, facial expressions       (Ex: “You look unhappy” or “You look
                          SE10 Engage with other children         and sounds                                 hungry”)
                                                              •   Express own needs                      •   Respond to baby to help meet the
                          SE11 Respond to emotions of         •   Begin to look at other babies              needs that are being expressed
                               others                                                                        (Ex: feed baby when baby is hungry)
                                                                                                         •   Place unbreakable mirror near baby
                                                                                                             to enable baby to see reflection
                                                                                                         •   Provide comfortable position in order
                                                                                                             to encourage continuing eye contact
                                                                                                         •   Hold baby facing you so that baby
                                                                                                             can look at you
                                                                                                         •   Acknowledge baby by smiling back
                                                                                                             and interacting (Ex: picking baby up,
                                                                                                             stroking, providing assurance that
                                                                                                             you are still close by)
                                                                                                         •   Copy baby’s facial expressions and
                                                                                                             sounds
                                                                                                         •   Sing and talk throughout daily
                                                                                                             routines (Ex: diaper changing or
                                                                                                             feeding)
                                                                                                         •   Provide baby with limited number of
                                                                                                             primary caregivers
                                                                                                         •   Provide opportunity for tummy time
                                                                                                             with other babies on the floor
                                                                                                         •   Show pictures of babies




                                                                                                                                                     7
                                             Social Emotional Older Infant (6-12 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                To support ongoing learning      What you might see an older infant          What you can do to support a child’s
                          and de velopment the child is    (6–12 months) do:                           development:
                          given an opportunity to:
Self-Awareness            SE1 Express feelings, emotions   •   Cry, gesture, coo, and make other       •   Identify baby’s signals to get
(recognition of self as        and needs in a responsive       sounds                                      attention and respond to baby in
separate person with           environment                 •   Signal for adult attention or request       soothing manner
strengths and needs,      SE2 Discover own body                help by crying, gesturing, or moving    •   Encourage baby’s happy sounds by
likes and dislikes)                                        •   Express emotions including                  imitating sounds and smiling at baby
                                                               happiness and anger (when               •   Quickly respond to baby when
                          SE3 Recognize and respond to
                                                               frustrated)                                 he/she is upset or angry
                              name
                                                           •   Express fear of unfamiliar people by    •   Soothe fearful baby with calm words
                          SE4 Begin to develop                 moving toward caregiver                     and comforting hugs
                              independence                 •   Express needs such as pointing to       •   Communicate while preparing for
                                                               bottle when hungry                          feeding to acknowledge hunger
                          SE5 Begin to develop a sense     •   Spit out things that are “icky”         •   While looking at books or pictures,
                              of accomplishment            •   Move body with purpose such as              label body parts and have baby
                                                               picking up a toy                            point to body parts
                                                           •   Point to body parts while looking at    •   When changing baby, play simple
                                                               books or pictures with adult prompt         games to identify body parts such as
                                                           •   Smile, make eye contact when                This Little Piggy Went to Market
                                                               hears name                              •   Use baby’s name often during
                                                           •    Entertain self for short periods of        interactions (conversations, songs,
                                                                time                                       rhymes)
                                                           •    Physically move away from              •   Watch for and respond to baby’s
                                                                caregiver to play and explore              cues for hunger, sleep and boredom
                                                                environment                            •   Encourage older baby to feed self by
                                                           •    Begin to feed self with fingers            cutting food into small bites
                                                           •    Begin to remove clothing – pull off    •   Interact with baby while eating
                                                                socks and shoes                        •   Allow baby to safely play and explore
                                                           •    Begin to participate in dressing by        independently
                                                                holding out arm or leg                 •   Talk with family about baby’s
                                                           •   Smile, laugh, clap, repeat gestures         independence during daily routines
                                                                to cheer for self after trying new     •   Provide favorite toys
                                                                things such a crawling or walking      •   Respond to baby with smiles,
                                                           •    Repeat action such as Pat-a-Cake           positive words to acknowledge
                                                                or Bye-bye                                 accomplishment




                                                                                                                                                   8
                                                 Social Emotional Older Infant (6-12 Months)
SUB-DOMAIN                 To support ongoing learning         What you might see an older infant            What you can do to support a child’s
                           and de velopment the child is       (6–12 months) do:                             development:
                           given an opportunity to:
Self-Regulation            SE6 Begin to develop calming        •   Cry and cling to parents when they        •    Provide consistent, predictable
(ability to comfort self        and coping skills                  are leaving, but calm down after a             routines throughout the day,
and manage emotions)       SE7 Develop self-control                short time                                     including arrival and dismissal
                                                               •   Calmly adapt to small transitions         •    Reassure baby that family will return
                                                                   during the day                                 later
                                                               •   Cling to primary caregiver                •    Respond when needed
                                                               •   Begin to comfort self by sucking on       •    Limit number of transitions including
                                                                   pacifier or snuggling with favorite toy        change of staff and location
                                                                                                             •    Establish consistent routines and
                                                                                                                  staffing patterns to support positive
                                                                                                                  relationships and prevent anxiety
                                                                                                             •    Observe baby to identify objects that
                                                                                                                  provide comfort
Attachments/               SE8 Express feelings through        •   Express joy                               •   Talk to baby about feelings you
Social Relationships           facial expressions,             •   Get angry when frustrated                     observe
(connections between           gestures, and sound             •   Spit out things that are “icky”           •   Be responsive when baby is upset
child and other people)                                        •   Express fear of unfamiliar people by          (Ex: pick up immediately and comfort)
                           SE9 Build a trusting relationship       looking at or moving toward               •   Acknowledge separation anxiety
                               with a caring adult                 caregiver                                 •   Have families provide photos or toy
                                                               •   Begin to cry when another baby                from home to provide comfort
                                                                   cries                                     •   Display photos of baby and family
                           SE10 Engage with other children     •   Smile, laugh when in presence of              members at eye level
                                                                   familiar caregiver                        •   Wait for baby to respond after talking
                           SE11 Respond to emotions of         •   Show affection for familiar adults        •   Play interactive baby games such as
                                others                         •   Vocalize to call for caregiver                Peek a Boo and How Big is Baby?
                                                               •   Begin to engage in turn-taking or         •   Provide positive words of
                                                                   two way “conversations”                       encouragement
                                                               •   Crawl away but checks back visually,      •   Provide experiences to be with and
                                                                   call/gesture to ensure adult contact          observe others through floor time and
                                                               •   Act anxious around strangers                  tummy time
                                                               •   Point to photos of family members         •   Have enough toys for babies to play
                                                               •   Look to caregiver for approval when           with
                                                                   completing task                           •   Provide individual comfort when baby
                                                               •   Look at others                                is upset
                                                               •   Take toys from other babies               •   Comfort crying baby, talk about and
                                                               •   Not share toys                                identify feelings of other babies
                                                               •   Scream when baby takes their toy


                                                                                                                                                          9
                                            Social Emotional Young Toddler (12-24 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                To support ongoing learning      What you might see a young toddler         What you can do to support a child’s
                          and de velopment the child is    (12–24 months) do:                         development:
                          given an opportunity to:
Self-Awareness            SE1 Express feelings, emotions   •   Express his/her own feelings and       •   Talk about and label feelings/
(recognition of self as        and needs in a responsive       range of emotions                          emotions toddler is experiencing
separate person with           environment                 •   Express emotions to get reaction       •   Talk to toddler about feelings calmly
strengths and needs,                                           from others                            •   Help toddler communicate feelings
likes and dislikes)       SE2 Discover own body            •   Express jealousy when caregiver        •   Sing songs mentioning and touching
                                                               holds another child                        body parts such as Head,
                          SE3 Recognize and respond to     •   Identify simple body parts such as         Shoulders, Knees and Toes
                              name                             head, leg, arm                         •   Place unbreakable mirrors down in
                                                           •   Recognize reflection in mirror and         play space
                                                               say name                               •   Make photo album with pictures of
                          SE4 Begin to develop
                              independence                 •   Begin to identify self by name             toddler
                                                           •   Begin to say/sign name when            •   Play games with names such as
                                                               prompted                                   Hide and Seek
                          SE5 Begin to develop a sense
                                                           •   Show preferences for favorite toys,    •   Maintain consistency of familiar toys
                              of accomplishment
                                                               books and objects                          and objects while introducing new
                                                           •   Say “Mine” to things he/she wants          ones
                                                           •   Begin to feed self with utensils       •   Provide opportunities to have own
                                                           •   Display preference to complete             space and toys
                                                               tasks by himself/herself and voice     •   Provide opportunities for toddler to
                                                               displeasure when caregiver tries to        participate in self-help and cleanup
                                                               help                                       activities (Ex: put a block in the
                                                           •   Begin to communicate to get adult          block box)
                                                               help (Ex: point to where a ball has    •   Provide feeding utensils that are
                                                               rolled under a shelf)                      easy to grasp
                                                           •   Watch for reaction from others after   •   Provide safe environment and
                                                               action or doing something                  careful monitoring for toddler to
                                                                                                          play
                                                                                                      •   Provide simple activities that can be
                                                                                                          completed independently (Ex: knob
                                                                                                          puzzles, board books)




                                                                                                                                                  10
                                               Social Emotional Young Toddler (12-24 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                 To support ongoing learning         What you might see a young toddler            What you can do to support a child’s
                           and de velopment the child is       (12–24 months) do:                            development:
                           given an opportunity to:
Self-Regulation            SE6 Begin to develop calming        •   Cling to blanket or stuffed toy at        •    Provide familiar and/or favorite toys
(ability to comfort self        and coping skills                  arrival time when family tries to leave        for toddler to play with
and manage emotions)                                           •   Want to be picked up by caregiver         •    Play quiet, relaxing music
                           SE7 Develop self-control                at arrival time                           •    Greet toddler and help find favorite
                                                               •   Begin to develop understanding of              toy or book to look at
                                                                   right and wrong (Ex: says No after        •    Create book with family pictures for
                                                                   throwing food on floor then looks to           toddler having separation difficulty
                                                                   caregiver for reaction)                   •    Provide flexible but predictable
                                                               •   Demonstrate difficulty sharing                 schedule individualized to
                                                               •   Understand connection between                  accommodate toddler needs
                                                                   own behavior and reaction of others       •    Establish reasonable and
                                                               •   Continue to have difficulty sharing            appropriate expectations for
                                                               •   Cry when does not get what he/she              behavior
                                                                   wants                                     •    Set simple rules and talk about them
                                                                                                                  with toddler
                                                                                                             •    Discuss expectations with families
                                                                                                             •    Intervene when toddler is doing
                                                                                                                  something dangerous or
                                                                                                                  inappropriate and redirect
                                                                                                             •    Provide adequate toys to avoid
                                                                                                                  conflict
                                                                                                             •    Let toddler know that it is okay to
                                                                                                                  feel angry
                                                                                                             •    Provide safe place for toddler to calm
                                                                                                                  self while receiving support
Attachments/               SE8 Express feelings through        •   Express jealousy when caregiver           •   Acknowledge toddler’s feelings, then
Social Relationships           facial expressions, gestures        holds another child                           redirect to favorite toy
(connections between           and sound                       •   Try to comfort another child who is       •   Sing songs about feelings such as If
child and other people)                                            upset                                         You’re Happy and You Know It
                           SE9 Build a trusting relationship   •   Cling to parent or caregiver              •   Read picture books about feelings
                               with a caring adult             •   Express sadness when parent
                                                                   leaves




                                                                                                                                                           11
                                            Social Emotional Young Toddler (12-24 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                To support ongoing learning       What you might see a young toddler          What you can do to support a child’s
                          and de velopment the child is     (12–24 months) do:                          development:
                          given an opportunity to:
Attachments/              SE10 Engage with other children   •    Identify photos of self and family     •   Acknowledge separation anxiety and
Social Relationships                                             members                                    respond to toddler with comfort and
(connections between      SE11 Respond to emotions of       •    Act anxious around strangers               concern
child and other people)        others                       •   Enjoy helping by working side by        •   Talk about daily events that end with
                                                                side with adult                             family’s return
                                                            •   Try new things with favorite            •   Talk about what is happening and
                                                                caregiver close by                          allow time for toddler to respond
                                                            •   Comfort peer by offering them own       •   Post family pictures to help toddler
                                                                blanket or patting them on back             adjust to separation
                                                            •   Play side-by-side with other toddlers   •   Get down on floor and engage in
                                                                (parallel play)                             play with toddler
                                                            •   Push, hit, or bite when another child   •   Encourage parallel play by
                                                                takes toy                                   introducing centers for small group
                                                            •   Begin to say other child’s name             play
                                                            •   Match facial expressions; interpret     •   Provide multiples of favorite toys
                                                                facial cues as emotional expressions    •   Talk about feelings when conflict
                                                            •   Begin to respond to feelings of             arises (Ex: “You are mad because
                                                                others                                      Monique took your toy.”)
                                                                                                        •   Play simple small-group games such
                                                                                                            as Ring-Around-the Rosy
                                                                                                        •   Post pictures of toddlers with different
                                                                                                            emotions at eye level for discussion
                                                                                                        •   Model empathy (Ex: “You look so
                                                                                                            sad. Can I give you a hug?”)
                                                                                                        •   Use “I” statements (Ex: “I feel sad
                                                                                                            when you hit.”)
                                                                                                        •   Notice and comment on toddler’s
                                                                                                            attempts to be caring toward other
                                                                                                            toddlers (Ex: focus on intention; give
                                                                                                            a special toy to another, even when
                                                                                                            toddler then takes it back)




                                                                                                                                                       12
                                            Social Emotional Older Toddler (24-36 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                To support ongoing learning      What you might see an older             What you can do to support a child’s
                          and de velopment the child is    toddler (24–36 months) do:              development:
                          given an opportunity to:
Self-Awareness            SE1 Express feelings, emotions   •   Begin to recognize his/her own      •   Plan for and use books, puppets,
(recognition of self as        and needs in a responsive       feelings and range of emotions          dramatic play, and role playing to teach
separate person with           environment                 •   Act out different emotions during       toddler how to label and share feelings
strengths and needs,                                           pretend play                        •   Plan for teachable moments that are not
likes and dislikes)       SE2 Discover own body            •   Use one or two words to express         during emotional situations such as
                                                               feelings                                tantrums
                          SE3 Recognize and respond to     •   Begin to recognize and react to     •   Talk about and label feelings and
                              name                             feelings of others                      emotions toddler is experiencing
                          SE4 Begin to develop             •   Express frustration through         •   Talk to toddler about feelings calmly
                              independence                     tantrums                            •   Help toddler communicate feelings and
                                                           •   Identify body parts including           needs using words and/or signs
                          SE5 Begin to develop a sense         elbow, ankle, neck                  •   Help toddler label feelings of others
                              of accomplishment            •   Begin to identify name in print     •   Provide calm place such as quiet
                                                           •   Begin to ask for help when              cushioned area for toddler to express
                                                               unable to complete tasks                emotions and calm down
                                                               independently                       •   Provide reminders, cues or picture
                                                           •   Use words, gestures or signs to         prompts to help toddler calm down
                                                               celebrate success                   •   Look at books and pictures, ask
                                                           •   Request praise after completing         toddler to point to body parts
                                                               difficult activity (Ex: putting     •   Do finger plays and games, Head
                                                               puzzle together)                        Shoulders, Baby - one, two, three
                                                                                                   •   Label toddler’s picture with printed name
                                                                                                   •   Play games and sign songs with
                                                                                                       toddler’s spoken and printed names
                                                                                                   •   Provide opportunities for toddler to do
                                                                                                       things for himself/herself
                                                                                                   •   Provide support as toddler attempts to
                                                                                                       complete tasks independently
                                                                                                   •   Watch for individual changes in toddler’s
                                                                                                       skill and celebrate success




                                                                                                                                                   13
                                               Social Emotional Older Toddler (24-36 Months)
SUB-DOMAIN                 To support ongoing learning         What you might see an older             What you can do to support a child’s
                           and de velopment the child is       toddler (24–36 months) do:              development:
                           given an opportunity to:
Self-Regulation            SE6 Begin to develop calming        •   Carry around favorite stuffed       •   Prompt toddler to find favorite toy that
(ability to comfort self        and coping skills                  animal when afraid                      provides comfort
and manage emotions)                                           •   Go off by himself/herself           •   Calm briefly, then redirect to favorite toy or
                                                               •   Continue to need adult support          activity
                           SE7 Develop self-control                when in conflict with another       •   Prompt toddler to help find safe, quiet
                                                                   child                                   area to calm himself/herself
                                                               •   Begin to follow and repeat          •   Practice calming exercises with toddlers
                                                                   simple rules                        •   Provide support if needed
                                                               •   Understand the connection           •   Provide consistent expectations
                                                                   between own behavior and the        •   Communicate expectations before
                                                                   reaction of others                      beginning transitions or new activity
                                                               •   Begin to make careful choices to    •   Focus on positive rather than negative
                                                                   avoid danger and conflict               behavior
                                                                                                       •   Acknowledge toddler’s positive behavior
                                                                                                       •   Help toddler identify feelings
                                                                                                       •   Help toddler understand they have
                                                                                                           choices how to express their feelings
                                                                                                       •   Provide support for better choices when
                                                                                                           toddler is involved in dangerous activity
                                                                                                       •   Provide positive support as toddler begins
                                                                                                           to share toys
                                                                                                       •   Identify feelings of others
Attachments/               SE8 Express feelings through        •   Use one or two words to express     •   Act out different emotions during pretend
Social Relationships           facial expressions,                 feelings                                play
(connections between           gestures and sound              •   Express frustration through         •   Use pictures/photos showing variety of
child and other people)                                            tantrums                                emotions
                           SE9 Build a trusting relationship   •   Ask/sign/gesture to get attention   •   Use signs or gestures to help toddler
                               with a caring adult             •   Show affection by hugging               identify emotions
                           SE10 Engage with other              •   Search out favorite caregiver for   •   Sing emotion songs such as If You’re
                                children                           comfort                                 Happy and You Know It
                                                               •   Follow around favorite caregiver    •   Teach words to label emotions
                           SE11 Respond to emotions of         •   Develop friendship with one or      •   Remain calm and provide safe place for
                                others                             two peers                               toddler who is having tantrum
                                                               •   Have preferences for some           •   Organize room to minimize tantrums and
                                                                   children                                frustration by having enough toys and
                                                               •   Say friend’s name                       minimizing number of transitions
                                                               •   Begin to think of solutions for     •   Provide quiet place for toddler who
                                                                   social conflicts with assistance        chooses to be by himself/herself

                                                                                                                                                            14
                                             Social Emotional Older Toddler (24-36 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                To support ongoing learning     What you might see an older             What you can do to support a child’s
                          and de velopment the child is   toddler (24–36 months) do:              development:
                          given an opportunity to:
Attachments/                                              •   Use one to two word sentences       •   Vary routine to allow for quiet time
Social Relationships                                          to express feelings                 •   Encourage toddler to use words/signs to
(connections between                                      •   Share favorite toy with child who       request things they need (provide word
child and other people)                                       is sad                                  cues to help if needed)
                                                          •   Ask others about how they are       •   Have conversations with toddler
                                                              feeling                                 throughout day
                                                          •   Get caregiver to help another       •   Be responsive to toddler’s requests
                                                              child in need                       •   Plan for one-on-one time with toddler
                                                                                                  •   Provide time throughout day for many
                                                                                                      opportunities to explore with others
                                                                                                  •   Notice and give positive comments when
                                                                                                      toddler is playing side-by- side
                                                                                                  •   Plan “Teachable Moments” to help toddler
                                                                                                      learn social skills throughout day,
                                                                                                      including simple strategies for solving
                                                                                                      social conflicts
                                                                                                  •   Model sharing
                                                                                                  •   Provide support for solving social conflicts
                                                                                                  •   Provide support for toddler who has
                                                                                                      trouble playing with others (Ex: giving
                                                                                                      separate containers of blocks to toddlers
                                                                                                      who are having trouble sharing)
                                                                                                  •   Provide prompts and cues to toddler to
                                                                                                      ask others for things he/she wants
                                                                                                  •   Use "I" statements
                                                                                                  •   Give toddler words to express how he/she
                                                                                                      feels
                                                                                                  •   Look at and read books that show
                                                                                                      emotions
                                                                                                  •   Have puppets “express” emotions to
                                                                                                      toddler
                                                                                                  •   Use emotion words to label toddler's
                                                                                                      feelings
                                                                                                  •   Create poster or book about emotions
                                                                                                      using toddlers’ photos



                                                                                                                                                     15
                                                                LANGUAGE AND LITERACY
The development of language, communication skills, and literacy is                 Special consideration in the development of language skills should be
related, but not measurable by a baby’s age. This means that babies                given to dual language learners. These children face many challenges
grow and develop at different rates, with some babies talking early and            whether they are learning two languages at the same time or one after the
some babies talking later. While babies are born with a need to                    other. Children who have a strong foundation in the language that they are
communicate, and start communicating through body language, cries,                 learning from their home generally have an easier time acquiring a second
coos, and by making all kinds of sounds, it takes time to learn the                language. Parents are strongly encouraged to use the language they are
meaning of words, to produce words and then later to read and write.               most comfortable with when talking, reading, singing, caring for, and
Strong literacy skills in reading and writing are built on the ability to listen   playing with their baby at home. When possible the caregiver should also
or watch, understand, and make meaning from spoken words, signs, or                be able to speak in the language that the baby is learning at the home.
other types of communication. From birth to age three is an exciting time          When this is not possible, treat the language spoken in the home with
to observe the development of language, both receptive (what a child               respect and care, using important words like the word for mother, baby,
understands) and expressive (spoken word) language. Parents and early              and love.
childhood professionals work together to provide the foundations for early
literacy success. Children’s efforts at language and communication need            The four sub-domains of Language and Literacy include:
to be supported by the adults in their environments. Early childhood
professionals can build these skills by:                                             • Receptive Language – listening and understanding
                                                                                     • Expressive Language – communicating and speaking
• providing opportunities to participate in play experiences that support            • Emergent Literacy – the foundations of reading
  language and literacy development;                                                 • Emergent Writing – the beginnings of writing
• facilitating a wide variety of developmentally appropriate materials and
  experiences throughout the child’s daily routines;
• providing exposure to print rich environments that nurture the child’s
  language and literacy skills; and
• validating and reinforcing language by talking, narrating, singing,
  repeating sounds back, providing signs and/or gestures, and listening to
  children.




                                                                                                                                                                16
                                       Language and Literacy Young Infant (0-6 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN       To support ongoing learning and     What you might see a young infant       What you can do to support a child’s
                 development the child is given an   (0–6 months) do:                        development:
                 opportunity to:
Receptive        LL1 Show interest in sounds         •   Startle or cry to loud sounds       •   Hold baby close while speaking, signing or
Language                                             •   Quiet down and turn head                reading
(listening and                                           towards familiar voice              •   Read, talk, sing, sign, and actively play
                 LL2 Show interest in language
understanding)                                       •   Smile when spoken to or                 with baby throughout day
                     of others
                                                         greeted by smiling face             •   Talk/sign about what you are doing as you
                 LL3 Begin to understand             •   Smile, kick, move arms and legs         are doing it
                     gestures, words, routines,          while listening to caregiver’s      •   Talk/sign about what baby is doing as they
                     communication                       voice                                   are doing it
                 LL4 Respond to communication        •   Gaze at face                        •   Play music and sing songs during day,
                     of others                       •   Watch speaker intently                  trying to connect what you are doing with
                                                     •   Look at object or picture               song choice (Ex: singing Rock-a-Bye Baby
                                                         caregiver indicates with gestures       while rocking)
                                                         and words                           •   Provide activities that expose baby to a
                                                     •   Look to caregiver when name is          variety of sounds
                                                         spoken                              •   Name objects baby is interested in
                                                     •   Lift arms when caregiver            •   Allow baby to explore objects by looking,
                                                         gestures or says “ Up” while            feeling, and mouthing
                                                         picking up baby                     •   Create and sing songs with movement,
                                                                                                 finger plays and use baby’s name




Expressive       LL5 Use sounds, gestures or         •   Respond to speaker/signer by        •   Speak/sign directly to baby frequently
Language             actions to communicate              smiling                             •   Use exaggerated facial expressions
(communicating       wants and needs                 •   Will quiet his/her body when        •   Use gestures/sign language as well as
and speaking)                                            spoken/signed to                        verbal labels
                                                     •   Laugh                               •   React to different cries, sounds, and
                                                     •   Raise arms to familiar adult            gestures/signs that baby uses
                                                     •   Kick and coo to show excitement     •   Provide baby with noise-making toys
                                                                                             •   Respond to baby’s communicative
                                                                                                 attempts quickly to reinforce their meaning




                                                                                                                                               17
                                        Language and Literacy Young Infant (0-6 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN       To support ongoing learning and        What you might see a young infant      What you can do to support a child’s
                 development the child is given an      (0–6 months) do:                       development:
                 opportunity to:
Expressive       LL6 Imitate sounds, words,             •   Imitate pointing                   •   Frequently talk/sign to baby using simple
Language              signs, facial expressions,        •   Imitate some movements or              and clear words/signs
(communicating        and gestures                          gestures                           •   Make simple sounds and allow time for
and speaking)    LL7 Communicate using words,           •   Use meaningful gestures                baby to imitate you
                      sounds, and/or signs              •   Vocalize pleasure and              •   Maintain eye contact while baby is
                      leading to communicating              displeasure sounds                     vocalizing or gesturing to reinforce their
                      using phrases and short           •   Vocalize when talked to while          communication attempt
                      sentences                             moving limbs                       •   Imitate sounds or gestures baby makes
                 LL8 Use sounds, words or signs for a   •   Cry to communicate different           and allow time and attention for him to
                      variety of purposes, including        meanings                               imitate you
                      expressing emotions and           •   Respond to names of familiar       •   Use personal pronouns (Ex: me, you)
                      physical states                       objects in primary language by     •   Sing songs and finger plays often
                 LL9 Engage in turn-taking back- and-       moving body or making sounds       •   Show and imitate gestures, words, signs,
                     forth exchanges leading to         •   Gurgle                                 environmental noises (Ex: animal noises,
                     conversation                       •   Use different types of cries to        car noises, phone ringing)
                                                            signal hunger, discomfort, fear,   •   Talk/sign to baby about what is happening
                                                            or pain                                to him/her and around him/her
                                                        •   Smile at adult to invite           •   Model names of common objects in primary
                                                            interaction                            language
                                                        •   Laugh aloud                        •   Talk to baby during caregiving times (Ex:
                                                        •   Raise arms to familiar adult           changing diaper, bathing)
                                                        •   Move arms and legs when            •   Provide toys that baby can use to create
                                                            looking at someone                     sounds, taking turns with you
                                                        •   Cry if another baby cries              (Ex: rattles/squeaky toys)




                                                                                                                                                18
                                               Language and Literacy Young Infant (0-6 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN            To support ongoing learning and        What you might see a young infant     What you can do to support a child’s
                      development the child is given an      (0–6 months) do:                      development:
                      opportunity to:
Emergent Literacy     LL10 Show interest in rhymes,          •   Explore books using senses (Ex:   •   Read simple, colorful books daily with baby
(the foundations of         books, stories, and songs            taste, feel, sight, smell)            in close proximity
reading)                                                     •   Reach for pages of books          •   Point to pictures in books and around
                      LL11 Actively participate and
                                                             •   Look at caregiver’s face when         room, simply label them by saying the word
                           show appreciation for book
                                                                 being read to                     •   Sing songs and finger plays
                           reading, story sharing and
                                                             •   Demonstrate enjoyment through     •   Allow baby to freely explore books
                           singing
                                                                 facial/body movements to sound    •   Share books with baby many times
                      LL12 Interact with books
                                                                 of words in books                     throughout the day
                           appropriately
                                                             •   Follow caregiver’s gaze to        •   Re-read books
                                                                 pictures



Emergent Writing      LL13 Use and experiment with           •   Move both hands when he/she       •   Show baby variety of objects
(the beginnings of         different writing materials           sees an exciting object           •   Provide baby with safe, age-appropriate
writing)                                                     •   Grasp object, lets go, and            items to handle and explore
                      LL14 Notice and show interest in
                                                                 attempts to grasp it again        •   Help baby grasp object if necessary
                           signs and words in the
                           classroom environment




                                                                                                                                                     19
                                       Language and Literacy Older Infant (6-12 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN       To support ongoing learning and       What you might see an older infant        What you can do to support a child’s
                 development the child is given an     (6–12 months) do:                         development:
                 opportunity to:
Receptive        LL1 Show interest in sounds           •   Smile and laugh during                •   Encourage baby to follow along with
Language                                                   interactions                              movements in songs and rhymes
(listening and   LL2 Show interest in language of      •   Actively search for source of sound   •   Sing songs that involve one-step
understanding)       others                                that is not visible                       directions (Ex: ”May I have that?”, “Clap
                 LL3 Begin to understand gestures,     •   Move body to song or music                hands”, “Show me your foot”)
                     words, routines, communication    •   Respond to safety words such as
                                                           “Stop!” or “Hot!” (Ex: pause, eye
                 LL4 Respond to communication of
                                                           contact)
                     others

Expressive       LL5 Use sounds, gestures, or          •   Protest by gesturing or shake         •   Use gestures/sign language to support
Language             actions to communicate wants          head                                      what you say
(communicating       and needs                         •   Wave bye-bye                          •   Use words/signs to express baby’s
and speaking)                                          •   May point to request an item              nonverbal communication
                 LL6 Imitate sounds, words, signs,     •   Reach to touch another person’s       •   Use gestures and signs throughout
                     facial expressions and gestures       body part                                 routines
                                                       •   Reach for object person is holding    •   Respond to any sound or gesture that
                 LL7 Communicate using words,          •   Imitate facial expressions                you think maybe word or looks like sign
                     sounds, and/or signs leading to   •   Imitate sounds/signs of primary       •   Allow baby a turn in the interaction and
                     communicating using phrases           language                                  then respond as if you’re having
                     and short sentences               •   Imitate environmental sounds (Ex:         conversation
                                                           car sounds, animal sounds)            •   Introduce/model new sounds, gestures,
                                                       •   Listen to and try to show                 signs or words for baby to imitate
                                                           participation with finger plays       •   Use movements with finger plays. If
                                                       •   Produce different sorts of                necessary, help baby participate by
                                                           consonant vowel sounds (Ex: ma            using hand over hand assistance
                                                           ma ma ma ma, da da da da, de de       •   Respond to baby’s word/sign attempts,
                                                           de de)                                    modeling correct production
                                                       •   Chuckle and laugh                     •   Play naming games with baby
                                                                                                     (Ex: name animals and their
                                                                                                     accompanying sounds)




                                                                                                                                                 20
                                              Language and Literacy Older Infant (6-12 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN            To support ongoing learning and        What you might see an older infant       What you can do to support a child’s
                      development the child is given an      (6–12 months) do:                        development:
                      opportunity to:
Expressive            LL8 Use sounds, words or signs for a   •   Use sounds to get and keep an        •   Respond with interest and excitement to
Language                   variety of purposes, including        adult’s attention                        baby’s attempts to communicate
(communicating             expressing emotions and           •   Look at specific item upon           •   Name objects and pictures baby points
and speaking)              physical states                       hearing/seeing word in primary           to or expresses interest in
                                                                 language                             •   Talk/sign about what baby is
                      LL9 Engage in turn-taking back-and-    •   Use same sounds, intonations,            experiencing using simple language
                          forth exchanges leading to             signs, and facial expressions as     •   Support language with accompanying
                          conversation                           parents do                               signs, gestures and tone of voice
                                                             •   Produce strings of babble with       •   Learn names/signs of some objects of
                                                                 intermixed, occasional words             home setting in the baby’s primary
                                                             •   Combine vocalizations with               language (Ex: bottle, diaper, foods, body
                                                                 gestures                                 parts)
                                                             •   Point to ask for out-of-reach toy    •   Correctly pronounce baby’s name, as
                                                             •   Babble by self and in response to        well as names of other family members
                                                                 others                               •   Use tapes/stories/songs in baby’s
                                                                                                          primary language
                                                                                                      •   Use words/signs to describe baby’s
                                                                                                          non-verbal communication
                                                                                                      •   Frequently engage with baby in his/her
                                                                                                          chosen activities
                                                                                                      •   Talk with baby and wait to allow him/her
                                                                                                          to have turn to make sounds or show
                                                                                                          gestures
Emergent              LL10 Show interest in rhymes,          •   Independently pick up a book and     •   Add props to reading activities
Literacy                   books, stories, and songs             flip the pages                           (Ex: puppets, flannel boards and
(the foundations of                                          •   Listen and/or look at books for a        costumes)
reading)              LL11 Actively participate and show         short period of time when read to    •   Tell stories
                           appreciation for book             •   Babble while looking at book as if   •   Make books using pictures of familiar
                           reading, story sharing and            reading                                  babies
                           singing                           •   Show enjoyment while looking at      •   Allow babies opportunities to “read”
                      LL12 Interact with books                   pictures                                 books independently
                           appropriately                                                              •   Let babies see you enjoy reading
                                                                                                      •   Encourage baby to choose favorite
                                                                                                          books
                                                                                                      •   Provide books containing familiar items



                                                                                                                                                      21
                                            Language and Literacy Older Infant (6-12 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN           To support ongoing learning and      What you might see an older infant       What you can do to support a child’s
                     development the child is given an    (6–12 months) do:                        development:
                     opportunity to:
Emergent Writing     LL13 Use and experiment with         •   Transfer and manipulate an object    •   Supervise babies manipulating objects
(the beginnings of         different writing materials        with hands                           •   Provide paper and age appropriate
writing)                                                  •   Pick up a small toy with thumb and       writing instruments (Ex: crayons)
                     LL14 Notice and show interest in         fingers (pincher grasp)              •   Tell stories based on pictures
                          signs and words in the          •   Show interest when adults write      •   Model writing marks with crayons right
                          classroom environment           •   Use crayons to make marks                next to baby when crayon is in his/her
                                                          •   Make marks with finger in paint          hand
                                                                                                   •   Provide toys to squeeze for
                                                                                                       strengthening finger muscles




                                                                                                                                                22
                                        Language and Literacy Young Toddler (12-24 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN       To support ongoing learning and       What you might see a young toddler       What you can do to support a child’s
                 development the child is given an     (12–24 months) do:                       development:
                 opportunity to:
Receptive        LL1 Show interest in sounds           •   Combine objects in play and          •   Encourage toddlers to explore musical
Language                                                   notice new sounds it makes               instruments
(listening and   LL2   Show interest in language of        (Ex: bang blocks together, place     •   Use gestures to reinforce directions
understanding)         others                              items in container)                      (Ex: pointing)
                                                       •   Participate in finger plays          •   Engage in body awareness activities
                 LL3   Begin to understand             •   Laugh at silly language                  (Ex: Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Toes)
                       gestures, words, routines,      •   Point to common objects when         •   Actively engage in book reading
                       communication                       named                                    (Ex: pointing at pictures, give toddler turn)
                                                       •   Listen and respond to peer when      •   Encourage toddlers to talk to and listen to
                 LL4   Respond to communication            speaking                                 each other
                       of others                       •   Share and show items of interest     •   Encourage toddlers to explore materials and
                                                                                                    identify new sounds by using words (Ex:
                                                                                                    “That’s a loud bang! You made it make a
                                                                                                    softer sound when you slowed down.”)

Expressive       LL5   Use sounds, gestures or         •   Use simple gesture (Ex: nod          •   Model correct use of words/signs that toddler
Language               actions to communicate wants        head for yes)                            attempts to produce
(communicating         and needs                       •   Use facial expressions to show       •   Describe objects using attributes such as
and speaking)                                              excitement or distress                   size, shape (Ex: your plate is a blue circle)
                 LL6   Imitate sounds, words, signs,   •   Pull caregiver to object he/she      •   Follow toddler’s lead, focusing on what is
                       facial expressions and              wants to play with                       attracting his/her attention then name/sign
                       gestures                        •   Imitate new words or signs               (Ex: “That’s a pig”. “Can you say pig?” “Oink”)
                                                       •   Imitate adult movements when         •   Model words, sounds, and signs toddler can
                                                           doing rhymes/finger plays                imitate (Ex: uh-oh, dada, ball)
                                                           (Ex: Pat-a-Cake)                     •   Repeat one word/sign toddler produces and
                                                       •   Imitate simple expressions               add another relevant one to situation
                                                           (Ex: smile, frown, surprised look)       (Ex: “ball” “red ball. BIG ball”)
                                                                                                                “red, ball. BIG ball”)
                                                                                                •   Use gestures/signs with songs and finger
                                                                                                    plays for toddler to imitate such as Pat-a-
                                                                                                    Cake




                                                                                                                                                      23
                                       Language and Literacy Young Toddler (12-24 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN       To support ongoing learning and      What you might see a young toddler       What you can do to support a child’s
                 development the child is given an    (12–24 months) do:                       development:
                 opportunity to:
Expressive       LL7 Communicate using words,         •   Produce few words/signs that are     •   Note words/signs toddler uses and provide
Language              sounds, and/or signs leading        understandable and consistent            him/her opportunities to use
(communicating        to communicating using              (Ex: ba ba for bottle, ma ma or da   •   Describe events to help toddler learn new
and speaking)         phrases and short sentences         da)                                      words/signs
                                                      •   Say more words/signs every           •   Speak/sign with toddler on his/her eye level
                 LL8 Use sounds, words or signs for       month                                •   Expose toddler to stories and songs in
                     a variety of purposes,           •   Combine gestures with                    primary language
                     including expressing emotions        vocalizations                        •   Invite parents to share taped stories and
                     and physical states              •   Use strings of different sounds          songs in home language
                                                          sounding like he/she is having a     •   Learn words/signs that are most commonly
                 LL9 Engage in turn-taking back-          conversation                             used in toddler’s primary language
                     and-forth exchanges leading      •   Begin to combine words/signs         •   Use familiar words/signs when
                     to conversation                  •   May become frustrated if                 communicating with toddler
                                                          meaning of communication             •   Ask parent what consistent word/sign/sound
                                                          attempt is not readily understood        their toddler uses for common daily activities
                                                      •   Begin to use words/signs to          •   Listen closely to toddler’s language attempts
                                                          describe physical needs and          •   Talk with toddler during routines, describing
                                                          wants (Ex: hungry)                       what is happening
                                                      •   Respond to yes/no questions          •   Respond to conversational starters
                                                      •   Initiate conversations               •   Use meaningful two word phrases when
                                                      •   Name pictures                            toddler is interested in specific item
                                                      •   Match emotions of peers                  (Ex: “more milk,” “ball please,” “thank you”)
                                                      •   Initiate play with peers             •   Use toddler’s name frequently to identify
                                                      •   Begin to combine words                   his/her possessions
                                                                                               •   Respond quickly to toddler’s signs of distress
                                                                                                   as he/she has limited language with which to
                                                                                                   communicate needs
                                                                                               •   Set up environments and activities to
                                                                                                   encourage toddlers to communicate with
                                                                                                   each other




                                                                                                                                                    24
                                             Language and Literacy Young Toddler (12-24 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN           To support ongoing learning and       What you might see a young toddler        What you can do to support a child’s
                     development the child is given an     (12–24 months) do:                        development:
                     opportunity to:
Emergent             LL10 Show interest in rhymes,         •   Recognize familiar signs, labels,     •   Point out symbols in environment (Ex: stop
Literacy                   books, stories, and songs           or logos in home or community             sign means stop, green light means go,
(the foundations                                           •   Finish repetitive lines in familiar       signs of familiar stores/places of interest)
of reading)          LL11 Actively participate and show        books                                 •   Read stories to toddlers many times
                          appreciation for book reading,   •   Hold book correctly for reading           throughout day
                          story sharing, and singing       •   See picture of flower and             •   Provide books everywhere… in all areas,
                                                               pretends to smell it                      near naptime mats, dramatic play areas,
                     LL12 Interact with books              •   Point to pictures upon request            quiet area, etc.
                          appropriately                    •   Enjoy being read to                   •   Help toddlers make their own books and
                                                                                                         place in book corner for others to view
                                                                                                     •   Tell stories without books

Emergent Writing     LL13 Use and experiment with          •   Pretend to write by scribbling        •   Make personalized books of different
(the beginnings of        different writing materials      •   Choose to use markers or                  experienced events (Ex: make book about
writing)                                                       crayons during playtime                   nature walk you went on together)
                     LL14 Notice and show interest in      •   Imitate marks on paper                •   Point to pictures that match what you are
                          signs and words in the           •   Notice letters and words on paper         reading in book
                          classroom environment                                                      •   Provide books in toddler’s primary language
                                                                                                     •   Have access to different materials used for
                                                                                                         writing (Ex: crayons, markers, paint brushes,
                                                                                                         and finger paints)
                                                                                                     •   Allow toddlers to explore and communicate
                                                                                                         using their own written language
                                                                                                     •   Put down toddler’s words in writing




                                                                                                                                                         25
                                        Language and Literacy Older Toddler (24-36 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN       To support ongoing learning      What you might see an older toddler        What you can do to support a child’s
                 and de velopment the child is    (24–36 months) do:                         development:
                 given an opportunity to:
Receptive        LL1 Show interest in sounds      •   Join in finger play with actions and   •   Play language based games (Ex: games of
Language                                              words                                      pretend, Hokey Pokey, Follow the Leader)
(listening and                                    •   Actively seek to participate in        •   Provide opportunities for toddlers to correct or
                 LL2 Show interest in language
understanding)                                        ongoing activities                         fill in information (Ex: “Is that a tiger?” “It’s time
                     of others
                                                  •   Interact in play with peers                for ____.")
                                                  •   Try to repeat sounds in                •   Expose toddlers to different varieties of music
                 LL3 Begin to understand
                                                      environment, including words that      •   Talk with toddlers all day, narrating what you
                     gestures, words, routines,
                                                      peers say                                  observe and pointing out new ways they are
                     communication
                                                                                                 learning or making sounds; ask them questions
                 LL4 Respond to communication                                                    about their discoveries
                     of others

Expressive       LL5 Use sounds, gestures, or     •   Move/gesture to indicate toileting     •   Put toddler’s communication attempts into
Language             actions to communicate           needs (Ex: wet or soiled diaper,           words (Ex: “I understand you’re mad.” “Ouch!
(communicating       wants and needs                  tug on pants indicating a need to          That hurt.”)
and speaking)                                         use bathroom)                          •   Call toddler’s attention to other children’s
                 LL6 Imitate sounds, words,       •   Repeat simple rhymes and songs             sounds, gestures, facial expressions (Ex: “Look
                     signs, facial expressions    •   Imitate two and three word                 how happy Sarah is that you shared your
                     and gestures                     phrases                                    crayons with her.”)
                 LL7 Communicate using words,     •   Initiate finger plays                  •   Positively acknowledge words toddler attempts
                     sounds, and/or signs         •   Use words for many objects                 to use and model its correct production
                     leading to communicating         (Ex: nouns)                                (Ex: “gog” “right! Dog”)
                     using phrases and short      •   Use name to refer to self              •   Use pronouns (Ex: he/she, him/her)
                     sentences                    •   Name some body parts                   •   Use two- or three-word/sign phrases
                                                  •   Use one word questions with            •   Sing simple songs, repeat familiar rhymes
                                                      intonation                             •   Encourage use of language in humor and
                                                  •   Use some two-word question                 pretend play
                                                      approximations (Ex: “whadat?)          •   Answer questions toddler asks with detail
                                                  •   Ask for help                           •   Continue to ask toddler simple questions




                                                                                                                                                          26
                                        Language and Literacy Older Toddler (24-36 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN       To support ongoing learning       What you might see an older toddler     What you can do to support a child’s
                 and de velopment the child is     (24–36 months) do:                      development:
                 given an opportunity to:
Expressive       LL8 Use sound, words or signs     •   Ask questions                       •   Put toddler’s gestures/movements into
Language              for a variety of purposes,   •   Talk/sign to self                       words/signs expressing emotions
(communicating        including expressing         •   Begin to describe personal          •   Include songs, stories, and music from
and speaking)         emotions and physical            experiences                             toddler’s primary language and culture in
                      states                       •   Converse in primary language,           planned activities
                                                       one or two responses                •   Invite parents to plan activity representing their
                 LL9 Engage in turn taking back    •   Recognize stories and songs that        primary language/culture
                     and forth exchanges               he/she hears frequently             •   Invite family members to read book or describe
                     leading to conversation       •   Use three-word sentences                tradition in their primary language/culture
                                                   •   Learn and use new words             •   Read words around room aloud to make
                                                   •   Use feeling words and facial            connection between pictures and words
                                                       expressions appropriately           •   Read, sing, march to rhythm of language
                                                   •   Talk to other children              •   Set up environments and activities to
                                                   •   Answer simple questions                 encourage toddlers to communicate with each
                                                   •   Answer questions with accurate          other
                                                       “yes” or “no” answer                •   Support toddlers in their attempts to
                                                   •   Use language or gestures that are       communicate with each other (Ex: taking turns,
                                                       increasingly understandable             listening)
                                                   •   Use language in dramatic and/or     •   Ask toddlers to describe their work (Ex: block
                                                       symbolic play                           structures, art)
                                                   •   Begin to use language to describe   •   Write what toddlers say/sign (Ex: comments on
                                                       own pictures/artwork                    art work, stories, reports of vacations)
                                                   •   Participate taking turn in          •   Allow time for toddler’s response and provide
                                                       conversation                            assistance if he/she needs help
                                                                                           •   Model correct grammar (Ex: “Him’s hurt!” “He’s
                                                                                               hurt? Show me,” “He don’t got none.” “He
                                                                                               doesn’t have any?”)




                                                                                                                                                    27
                                              Language and Literacy Older Toddler (24-36 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN           To support ongoing learning        What you might see an older toddler        What you can do to support a child’s
                     and de velopment the child is      (24–36 months) do:                         development:
                     given an opportunity to:
Emergent             LL10 Show interest in rhymes,      •   Label or make accompanying             •   Label toy shelves/boxes with written word as
Literacy                   books, stories, and songs        noises when sees picture                   well as picture
(the foundations                                        •   Participate in book reading by         •   Ask toddler to get favorite book
of reading)          LL11 Actively participate and          making noises (Ex: says tweet,         •   Read books having repetitive phrases/verses
                          show appreciation for book        tweet when pointing at birds           •   Ask toddler to retell familiar story
                          reading, story sharing and    •   Recognize book by cover                •   Display a variety of books
                          singing                       •   Pretend to “read” independently        •   Use your finger to follow words from left to right,
                     LL12 Interact with books           •   Recognize name in print                    top of page to bottom
                          appropriately                 •   Open book and flip pages in order      •   Point out specific letters especially in words of
                                                        •   Pick out/request story book for            interest (Ex: child’s name)
                                                            teacher/caregiver to read              •   Model reading for purpose throughout day,
                                                        •   Choose to look at books as free            read directions for recipe on pancake mix box,
                                                            choice activity                            read aloud note from parent
                                                        •
Emergent Writing     LL13 Use and experiment with       •   Hold crayon with thumb and             •   Provide different sorts of writing materials, both
(the beginnings of        different writing materials       fingers of one hand                        in terms of paper (Ex: cards, white paper,
writing)                                                •   Try to imitate symbols and pictures        envelopes, notebooks) and writing tools (Ex:
                     LL14 Notice and show interest in   •    “Writing” and “drawing” begin to          crayons, paint, pencils, chalk, ink pads and
                          signs and words in the            look different                             stamps)
                          classroom environment         •   Try to describe his/her writing/art    •   Use environmental print including labels with
                                                            work through his/her own words             upper and lowercase letters
                                                            and interpretations (Ex: show          •   Post pictures drawn by age matched peers
                                                            scribble and say, “it’s a dinosaur”)   •   Post pictures throughout the environment
                                                                                                   •   Share stories created using toddler’s writing
                                                                                                   •   Provide activities to develop hand-eye
                                                                                                       coordination, visual memory, and copying forms
                                                                                                       (Ex: practice left to right, top to bottom)
                                                                                                   •   Use touch experience with letters (Ex:
                                                                                                       sandpaper backed, flannel, magnetic)




                                                                                                                                                             28
                                                                    DISCOVERIES
Infants enter the world aware and eager to learn. Everything they do         to observe actions and reactions and nurture, guide and be responsive to
feeds their inborn curiosity. Beginning at birth, they make discoveries      the learning process. Be aware that learning is holistic and know how to
about themselves, the people around them, and the objects in their           capture the spontaneous teachable moments. Daily activities and
environment. At the foundation of their discoveries are relationships.       routines are important learning and teaching opportunities.
Knowing they are interacting with responsive, nurturing caregivers offers
them the security to explore and expand their world. For the young infant,   The seven sub-domains of Discoveries include:
this exploration happens by watching and taking in information through
their senses and experiences as they use their bodies to learn about the       • Sensory Awareness – exploration of the physical world and the
immediate world. As they gain information about their world and control          properties of things
over their bodies, they expand their actions and movements and seek            • Spatial Awareness – sense of space and how things fit as people and
more challenging situations. They move out to explore from their secure          objects move
place. Simple behaviors become more complex problem solving                    • Memory – develops an understanding that people, objects and
experiences that build on one another. What started out as simply                events continue to exist when they cannot be seen, object
attending to their immediate world now has expanded to keeping items in          permanence
memory, making connections, understanding concepts, and bringing               • Cause and Effect – events and outcomes are caused by themselves,
symbolic play into learning. An environment that is accessible, organized        other people, or things
and predictable, and developmentally appropriate offers them the freedom       • Attention and Persistence – attends to tasks and persists with
to choose their activities. Infants and toddlers learn best when they can        activities that interest them
control what is happening and explore what is interesting to them.             • Curiosity and Problem Solving – ability to use experiences to make
                                                                                 meaningful connections
The Early Childhood Professionals are the facilitators of this learning        • Play – engage with real objects in imaginative ways
process. The environment should be structured so that it is responsive to
individual temperaments, learning styles and interests. Take a step back




                                                                                                                                                        29
                                                    Discoveries Young Infant (0-6 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                               To support ongoing learning and        What you might see a young      What you can do to support a
                                         development the child is given an      infant (0–6 months) do:         child’s de velopment:
                                         opportunity to:
Sensory Awareness                        DS1 Use vision to respond to light     •   Play with own hands and     •   Watch and respond to cues
(exploration of the physical world and        and focus on details such as          feet                        •   Offer objects with high
the properties of things)                     faces, movement and color         •   Gaze at faces and               contrast; provide “just
                                                                                    objects                         enough” stimulation for
                                         DS2 Use taste and smell to learn       •   Gather information about        individuality
                                             about foods, people and objects        people, objects, and        •   Provide awake time on
                                                                                    themselves using multiple       tummy and back
                                         DS3 Explore people and objects             senses                      •   Talk about what baby is
                                             through touch                                                          experiencing (parallel talk)


                                         DS4 Use hearing to gain
                                             information about people,
                                             places, language, and things

                                         DS5 Use all senses to learn about
                                            cultures and ways of doing
                                            things

Spatial Awareness                        DS6 Discover how their own bodies      •   Find mouth to explore       •   Provide as much safe
(sense of space and how things fit as        fit into spaces                        self and objects                protected floor time as
people and objects move)                                                        •   Explore environment by          possible on tummy and back
                                         DS7 Explore how objects can fit into       rolling, inching, or        •   Provide wide range of
                                             a variety of spaces as they            crawling                        objects to touch and mouth
                                             build, stack, fill, and dump       •   Reach for and grasp
                                                                                    objects

Memory                                   DS8 Focus on people in their           •   Explore objects only in     •   Provide safe places to
(develops an understanding that              immediate world                        immediate world                 explore objects
people, objects, and events continue                                            •   Does not search for a       •   Bring a variety of objects to
to exist when they cannot be seen,                                                  person or object that has       baby
object permanence)                                                                  disappeared




                                                                                                                                                    30
                                                 Discoveries Young Infant (0-6 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                             To support ongoing learning and           What you might see a young    What you can do to support a
                                       development the child is given an         infant (0–6 months) do:       child’s de velopment:
                                       opportunity to:
Memory                                 DS9 Focus on objects in their
(develops an understanding that             immediate world and when
people, objects, and events continue        they disappear, they no longer
to exist when they cannot be seen,          exist for the infant
object permanence)


                                       DS10 Realize that people and objects
                                            that have disappeared still remain
                                            in the infant’s memory


Cause and Effect                       DS11 Realize that a specific action       •   Grasp objects and bring   •   React and respond calmly to
(events and outcomes are caused by         (Ex: cry) is caused either                to mouth to explore           baby’s cues
themselves, other people, or things)       through their own body or their       •   Repeat behaviors such     •   Make eye contact
                                           own actions                               as kicking, shaking, or   •   Keep hands clean and free
                                                                                     batting                       for mouthing
                                       DS12 Recognize that people and            •   Use cries or sounds to    •   Recognize baby’s cues for
                                            specific parts of objects can            express needs for food,       hunger such a smacking lips
                                            cause things to happen                   attention, and comfort        and sucking motions
                                                                                                               •   Respond promptly and
                                       DS13 Use their own body to get                                              positively to cries so that
                                            what they want or need (Ex:                                            needs are met
                                            hands for feeding or reaching out,
                                            voice for crying to get attention)

                                       DS14 Watch people and see how
                                            they can be used to get
                                            what they want

                                       DS15 Use objects as a way to get
                                            what they want




                                                                                                                                                 31
                                                 Discoveries Young Infant (0-6 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                            To support ongoing learning and         What you might see a young        What you can do to support a
                                      development the child is given an       infant (0–6 months) do:           child’s de velopment:
                                      opportunity to:
Attention and Persistence             DS16 Notice and pay attention to        •   Become quiet when             •   Acknowledge changes in
(attends to tasks and persists with         objects and people of interest        caregiver responds to             behaviors (Ex: “that’s better,
activities that interest them)                                                    basic needs                       all clean.”)
                                                                              •   Focus on patterns in          •   Talk about changes baby is
                                      DS17 Choose to stay with an
                                                                                  carpet or on mobile               seeing in immediate
                                           activity that interests them
                                                                                                                    environment

Curiosity and Problem Solving         DS18 Explore objects to see how         •   Physically, emotionally, or   •   Tell babies what is
(ability to use experiences to make        they work, using trial and error       verbally react to                 happening in your
meaningful connections)                    to meet challenges                     environment                       interactions
                                                                              •   Put objects in mouth,         •   Respond to baby’s cues
                                      DS19 Make connections with                  bang objects against
                                           people and use what they               materials, shake, or hit
                                           know from other situations to          objects
                                           solve a problem

                                      DS20 Try a variety of approaches
                                           in problem solving using own
                                           body and objects

Play                                  DS21 Play with hands                    •   Watch what is happening       •   Provide soft, cuddly dolls
(engage with real objects in                                                      in environment                    and other safe objects for
imaginative ways)                                                             •   Reach for and explore             touching, mouthing, and
                                                                                  real objects                      exploring
                                      DS22 Imitate and practice what
                                           happens in their life as they
                                           watch people and events

                                      DS23 Use props and people as
                                           they engage in make believe
                                           play and act out simple
                                           themes




                                                                                                                                                     32
                                                   Discoveries Older Infant (6-12 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                               To support ongoing learning and      What you might see an older       What you can do to support a
                                         development the child is given an    infant (6–12 months) do:          child’s de velopment:
                                         opportunity to:
Sensory Awareness                        DS1 Use vision to respond to light   •   Shake rattle or use voice     •   Remain nearby, available and
(exploration of the physical world and        and focus on details such as        to make sounds                    non-directive
the properties of things)                     faces, movement and color       •   Reach out, touch and          •   Use feeding routines to explore
                                                                                  explore nurturing                 tastes and textures
                                         DS2 Use taste and smell to learn         caregivers                    •   Provide safe age-appropriate
                                             about foods, people, and         •   Focus on details, color,          environment filled with colors,
                                             objects                              and movements of people           textures, shapes, and sizes
                                                                                  and objects
                                         DS3 Explore people and objects
                                             through touch

                                         DS4 Use hearing to gain
                                             information about people,
                                             places, language, and things

                                         DS5 Use all senses to learn about
                                             cultures and ways of doing
                                             things

Spatial Awareness                        DS6 Discover how their own bodies    •   Stack, sort, dump, push       •   Encourage exploration of
(sense of space and how things fit as        fit into spaces                      and pull objects to see           materials that are safe and
people and objects move)                                                          how they fit                      accessible
                                         DS7 Explore how objects can fit      •   Explore the world from a      •   Include a variety of containers
                                             into a variety of spaces as          new view by sitting up,           to be filled and emptied
                                             they build, stack, fill and          creeping and crawling
                                             dump
Memory                                   DS8 Focus on people in their         •   Continue to play though       •   Play simple hiding games with
(develops an understanding that              immediate world and when             notices caregiver is out of       toys, blankets, and people (Ex:
people, objects, and events continue         they disappear, they no longer       sight                             Peek-a-Boo)
to exist when they cannot be seen,           exist for the infant             •   Search actively for an
object permanence)                                                                object that is hidden




                                                                                                                                                      33
                                                   Discoveries Older Infant (6-12 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                             To support ongoing learning and        What you might see an older       What you can do to support a
                                       development the child is given an      infant (6–12 months) do:          child’s de velopment:
                                       opportunity to:
Memory                                 DS9 Focus on objects in their          •   Repeatedly drop objects       •   Organize the environment
(develops an understanding that              immediate world and when             and look to see where             grouping like items so they can
people, objects, and events continue         they disappear, they no longer       they have gone                    easily be put where they
to exist when they cannot be seen,           exist for the infant                                                   belong
object permanence)                                                                                              •   Place items in drawers,
                                       DS10 Realize that people and                                                 cabinets, and baskets to
                                            objects that have                                                       encourage simple searching
                                            disappeared still remain in
                                            the infant’s memory
Cause and Effect                       DS11 Realize that a specific           •   Use hands or objects to       •   Provide a variety of toys with
(events and outcomes are caused by          action (Ex: cry) is caused            cause actions like music or       interesting shapes and
themselves, other people, or things)        either through their own              movement                          textures to encourage
                                            body or their own actions         •   Use fingers to feed self          exploration
                                                                              •   Point or vocalize to obtain   •   Offer materials that the baby
                                       DS12 Recognize that people and             wants or needs                    can use to make things
                                            specific parts of objects can                                           happen – music boxes,
                                            cause things to happen                                                  wind-up toys, mobiles
                                                                                                                •   Offer developmentally
                                       DS13 Use their own body to get                                               appropriate foods that
                                           what they want or need (Ex:                                              encourage self-feeding (first
                                           hands for feeding or reaching                                            with fingers and then utensils)
                                           out, voice for crying to get
                                           attention)

                                       DS14 Watch people and see
                                            how they can be used to get
                                            what they want

                                       DS15 Use objects as a way to get
                                            what they want
Attention and Persistence              DS16 Notice and pay attention to       •   Change behaviors when         •   Purposefully change materials
(attends to tasks and persists with         objects and people of                 routines or rituals are           in the environment
activities that interest them)              interest                              changed                       •   Maintain and create routines,
                                                                              •   Turn away from intense            rituals and transitions that are
                                                                                  interactions or sounds            responsive to individual baby


                                                                                                                                                       34
                                                  Discoveries Older Infant (6-12 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                            To support ongoing learning and      What you might see an older       What you can do to support a
                                      development the child is given an    infant (6–12 months) do:          child’s de velopment:
                                      opportunity to:
                                      DS17 Choose to stay with an          •   Look back and forth
                                            activity that interests them       between people and
                                                                               objects
Curiosity and Problem Solving         DS18 Explore objects to see how      •   Use own body to taste,        •   Describe what baby is
(ability to use experiences to make        they work, using trial and          feel, touch, or smell             engaged in
meaningful connections)                    error to meet challenges            objects and materials in      •   Provide materials that have
                                                                               their world                       various tastes, textures, smells,
                                      DS19 Make connections with           •   Discover properties of            colors, or sounds
                                           people and use what they            objects by using them over    •   Offer choices of materials to
                                           know from other situations to       and over again in multiple        explore and time to make this
                                           solve a problem                     ways                              happen

                                      DS20 Try a variety of approaches
                                           in problem solving using own
                                           body and objects

Play                                  DS21 Play with hands, feet, and      •   Roll, inch or crawl to        •   Offer many everyday objects in
(engage with real objects in               objects in their immediate          different areas of the room       the play environment
imaginative ways)                          world                               to experience and explore     •   Provide real, safe household
                                                                               real objects                      objects like bowls or pots with
                                      DS22 Imitate and practice what                                             lids
                                           happens in their life as they
                                           watch people and events

                                      DS23 Use props and people as
                                           they engage in make believe
                                           play and act out simple
                                           themes




                                                                                                                                                     35
                                               Discoveries Young Toddler (12-24 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                           To support ongoing learning and      What you might see a young        What you can do to support a
                                     development the child is given an    toddler (12–24 months) do:        child’s de velopment:
                                     opportunity to:
Sensory Awareness                    DS1 Use vision to respond to light   •   Explore foods and             •   Use teachable moments to
(exploration of the physical world        and focus on details such as        develop likes and dislikes        provide sensory exploration
and the properties of things)             faces, movement and color       •   React to sounds, rhythms          experiences
                                                                              and voices in the             •   Encourage them to try new
                                     DS2 Use taste and smell to learn         environment                       tastes and textures
                                         about foods, people and          •   Use senses to explore         •   Be intentional and spontaneous
                                         objects                              textures, people and
                                                                              objects
                                     DS3 Explore people and objects
                                         through touch

                                     DS4 Use hearing to gain
                                         information about people,
                                         places, language, and things

                                     DS5 Use all senses to learn
                                         about cultures and ways of
                                         doing things

Spatial Awareness                    DS6 Discover how their own           •   Squeeze onto caregiver’s      •   Encourage choice and use of a
(sense of space and how things fit       bodies fit into spaces               lap when another child is         variety of materials
as people and objects move)                                                   already there                 •   Provide space to work with the
                                                                          •   Learn about balance as            materials and use pre-math
                                                                              they stack and nest               language such as small, tiny, big,
                                                                              objects                           bigger to describe their actions
                                     DS7 Explore how objects can fit      •   Get stuck in tight spaces     •   Encourage toddler to use
                                         into a variety of spaces as          and work to get out               materials in a variety of ways
                                         they build, stack, fill, and     •   Learn to walk through             without showing them the “right”
                                         dump                                 different spaces, including       way
                                                                              those occupied by other
                                                                              people and their toys




                                                                                                                                                     36
                                               Discoveries Young Toddler (12-24 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                           To support ongoing learning and      What you might see a young         What you can do to support a
                                     development the child is given an    toddler (12–24 months) do:         child’s de velopment:
                                     opportunity to:
Memory                                DS8 Focus on people in their        •   Search for items in specific   •   Encourage active searching for
(develops an understanding that           immediate world and when            sequences or places                objects and people
people, objects, and events               they disappear, they no         •   Look for caregiver or          •   Leave room and peek back in so
continue to exist when they cannot        longer exist                        parent after they leave            they know you are still there
be seen, object permanence)                                                   room
                                     DS9 Focus on objects in their
                                         immediate world and when
                                         they disappear, they no
                                         longer exist

                                     DS10 Realize that people and
                                          objects that have
                                          disappeared still
                                          remain in the toddler’s
                                          memory

Cause and Effect                     DS11 Realize that a specific         •   Begin to use spoon or fork     •   Encourage communication with
(events and outcomes are caused           action (Ex: cry) is caused          to feed self                       words and gestures to obtain
by themselves, other people, or           either through their own        •   Push, poke, or prod                needs
things)                                   body or their own actions           buttons or knobs to make       •   Provide a variety of action toys
                                                                              things happen                      that produce sounds, lights or
                                     DS12 Recognize that people and       •   Empty and fill different           movements
                                          specific parts of objects can       size cups with materials       •   Provide a variety of toys that will
                                          cause things to happen                                                 give opportunity to experience
                                                                                                                 simple problem solving
                                     DS13 Use their own body to get                                          •   Respond to cries positively with
                                          what they want or need (Ex:                                            kind words or cuddle
                                          hands for feeding or reaching
                                          out, voice for crying to get
                                          attention)

                                     DS14 Watch people and see
                                          how they can be used to
                                          get what they want

                                     DS15 Use objects as a way to get
                                          what they want
                                                                                                                                                       37
                                                 Discoveries Young Toddler (12-24 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                            To support ongoing learning and      What you might see a young         What you can do to support a
                                      development the child is given an    toddler (12–24 months) do:         child’s de velopment:
                                      opportunity to:
Attention and Persistence             DS16 Notice and pay attention        •   Expect favorite song or        •   Allow toddlers to guide how
(attends to tasks and persists with         to objects and people of           book to be presented the           songs or stories are to be used
activities that interest them)              interest                           same way every time            •   Observe interests and change
                                                                           •   Engage in solitary play            materials
                                      DS17 Choose to stay with an          •   Can often stay with activity   •   Design the environment to be
                                           activity that interests them        to completion depending            accessible to all toddlers
                                                                               on temperament

Curiosity and Problem Solving         DS18 Explore objects to see how      •   Imitate caregiver              •   Provide materials that have
(ability to use experiences to make        they work, using trial and      •   Move object around to              shapes, colors, and textures
meaningful connections)                    error to meet challenges            see it in different ways       •   Count with and for toddlers
                                                                           •   Develop basic concepts,            when at all possible (make 1-1
                                      DS19 Make connections with               patterns, shapes, and              connections)
                                           people and use what they            textures of things in          •   Suggest possibilities that guide
                                           know from other situations          environment                        understanding and exploration
                                           to solve a problem                                                     with materials

                                      DS20 Try a variety of
                                           approaches in problem
                                           solving using own body and
                                           objects

Play                                  DS21 Play with hands, feet and       •   Pretend to talk on             •   Encourage interactions with
(engage with real objects in               objects in their immediate          telephone, cook meals or           many types of role playing toys
imaginative ways)                          world                               care for baby                  •   Provide various types of materials
                                                                           •   Use real tools to act out          that may have similar shape or
                                      DS22 Imitate and practice what           simple tasks                       function and are used by adults
                                           happens in their life as they                                          daily
                                           watch people and events                                            •   Allow toddlers time to create and
                                                                                                                  act out their own pretend play
                                      DS23 Use props and people as                                                activities
                                           they engage in make
                                           believe play and act out
                                           simple themes




                                                                                                                                                       38
                                                  Discoveries Older Toddler (24-36 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                               To support ongoing learning and        What you might see a older       What you can do to support a
                                         development the child is given an      toddler (24–36 months) do:       child’s de velopment:
                                         opportunity to:
Sensory Awareness                        DS1 Use vision to respond to light     •   React to sounds,             •   Provide exploration with creative,
(exploration of the physical world and        and focus on details such as          rhythms and voices to            expressive and sensory materials
the properties of things)                     faces, movement, and color            build language               •   Encourage music, rhymes and
                                                                                •   Explore textures in their        sound exploration
                                         DS2 Use taste and smell to learn           natural environment          •   Use your language to tell them
                                             about foods, people, and           •   Use senses to                    what they are experiencing
                                             objects                                discriminate and make            (parallel talk)
                                                                                    connections
                                         DS3 Explore people and objects
                                             through touch


                                         DS4 Use hearing to gain
                                             information about people,
                                             places, language, and things

                                         DS5 Use all senses to learn about
                                             cultures and ways of doing
                                             things.

Spatial Awareness                        DS6 Discover how their own bodies      •   Build, knock over, and       •   Provide stackable toys, sorters,
(sense of space and how things fit as        fit into spaces                        build again with a variety       and other objects
people and objects move)                                                            of materials                 •   Provide simple interlocking
                                                                                •   Experiment with lots of          puzzles and shapes
                                                                                    shapes, puzzles, and         •   Be close but not overly helpful
                                         DS7 Explore how objects can fit into       sorters                          when toddler is figuring out
                                             a variety of spaces as they        •   Learn to make                    challenges
                                             build, stack, fill, and dump           judgments about how          •   Encourage movement
                                                                                    high to climb, how high
                                                                                    to jump, and how fast
                                                                                    and where to run




                                                                                                                                                          39
                                                Discoveries Older Toddler (24-36 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                             To support ongoing learning and        What you might see a older      What you can do to support a
                                       development the child is given an      toddler (24–36 months) do:      child’s de velopment:
                                       opportunity to:
Memory                                 DS8 Focus on people in their           •   Identify objects or         •   Use your language and label
(develops an understanding that              immediate world and when             people by name, sound           objects and people that toddlers
people, objects, and events continue         they disappear, they no longer       or facial expression            see
to exist when they cannot be seen,           exist for the infant             •   Look for favorite book or   •   Describe toddler’s facial
object permanence)                                                                toy where it belongs            expressions; have mirror
                                       DS9 Focus on objects in their                                              available to see what you see
                                           immediate world and when they
                                           disappear, they no longer exist
                                           for the infant

                                       DS10 Realize that people and
                                            objects that have
                                            disappeared still remain in the
                                            infant’s memory

Cause and Effect                       DS11 Realize that a specific action    •   Engage caregiver or         •   Provide safe guidance
(events and outcomes are caused by         (Ex: cry) is caused either             peer to make things         •   Provide toys and opportunities to
themselves, other people, or things)       through their own body or their        happen and expect               foster problem solving
                                           own actions                            response                    •   Participate in sharing games (Ex:
                                                                              •   Use objects to obtain           some for you and some for me;
                                       DS12 Recognize that people and             out of reach items              can I have some?)
                                            specific parts of objects can                                     •   Encourage manipulation by
                                            cause things to happen                                                offering blocks made of various
                                                                                                                  materials
                                       DS13 Use their own body to get
                                            what they want or need (Ex:
                                            hands for feeding or reaching
                                            out, voice for crying to get
                                            attention)

                                       DS14 Watch people and see how
                                            they can be used to get
                                            what they want

                                       DS15 Use objects as a way to get
                                            what they want


                                                                                                                                                      40
                                                   Discoveries Older Toddler (24-36 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                                 To support ongoing learning and       What you might see a older       What you can do to support a
                                           development the child is given an     toddler (24–36 months) do:       child’s de velopment:
                                           opportunity to:
Attention and Persistence                  DS16 Notice and pay attention to      •   Expect favorite song or      •   Allow toddlers to guide how
(attends to tasks and persists with             objects and people of interest       book to be presented             songs or stories are to be used
activities that interest them)                                                       same way every time          •   Observe interests and change
                                                                                 •   Engage in solitary play          materials
                                           DS17 Choose to stay with an           •   Can often stay with          •   Design the environment to be
                                               activity that interests them          activity to completion           accessible to all toddlers
                                                                                     depending on
                                                                                     temperament
Curiosity and Problem Solving              DS18 Explore objects to see how       •   Try several ways to          •   Provide materials that make
(ability to use experiences to make            they work, using trial and            reach an object that is          sounds, show how things work
meaningful connections)                        error to meet challenges              stuck                            and what might go together
                                                                                 •   Use body, objects or         •   Describe patterns in the natural
                                           DS19 Make connections with                instruments to clap, pat         world like large, small, large, small
                                               people and uses what they             or make other sounds
                                               know from other situations to     •   Twist or turn objects to
                                               solve a problem                       figure out how they work
                                           DS20 Try a variety of approaches
                                                in problem solving using own
                                                body and objects

Play                                       DS21 Play with hands, feet and        •   Use real objects in          •   Be deliberate during interaction
(engage with real objects in imaginative       objects in their immediate            imaginative ways to              with toddlers
ways)                                          world                                 engage in role play          •   Play with them; be a kid again;
                                                                                     activities such as talking       be silly; have fun
                                           DS22 Imitate and practice what            on shoe or using block       •   Offer play scenarios for both
                                                happens in their life as they        for bottle                       individuals and groups
                                                watch people and events          •   Play different roles in      •   Join in acting out play when they
                                                                                     pretend play                     invite you
                                           DS23 Use props and people as
                                                they engage in make believe
                                                play and act out simple
                                                themes




                                                                                                                                                              41
                                                        Physical Development and Health
Physical development and health are linked to life-long well-being and        daily opportunities for infants and toddlers to respect, learn about, and
provide the foundation for exploration and learning that help to build        care for their own bodies as they experience and then begin to practice
school readiness. This domain connects to and supports all of the other       healthy habits, hygiene and safety skills. As children develop into
domains as children explore and interact with their environment.              preschoolers, physical development and health is a strong foundation for
                                                                              learning.
From the spontaneous, natural movements of infants to the coordinated
purposeful movements of toddlers, children’s physical development is          The four sub-domains of Physical Development and Health include:
dramatic in the first three years of life. As infants, children’s physical
bodies are their connection to the world. When they experience                    • Sensory – five senses used to explore and learn about the
responsive care, their relationships with trusted caregivers give them the          environment
security to explore the environment. This exploration allows them to build        • Fine Motor – development of strength and coordination of muscles in
brain connections and learn across domains.                                         hands and fingers to explore and manipulate objects in the
                                                                                    environment
It is important for infants and toddlers to be active, to explore their           • Gross Motor – development of large muscle strength, control,
environments, and manipulate a wide range of safe materials. Children               coordination, and balance to move in and interact with the
grow, develop, and learn in a predictable sequence, but at their own                environment
individual pace. When planning activities, it is important to respect the         • Health Awareness and Practice – experiencing and learning about
cues, interests, and needs of each individual child, adapting appropriately         healthy habits: personal care, hygiene, nutrition, physical activity,
to support successful learning. Early childhood professionals can provide           and safety




                                                                                                                                                            42
                                        Physical Development and Health Young Infant (0-6 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN               To support ongoing learning and           What you might see a young infant         What you can do to support a child’s
                         development the child is given an         (0–6 months) do:                          development:
                         opportunity to:
Sensory                  PD1 Experience different sensory          •   Startle to unexpected sounds          •   Talk to infant from different directions
(five senses used              activities (touch, smell, see,      •   Quiet to soothing sounds                  and distances
to explore and                 hear, taste, etc.)                  •   Turn head toward sounds               •   Sing to infant using repetitive songs
learn about the          PD2 Organize and discriminate             •   Respond to faces and touch with       •   Snuggle infant giving face to face time
environment)                   sensory experiences                     smile                                 •   Offer opportunities to suck and mouth
                                                                   •   Follow moving object with eyes            differing textures
                         PD3 Engage in sensory activities
                                                                   •   Reach out to grasp and hold           •   Offer toys for infant to grasp and
                             and play
                                                                       object                                    shake
                                                                   •   Explore objects with mouth and
                                                                       hands
Fine Motor               PD4 Develop strength, small motor         •   Begin with hands tightly fisted and   •   Offer hands, fingers and objects to
(development of              control, and coordination                 gradually open and move them              grasp
strength and                 through daily activities              •   Grasp what is put in hands            •   Stroke and touch
coordination of          PD5 Touch, grasp, reach and               •   Mouth hands                           •   Explore soft toys, blankets, etc.
muscles in hands and         explore people and objects            •   Bring hands to midline
fingers to explore and                                             •   Consistently use hands for object
                         PD6 Develop and use eye-hand
manipulate objects in                                                  exploration
                             coordination to perform a
the environment)                                                   •   Put toys in mouth
                             variety of tasks
                                                                   •   Shake toys while holding
                         PD7 Use and manipulate objects
                             purposefully
                         PD8 Use two hands in a
                             coordinated, purposeful fashion
Gross Motor              PD9 Move freely as they begin to          •   Move arms and legs randomly           •   Place alert baby on rug or mat to allow
(development of large         control their own bodies starting    •   Turn head side to side                    him/her to move without getting hurt
muscle strength,              with the head and back and           •   Lift head when on stomach             •   Provide time on tummy and back
control, coordination,        progressing to the arms and          •   Hold head without bobbing when        •   Support baby in upright position on
and balance to move           legs                                     held                                      lap facing outward to see the world
in and interact with     PD10 Increase the strength, balance,      •   Reach up while on back                    around him/her
the environment)              and coordination of their bodies     •   Begin to have control of arm          •   Carry baby in upright position
                                                                       movements                             •   Provide variety of play positions
                         PD11 Ability to coordinate their bodies
                                                                   •   Begin to reach for and hold               throughout the day
                              to perform increasingly complex
                                                                       objects
                              movements




                                                                                                                                                            43
                                        Physical Development and Health Young Infant (0-6 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN              To support ongoing learning and            What you might see a young infant      What you can do to support a child’s
                        development the child is given an          (0–6 months) do:                       development:
                        opportunity to:
Gross Motor            PD12 Interact with people and               •   Roll back and forth                •   Provide baby with toys to encourage
(development of large         environment through movement         •   Push up from belly on straight         reaching toward them (Ex: an
muscle strength,              and body awareness                       arms                                   overhead gym, toys on floor during
control, coordination,                                                                                        tummy time, toys held to reach for)
and balance to move
in and interact with
the environment)


Health Awareness         PD13 Learn about and respect their        •   Cry when hungry or uncomfortable   •   Respond promptly to infants’ needs
and Practice –                bodies                               •   Enjoy warm baths                       and cries with sensitivity and respect
(experiencing and                                                  •   Relax when rocked                  •   Watch for and respond to cues for
learning about           PD14 Engage in daily physical activity,   •   Interact with caregivers when          hunger and fullness
healthy habits:               both indoors and outdoors                content and secure                 •   Interact during daily care routines:
personal care,                                                     •   Explore indoors and outdoors,          talk, sing, smile, make eye contact
hygiene, nutrition,      PD15 Experience and learn about               free of confining equipment        •   Get down on the floor during tummy
physical activity, and        hygiene routines                     •   Show interest in solid food            time, face to face, so that you can
safety)                                                                                                       talk, sing and explore together
                         PD16 Experience and learn about                                                  •   Place infants on blankets with favorite
                              healthy lifestyle practices                                                     toys for unrestricted play indoors and
                                                                                                              outdoors each day
                         PD17 Learn about and demonstrate                                                 •   Develop a routine for going to sleep:
                              safe behaviors and accident                                                     rocking, patting back, reading, singing
                              prevention                                                                  •   Provide a healthy, safe environment,
                                                                                                              free of smoke, hazards, too much
                                                                                                              sunlight, and unsupervised pets




                                                                                                                                                        44
                                       Physical Development and Health Older Infant (6-12 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN               To support ongoing learning and        What you might see an older infant      What you can do to support a child’s
                         development the child is given an      (6–12 months) do:                       development:
                         opportunity to:
Sensory                  PD1 Experience different sensory       •   Begin some imitation of hand play   •   Play peek a boo with people and
(five senses used              activities (touch, smell, see,       such as waving bye-bye and              objects, with and without sound
to explore and                 hear, taste, etc.)                   clapping hands                      •   Provide floor time exposing infant to a
learn about the                                                 •   Calm with comfort from a familiar       variety of textures, colors and items of
environment)             PD2 Organize and discriminate              adult when upset                        interest
                             sensory experiences                •   Respond to familiar books and       •   Place infant on lap, face to face and
                                                                    songs                                   enjoy rhythm games and word play
                         PD3 Engage in sensory activities       •   Respond to different textures           using hand over hand or practice
                             and play                                                                       imitation
                                                                                                        •   Listen to different kinds of music and
                                                                                                            rhythm, encourage participation with
                                                                                                            voice and/or instruments
                                                                                                        •   Encourage mirror play
                                                                                                        •   Encourage handling of finger foods
                                                                                                            and utensils during mealtime

Fine Motor               PD4 Develop strength, small motor      •   Transfer objects from one hand to   •   Present easy to grasp objects
(development of              control, and coordination              another                                 (Ex: rings and soft toys)
strength and                 through daily activities.          •   Control grasp and release of        •   Engage in reciprocal finger plays,
coordination of                                                     single objects                          gestures, and signs
muscles in hands and     PD5 Touch, grasp, reach and            •   Hold a toy in each hand             •   Present objects close to midline for
fingers to explore and       explore people and objects.            simultaneously                          opportunities for right and left hand
manipulate objects in    PD6 Develop and use eye-hand           •   Begin to finger-feed self               grasp
the environment)             coordination to perform a                                                  •   Provide objects to place into open
                             variety of tasks                                                               containers

                         PD7 Use and manipulate objects
                             purposefully
                         PD8 Use two hands in a
                             coordinated, purposeful
                             fashion




                                                                                                                                                       45
                                        Physical Development and Health Older Infant (6-12 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                 To support ongoing learning and        What you might see an older infant          What you can do to support a child’s
                           development the child is given an      (6–12 months) do:                           development:
                           opportunity to:
Gross Motor                PD9 Move freely as they begin to       •   Gradually sit independently             •   Support baby in sitting position with
(development of large            control their own bodies         •   Get to hands and knees and rock             toys, books or activities of interest in
muscle strength,                 starting with the head and           back and forth                              front
control, coordination,           back and progressing to the      •   Move from one location to another       •   Provide opportunity for face to face
and balance to move              arms and legs                        by rolling, crawling on belly, and          interaction
in and interact with the   PD10 Increase the strength,                crawling on hands and knees             •   Provide open arms or sturdy furniture
environment)                     balance, and coordination of     •   Pull to standing position                   to encourage the baby to move
                                 their bodies                     •   Begin to take steps sideways                toward you or an object
                           PD11 Ability to coordinate their           while holding onto something            •   Place toys on low furniture to
                                 bodies to perform increasingly       (cruising)                                  encourage baby to pull up, stand and
                                 complex movements                                                                play in standing position

                           PD12 Interact with people and
                                environment through
                                movement and body
                                awareness
Health Awareness           PD13 Learn about and respect their     •   Indicate when hungry, full, thirsty,    •   Support a daily routine for eating,
and Practice                    bodies                                uncomfortable, tired                        sleeping, and activity
(experiencing and                                                 •   Develop consistent sleep/wake           •   Provide safe outdoor and indoor play
learning about healthy     PD14 Engage in daily physical              patterns and daily routines                 daily: simple games, kicking, crawling,
habits: personal care,          activity, both indoors and        •   Cooperate during care routines:             standing, cruising, dancing
hygiene, nutrition,             outdoors                              may hold bottle, feed themselves,       •   Avoid screen time for children under 2
physical activity, and                                                help wash hands, pull at diapers            years of age
safety)                    PD15 Experience and learn about            when wet                                •   Model good nutrition, health and safety
                                hygiene routines                  •   Spend longer periods of time                practices
                                                                      exploring the environment and           •   Watch for and respond to hunger and
                           PD16 Experience and learn about            playing with favorite toys                  fullness cues
                                healthy lifestyle practices       •   Bat, grab, drop or shake simple         •   Introduce healthy, solid foods
                                                                      toys: rattles, soft balls, dolls, and       gradually, one at a time
                           PD17 Learn about and demonstrate           cause and effect toys                   •   Encourage growing independence in
                                safe behaviors and accident       •                        to pulling
                                                                      Use solid furniture for pulling up,         self-feeding and hand washing
                                prevention                            standing, and cruising                  •   Provide clear direction to keep
                                                                  •   Eat a variety of fruits and                 children safe from hazards
                                                                      vegetables




                                                                                                                                                             46
                                    Physical Development and Health Young Toddler (12-24 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN               To support ongoing learning and        What you might see a young toddler      What you can do to support a child’s
                         development the child is given an      (12–24 months) do:                      development:
                         opportunity to:
Sensory                  PD1 Experience different sensory       •   React to surprise happenings        •   Provide utensils for play to encourage
(five senses used              activities (touch, smell, see,   •   Develop preferences for tastes,         scooping, poking, and balancing a
to explore and                 hear, taste, etc.)                   textures, sounds, scents and            variety of textures
learn about the                                                     sights                              •   Create routines to practice hand
environment)             PD2 Organize and discriminate          •   Touch and explore objects with          washing, cleaning up, and wiping
                             sensory experiences                    hands and fingers                       mouths
                                                                •   Begin to notice and repeat          •   Provide containers with a variety of
                         PD3 Engage in sensory activities
                                                                    different sounds                        messy play materials both liquids and
                             and play
                                                                •   Respond to own name and                 solids
                                                                    familiar words                      •   Hang pictures and place toys at
                                                                •   Enjoy movement activities like          toddler's level and allow for touching
                                                                    walking, dancing, swinging              and exploring; pictures and toys
                                                                                                            should be changed occasionally
                                                                                                        •   Encourage response to different
                                                                                                            sounds in the environment: bells,
                                                                                                            sirens, water running, birds, airplanes,
                                                                                                            knocks on the door, voices of peers

Fine Motor               PD4 Develop strength, small motor      •   Begin to hold cup                   •   Present containers with/without lids for
(development of              control, and coordination          •   Begin to pinch thumb and finger         play with liquids or solids
strength and                 through daily activities           •   Begin to manipulate small objects   •   Provide a variety of experiences with
coordination of                                                 •   Begin to turn pages in sturdy           scissors, craft materials, glue, writing
muscles in hands and     PD5 Touch, grasp, reach, and               board book                              tools, and sensory choices
fingers to explore and       explore people and objects         •   Fold, crush and change shapes of    •   Practice using forks, spoons, napkins,
manipulate objects in    PD6 Develop and use eye-hand               blankets, paper, and foods              cups for play and eating
the environment)             coordination to perform a          •   Add and empty objects from          •   Present peg boards, puzzles and
                             variety of tasks                       containers                              lacing activities




                                                                                                                                                       47
                                      Physical Development and Health Young Toddler (12-24 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                 To support ongoing learning and     What you might see a young toddler      What you can do to support a child’s
                           development the child is given an   (12–24 months) do:                      development:
                           opportunity to:
Fine Motor                 PD7 Use and manipulate objects                                              •   Offer sturdy books for turning pages
(development of                   purposefully                                                             and exploring positioning or pointing
strength and                                                                                               at pictures
coordination of                                                                                        •   Offer dolls, clothing, blankets, and
muscles in hands and                                                                                       accessories with large buttons, snaps,
fingers to explore and                                                                                     and zippers for play; allow children to
manipulate objects in                                                                                      practice dressing and undressing
the environment)                                                                                           activities
                                                                                                       •   Offer foods to pick up and eat such as
                                                                                                           cheerios, puffs, etc.
                                                                                                       •   Begin to introduce simple shape
                           PD8   Use two hands in a                                                        sorting toys
                                 coordinated, purposeful
                                 fashion

Gross Motor                PD9  Move freely as they begin to   •   Begin to roll and toss objects      •   Provide small objects to roll, toss, and
(development of large           control their own bodies       •   Walk short distances with both          kick, such as beanbags and balls
muscle strength,                starting with the head and         hands held, then with one hand      •   Provide push toys to hold on to
control, coordination,          back and progressing to the    •   Walk independently                  •   Hold toddler's hand at chest level and
and balance to move             arms and legs                  •   Climb into an adult lap, on             walk slowly on a variety of surfaces
in and interact with the   PD10 Increase the strength,             furniture, up and down stairs, or   •   Encourage toddler to climb on variety
environment)                    balance, and coordination of       out of crib                             of surfaces, such as laps, low sturdy
                                their bodies                   •   Kick balls short distances              furniture, steps
                           PD11 Ability to coordinate their    •   Begin to run, but may be awkward    •   Encourage toddler to run toward an
                                bodies to perform                  and have difficulty stopping            adult to gain control of stopping
                                increasingly complex           •   Squat
                                movements
                           PD12 Interact with people and
                                 environment through
                                movement and body
                                 awareness




                                                                                                                                                      48
                                    Physical Development and Health Young Toddler (12-24 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN               To support ongoing learning and      What you might see a young toddler          What you can do to support a child’s
                         development the child is given an    (12–24 months) do:                          development:
                         opportunity to:
Health Awareness
                         PD13 Learn about and respect their   •    Cooperate during physical care:        •   Engage toddlers in safe, supervised,
                               bodies                              dressing, eating, hand washing,            unstructured physical activity indoors
and Practice
(experiencing and        PD14 Engage in daily physical        •   Cooperate during physical care:
                                                                   bathing, tooth brushing, nose          •   Engage toddlers in safe,
                                                                                                              and outdoors each day supervised,
learning about                 activity, both indoors and         dressing, and diapering washing,
                                                                   blowing, eating, hand                  •   unstructured physical activity indoors
                                                                                                              Create classroom experiences and use
Health Awareness               outdoors                       •   bathing, tooth brushing, nose
                                                                   Engage in active play: pushing             and outdoors increase
                                                                                                              resources that each day health and
healthy habits:
and Practice
personal care,                                                    blowing, and diapering rolling balls,
                                                                   carts, loading wagons,                 •   Create classroom experiences and use
                                                                                                              safety awareness and skills: bathing
(development of large
hygiene, nutrition,      PD15 Experience and learn about      •   Engage in active play: pushing
                                                                   walking, climbing, dancing, riding         resources that increase health and
                                                                                                              dolls, brushing teeth after lunch,
muscle strength,              hygiene routines                    carts, loading wagons, rolling balls,
                                                                   wheel toys                                 safety awareness and healthy snacks
                                                                                                              washing fruit, preparingskills: bathing
physical activity, and
control, coordination,
safety)                                                       •   walking, climbing, dancing, riding
                                                                   Eat a variety of healthy foods,        •   dolls, a variety of healthy lunch,
                                                                                                              Serve brushing teeth after foods, but
and balance to move      PD16 Experience and learn about          wheel toys
                                                                   including fruits and vegetables            washing fruit, preparing what and
                                                                                                              allow children to choose healthy snacks
in and interact with          healthy lifestyle practices     •
                                                              •   Eat a variety of healthy foods,
                                                                   Show interest in preparing and         •   how much to eat healthy foods, but
                                                                                                              Serve a variety of
the environment)                                                  including fruits and vegetables
                                                                   serving food                           •   allow children to choose what and
                                                                                                              Sit with the toddlers during meals to
                         PD17 Learn about and demonstrate     •
                                                              •   Show interest in preparing and
                                                                   Interact with others at mealtimes          how much to eating and encourage
                                                                                                              model healthyeat
                              safe behaviors and accident     •   serving food verbal warnings of
                                                                   Respond to                             •   Sit with the toddlers during meals to
                                                                                                              conversation
                              prevention                      •   Interact with others at mealtimes
                                                                   danger from trusted adult              •   model healthy eating drink water
                                                                                                              Encourage toddlers toand encourage
                                                              •   Respond to verbal warnings of               conversation
                                                                                                              when they get thirsty
                                                                  danger from trusted adult               •
                                                                                                          •   Encourage toddlers to drink water
                                                                                                              Discuss safety rules and procedures
                                                                                                              when going on walks,
                                                                                                              beforethey get thirsty playing
                                                                                                          •   Discuss using rules toys
                                                                                                              outside, safety riding and procedures
                                                                                                              before going on walks, playing
                                                                                                              outside, using riding toys




                                                                                                                                                        49
                                     Physical Development and Health Older Toddler (24-36 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN               To support ongoing learning and        What you might see a older toddler         What you can do to support a child’s
                         development the child is given an      (24–36 months) do:                         development:
                         opportunity to:
Sensory                  PD1 Experience different sensory       •   Play with different textures – solid   •   Make and play with play dough and
(five senses used              activities (touch, smell, see,       and liquid materials                       various tools to practice pounding,
to explore and                 hear, taste, etc.)               •   Use senses to experience nature            poking, cutting and rolling activities
earn about the           PD2 Organize and discriminate              and weather                            •   Provide shovels, rakes, buckets, and
environment)                   sensory experiences              •   Eat a variety of foods with                hoses for outdoor play
                         PD3 Engage in sensory activities           different tastes and textures          •   Take nature walks and gather various
                               and play                         •   Recognize and repeat familiar              nature items; be sure to touch, note
                                                                    songs and rhythms                          sights, scents, and sounds around
                                                                                                               you
                                                                                                           •   Make available sensory tables and
                                                                                                               messy trays with a variety of toddler
                                                                                                               safe materials to explore
                                                                                                           •   Engage in heavy work play such as
                                                                                                               pushing carts, moving toys, and
                                                                                                               carrying and moving on different
                                                                                                               surfaces with various weighted items
                                                                                                           •   Provide time for singing familiar songs
                                                                                                               or using rhythm instruments

Fine Motor               PD4 Develop strength, small motor      •   Begin to hold writing tools            •   Offer scissors to snip magazines,
(development of              control, and coordination          •   Begin to remove loose clothing             newspaper, or old cards
strength and                 through daily activities               and shoes                              •   Offer 4-6 piece connecting puzzles,
coordination of          PD5 Touch, grasp, reach, and           •   Keep one hand stable and use               block towers to stack and connecting
muscles in hands and         explore people and objects             other to perform tasks                     trains
fingers to explore and                                          •   Push objects along window sills,       •   Present various writing tools (crayons,
manipulate objects in    PD6 Develop and use eye-hand               carpeted areas, and lined places           chalk, and paint) to practice scribbling,
the environment)             coordination to perform a                                                         lines, and marks on paper
                             variety of tasks                                                              •   Provide different size containers,
                         PD7 Use and manipulate objects                                                        boxes, lids and objects with holes to
                             purposefully                                                                      explore




                                                                                                                                                           50
                                      Physical Development and Health Older Toddler (24-36 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN                 To support ongoing learning and     What you might see a older toddler      What you can do to support a child’s
                           development the child is given an   (24–36 months) do:                      development:
                           opportunity to:
Fine Motor                 PD8 Use two hands in a                                                      •   Suggest toy trading among peers
(development of                   coordinated, purposeful                                                  hand-to-hand
strength and                      fashion                                                              •   Provide objects to move along
coordination of                                                                                        •   Provide with boundaries (Ex:
                                                                                                           surfacesobjects to move alongcars on
muscles in hands and                                                                                       surfaces
                                                                                                           a track) with boundaries (Ex: cars on
fingers to explore and                                                                                     a track)
manipulate objects in
the environment)

Gross Motor                PD9  Move freely as they begin to   •   Begin to jump                       •   Play games that use music, imitation,
(development of large           control their own bodies       •   Begin to throw objects with aim         and simple directions (Ex: animal
muscle strength,                starting with the head and     •   Begin to put on own shirt, pants,       movements, follow the leader, dancing
control, coordination,          back and progressing to the        shoes or jacket                         with scarves)
and balance to move             arms and legs                  •   Move with increased coordination:   •   Provide toddler with opportunities to
in and interact with the   PD10 Increase the strength,             change direction, stop, hold            jump using mats, pillows, lines on the
environment)                    balance, and coordination of       position                                floor, as well as holding hands or
                                their bodies                   •   Move easily across variety of           objects
                           –––––––––––––––––                       surfaces, increasing balance        •   Provide toddler with appropriate
                           PD11 Ability to coordinate their    •   Begin to experiment with riding         objects to throw and kick at targets or
                                bodies to perform                  toys, using feet to move forward        into containers with aim
                                increasingly complex           •   Walk backward                       •   Encourage toddler to throw one-
                                movements                                                                  handed while stepping forward
                           –––––––––––––––––                                                           •   Provide toddler with clothes that are
                           PD12 Interact with people and                                                   loose enough and simple to put on;
                                environment through                                                        allow time to dress without being
                                movement and body                                                          rushed
                                awareness                                                              •   Provide activities to encourage
                                                                                                           balance: balance beam, walking along
                                                                                                           a line on the floor, standing on one
                                                                                                           foot, navigating uneven surfaces
                                                                                                       •   Provide riding toys




                                                                                                                                                     51
                                    Physical Development and Health Older Toddler (24-36 Months)

SUB-DOMAIN               To support ongoing learning and     What you might see a older toddler         What you can do to support a child’s
                         development the child is given an   (24–36 months) do:                         development:
                         opportunity to:
Health Awareness         PD13 Learn about and respect        •   Enjoy and initiate active play:        •   Encourage toddler’s independence in
and Practice                    their bodies                     dancing, climbing, playing with            feeding, toileting, and hand washing
(experiencing and                                                push or pull toys, crawling through    •   Have conversations to show respect
learning about healthy   PD14 Engage in daily physical           tunnels, throwing balls, running           for ability to keep healthy and safe
habits: personal care,        activity, both indoors and     •   May indicate toilet needs              •   Offer ramps, steps, low climbers, carts,
hygiene, nutrition,           outdoors                       •   Decide what and how much to eat            riding toys, and obstacle courses to
physical activity, and                                           when offered healthy food choices          build skills, coordination, confidence
safety)                                                      •   Prepare for sleep with bedtime         •   Limit screen time to 2 hours or less
                                                                 comfort items and a familiar routine   •   Model and discuss nutrition, health
                                                             •   Begin to initiate appropriate action       and safety practices during activities
                                                                                      offers hand
                                                                 at signs of danger: offer hand to to   •   Offer simple cooking activities using
                                                                 adult near a parking lot or street         healthy and culturally appropriate
                                                                                                            foods, especially fruits, vegetables,
                         PD15 Experience and learn about                                                    and whole grains
                              hygiene routines                                                          •   Provide classroom resources to support
                                                                                                            toddler’s exploration of health, nutrition,
                                                                                                            and safety issues (Ex: books, songs,
                         PD16 Experience and learn about                                                    puppets, dramatic play props, dolls,
                              healthy lifestyle practices                                                   etc.)
                         PD17 Learn about and                                                           •   Allow time in the daily schedule to
                              demonstrate safe behaviors                                                    practice developing health, hygiene,
                              and accident prevention                                                       and safety skills




                                                                                                                                                          52
Department of Services
for Children, Youth and
Their Families

				
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