By Stanley Lam and Madelaine Doe “Nanotechnology could prove to be a transformative technology comparable in its impact to the steam engine in the 18th century, electricity in the 20th century, and the Internet in contemporary society.” What are Nanoparticles? Structures 100 nanometers or smaller Carbon Nanotubes, Fullerenes, TiO2, Nanogold, ect. Surface area to volume ratio dramatically increased Electrons forced into condensed space Different properties on the nanoscale Applications of Nanomaterials • Nano-applications are radically transforming a host of products and services, including: – battery-storage capacity – computer-chip minimization – drug delivery – cosmetics – food packaging – solar energy – water purification Nanomaterials are Everywhere Nanotechnology growing at an unprecedented rate. Predicted to have a trillion dollar impact and employ 2 million workers worldwide by 2015. More than 800 products already being sold to Canadian consumers. Ways we are Exposed Through consumer products Medical treatment Environmental contamination Workplace exposure Occupational Exposure Currently regulations based on ultrafine particles Unclear to what extent analogies can be drawn Carbon nanotubes characterized as graphite Sampling methods available are insufficient Biggest risk includes inhalation and dermal contact Unclear whether protective equipment is adequate Risk during cleaning and repair of equipment Nanoparticles in various forms Modes of entry and Routes of Distribution (Oberdorster et. al., 2005) The most likely mode of entry is the Respiratory Tract Olfactory Epithelium Upper Respiratory Tract Lower Respiratory Tract (Oberdorster et. al., 2005) Nanoparticles Cross Alveolar Epithelium Effects on Organs: Mice Kidney and Spleen Mice kidney Mice spleen (Buzea C et. al., 2007) What are the effects, if any, at the cellular level? Gold Nanorods taken up by cells (Kuo CW et. al., 2007) Carbon Nanotubes are Harmful to cells Human Cell Lines Altered cell architecture Diminished proliferation and apoptosis Generation of free radicals and oxidative species Animal Studies Granuloma formation, atherosclerosis, mitochondrial DNA damage (Kostarelo et. al., 2007) Endothelial cells (A549) Mesothelioma cells (MSTO-211H) (Kaiser JP et. al., 2007) Generation of ROS by TiO2 in cultured Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Dose Dependence TiO2 Localization Time Course (Park EJ et. al., 2007) Fullerenes are Harmful to cells Human Cell Lines Uptake of C60 causes membrane leakage Increased ROS production and DNA damage Decreased cell growth (no apoptosis) Animal Studies Elevated lipid oxidation levels in brains of fish, 100% mortality in fathead minnows (when coupled with THF) (Porter AE et. al., 2007) (Wong-Ekkabut J et. al., 2008) Environmental Interactions (Oberdorster et. al., 2005) Environmental Issues Good information is scarce No single index to measure and toxicity Nanoparticles are not easily detected and monitored in real time Increased environmental transport Environmental fate unknown. There are 3 main Factors predicting environmental behaviour 1) Potential and rate of dispersal or agglomeration in environmental media. 2) Potential and rate of interactions with environmental constituents. 3) Rate and form that a nanomaterial will be presented to the environment. Detection Methods Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) Optical Chromophore Counting Resonant Light Scattering Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Canadian Nano-Regulations • In Canada no nanomaterial-specific regulations or a list of nanomaterials that have been developed • Currently using the existing legislative and regulatory frameworks based on ultrafine particles • A panel of 15 nanotechnology experts warned the Canadian federal government action is "urgently" needed to assess the potential risks Around the Globe Last month the U. S. National Research Council blasted Washington for not adequately dealing with the environmental, health and safety impacts of nanomaterials • In Great Britain, the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution issued a report that said, while there is no evidence nanomaterials have harmed people or the environment, more research is needed to assess their safety. • The EU and Australia have been given similar warnings What the World Needs To create a special regulatory classification and standard testing regimens for nanomaterials A regulatory system which doesn’t hobble research and the development of new products Put more money into funding, specifically into the effects on human health and the environment Into the future... Promising field Potentials in Medical care Water filtration Faster and smarter computers Research into risk assessment is crucial Thanks for listening… References Buzea C, Pacheco I, and Robbie K. (2006) Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: Sources and toxicity. Biointerphases. Vol.2:4:MR17-MR71. Kaiser JP et. al. (2007) Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) affect cell physiology and cell architecture. J Mater Sci: Mater Med Vol.19:1523–1527. Kostarelos K et. al.. (2007) Cellular uptake of functionalized carbon nanotubes is independent of functional group and cell type. Nature Nanotechnology. Vol.2:108-113. Kuo CW et. al. (2007) Studies of Surface-Modified Gold Nanowires Inside Living Cells. Advanced Functional Materials. Vol.17, 3707–3714. Oberdörster G, Oberdörster E, and Oberdörster E. (2005) Nanotoxicology: An Emerging Discipline Evolving from Studies of Ultrafine Particles. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol.113:7:823-839. Park EJ et. al. (2008) Oxidative stress induced by cerium oxide nanoparticles in cultured BEAS-2B cells. Toxicology. 245:90–100 Porter AE et. al. (2007) Visualizing the Uptake of C60 to the Cytoplasm and Nucleus of Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophage Cells Using Energy-Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy and Electron Tomography. Environ. Sci. Technol. Vol.41, 3012-3017. Wong-Ekkabut J et. al. (2008) Computer simulation study of fullerene translocation through lipid membranes. Nature Nanotechnology. Vol.3:363-368.
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