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					SRR311   SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS




            adj.
            1. That can be renewed: a renewable membership; renewable
            subscriptions.
            2. Relating to or being a commodity or resource, such as solar
            energy or firewood, that is inexhaustible or replaceable by new
            growth



             Compiled by Wayne A Morris
Renewable Materials ............................................................................................................... 3
   Wool ................................................................................................................................................ 4
   Timber ............................................................................................................................................ 5

   Cork................................................................................................................................................. 6

   Bamboo .......................................................................................................................................... 7

   Straw ............................................................................................................................................... 8

   Silk................................................................................................................................................... 9

   Spider Silk ..................................................................................................................................... 10

   Kirei Board .................................................................................................................................... 11

   Paper............................................................................................................................................. 12

   Plywood ........................................................................................................................................ 13

   Cotton ........................................................................................................................................... 14

   Thatch ........................................................................................................................................... 15

   Linoleum ....................................................................................................................................... 16

   Soy ................................................................................................................................................ 17

   Hemp ............................................................................................................................................ 18

   Rubber .......................................................................................................................................... 19

   Palm .............................................................................................................................................. 20

   Green Paints ................................................................................................................................. 21

   Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 22

Appendix ............................................................................................................................... 23
   Resources ..................................................................................................................................... 23

   Suppliers ....................................................................................................................................... 26

   Bibliography .................................................................................................................................. 31




                                                                    1.
“We can't solve problems by using
the same kind of thinking we used
when we created them”
                 —Albert Einstein
         This is by no means a comprehensive compilation of renewable building materials as I am sure
    there are a number of other materials available as well as other materials in the design process or
    still to come that can be made from using renewable materials, however the following is a guide
    to what materials one might look at using if wishing to construct a dwelling using as many
    renewable and environmentally friendly resources as possible. In order for a material to be
    renewable it would most likely be derived from some form of biological source whether it be
    animal or plant. Other materials such as clays, sand or other minerals may still be considered
    renewable but operate on a much longer timeline to more conventional renewable materials
    such as living organisms and as such I have omitted them from my research. I have attempted
    here to organise a list of materials which can be categorized and accessed as simply as possible so
    that each material is easily allocated to a specific use within a building or in some instances a
    number of uses can be found for a single material

       Each materials is written on its own fact sheet with each sheet indicating the materials name,
    the materials classification, information about the material, suppliers of the material or where
    more information can be obtained regarding the material, material suitability tabs indicating
    which components of a building the materials can be used for as well as a preview image of the
    material at the top of each sheet to help identify what the material is or what it may look like.



     Suppliers with a          stamp next to them indicate that they are recognised by the
    Australian Good Environmental Choice Program and are certified as suppliers of Good
    Environmental Choice Products and have been listed on the Australian Green Procurement
    database which can be found at www.greenprocurement.org



  Preview Image of Material                Material Name
                                                                              Material Classification




       Information about
       the material



Suppliers of the material or
links to more information                                                     Material Suitability Tabs




                                                  3.
              Wool is produced by several animals including sheep, llamas, goats and rabbits although
       because of the ease of domestication of sheep and their ability to grow large quantities of Wool
       (about 25 mm each month. Adult sheep can be expected to cut in the order of 6-7 kg per year and
                                   1
       a yield of 78-80% is typical ) sheep wool is the most common source for wool used in the
       building, flooring and clothing industry at present. The qualities of wool that suit it to a range of
       different applications include its ability to be fire resistant up to higher temperatures than other
       materials such as cotton and nylon, It has lower rate of flame spread, low heat release, and low
       heat of combustion2.

               Wool can be woven to form floor coverings such as carpet or it can be mechanically
       bonded together into the form of batts which are used as insulation. Wool is a good alternative to
       other forms of insulation such as fibreglass, cellulose or mineral wool because of its higher R
       value of approximately 3.5 to 3.8 per inch of material thickness3 which is 0.3 to 0.6 points higher
       than fibreglass, cellulose, or mineral wool4 and the fact that it is hypoallergenic which means that
       it is not irritating to the respiratory system or the skin like fibreglass and other alternative
       insulating materials5. Compared with other insulation materials wool has significantly lower
       embodied energy being only 15 kilowatt hours per m³ which is half that of cellulose insulation and
       practically one sixth of the embodied energy required to produce mineral wool6




1
 State of Victoria, Department of Natural Resources and Environment 2002, retrieved date 9 may 2009,
<http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nreninf.nsf/9e58661e880ba9e44a256c640023eb2e/c12b1a2fd793afaeca2571800000981f/$FILE/ag0134.pdf>
2
  Wikipedia, received 9 may 2009, < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheep_wool>
3
  Wikipedia, received 9 may 2009, < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Wool_insulation>
4
  Ibid
5
  Ibid
6
  Ibid




                                 http://www.cavbrem.com.au/cbconsumer                              www.higgensinsulation.com.au
                                                                                                   1300 130 233
                                 1800 251 172

                                                                                                   www.goldenfleeceinsulation.com.au
                                                                                                   1800 641 101
                                 http://www.greenliving.com.au
                                 1800 224 184
                                                                                                   http://www.woolset.com.au
                                                                                                   1800 111 231

                                                                      4.
                  According to the Australian Timber Database there are 51 different species of timber to choose
               from each with different qualities regarding density, appearance, termite resistance and
               durability etc. What all timber has in common is that it is a natural resource capable of, with the
               exception of old growth forests, being replenished as supply demands. At the end of 2008 there
               was a total of 149.4 million hectares of forests in Australia7, of that 1.97 million hectares was
               plantation forest8 increasing at a rate of 61,000 hectares a year9 with timber harvesting being
               permitted in 9.4 million hectares of public native forest10. In 2006-07 a total of 27.1 million m³ of
               timber was harvested in Australia11 accounting for approximately 1% of total renewable
               plantation with new plantations constantly being replenished and re harvested every 10 – 15
               years12 mostly for the purpose of being converted to woodchips for paper manufacture.

                   Australian plantations are categorised as either softwood, mainly pine (Pinus) species, or
               hardwood, mainly eucalypts, including Eucalyptus and Corymbia species13. The largest plantations
               being radiata pine which accounts for 75% of total softwood plantation14 and blue gum which
               accounts for 62% of total hardwood plantation15. Embodied energy of timber products can range
               from 0.5mj/kg for air dried timber16 to 11 mj/kg for plywood17 due to its more complex
               manufacturing process, with 75% of energy requirements being consumed in the drying
               process18. Sustainably harvested timber has a very low carbon footprint compared to other
               building materials19 this is because although the timber is removed from the plantation it still
               retains carbon dioxide obtained from the environment for long periods of time and with new
               plantations being grown in its place the cycle can continue where more carbon dioxide is
               continually removed from our environment. It is estimated that at present there is more than 12
               billion tonnes of Co₂ stored in Australian forests20 positively contributing to lowering the carbon
               footprint of the building industry and helping to sustain a healthier environment.

7
  Australia’s forests at a glance 2009. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Union Offset Printers, Canberra, 2009 pp.2
8
  ibid
9
  ibid
10
   Ibid pp.3
11
   ibid
12
   Ibid Pp.33
13
   Ibid Pp.31
14
   Ibid pp.32
15
   ibid
16
   Review of the Environmental Impact of Wood Compared with Alternative Products Used in the Production
   of Furniture, Australian Gov. Forest & Wood Products Research & Development Corporation, 2003 pp.10
17
   ibid
18
   ibid
19
   Carbon Footprint, The Australian timber database, retrieved 9 may 2009
    < http://www.timber.net.au/index.php/Environmental-Design-Carbon-Footprint.html>
20
   Australia’s forests at a glance 2009. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Union Offset Printers, Canberra, 2009 pp.2




                                                                       5.
               Cork is produced from stripping the bark from Cork Oak trees without having to cut down
       the tree itself which can live for as long as 200 years21. Once a Cork Oak tree reaches 25 years old
       the outer layer of bark is removed every 9 years and used for a variety of different purposes
       ranging from cork stoppers in wine bottles, parts in musical instruments or created into building
       products which can be used as walling or flooring in our homes. There is currently around 2.2
       million hectares of cork forest worldwide with 33% being found in Portugal, 23% found in Spain 22
       and other plantations being found in other regions of southwest Europe and northwest Africa23.
       Cork is considered an environmentally friendly material due to the nature in which it can be
       harvested without having to destroy the environment around it. Organisations such as the World
       Wildlife Fund have commented on the harvesting of cork in the Mediterranean as being “one of
       the finest examples of a system which perfectly balances the needs of both humans and nature”24
       with other organisations such as the Forest Stewardship Council or FSC helping to maintain
       control of the cork Oak plantations and prevent illegal harvesting of the product or any
       degradation or damage to the environment caused by improper forest management.

              Locally, programs such as the Australian Good Environmental Choice Program have
       awarded companies such as Comcork flooring by Logic Australia with the Good Environmental
       Choice label, indicating that the product manufactured is an environmentally safe product
       although it should be noted that comcork flooring systems are produced from using recycled cork
       and rubber material and not plantation grown cork.

21                                     th
   Cork (Material), Wikipedia, received 14 may, 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cork_(material)>
22
   ibid
23                                   th
   Cork Oak, Wikipedia, received 14 may, 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cork_Oak>
24                                               th
   Cork Supply, Sustainable Forestry, received 14 may, 2009. <http://www.corksupply.com/sustainability-matters/sustainable-forestry.aspx>




                        http://www.jelinek.com/wall.htm                          http://www.logicaustralia.com.au
                        +905-827-4666                                            03 9544 2288



                                                                                 http://www.spec-
                        http://www.amcork.com
                                                                                 net.com.au/company/premium.htm



                                                                                http://www.corkfloors.com.au/cf03a_cork.htm
                                                                                03 9569 2222


                                                                    6.
                          Bamboo is the fastest growing plant on earth being able to grow at a rate of up to 60
              centimetres or 24 inches in a day25 although its growth rate is highly dependent on soil conditions
              and the climate in which it is grown. Bamboo is a member of the grass family and can be found in
              many regions throughout the world in a diverse range of climates from cold mountains to hot
              tropical regions26. Bamboo has many uses such as having parts of the plant used as food in some
              Asian dishes and medications27, it is commonly used as scaffolding in Asian countries28, it is used
              as a substitute to steel reinforcement in concrete29 and more recently bamboo has been
              manufactured for use as household flooring systems whereby the bamboo is steamed, flattened
              and glued together into flooring panels30. Companies such as the Bamboo Fabric Store even
              produce fabrics and clothing made from bamboo fibres claiming that “bamboo fibre is a unique
              biodegradable textile material. As a natural cellulose fibre, bamboo fabric can be 100%
              biodegraded in soil by micro organisms and sunlight”31showing that not only is bamboo an
              environmentally sustainable natural resource but also that disposal of the material has no
              damaging effect on the environment.

                                Australian company Bamboo Surfboards Australia designed bamboo wall
              panels which were entered into the 2003 Australian international design awards and are one of
              few manufacturers of bamboo wall systems while other companies such as House of Bamboo
              provide bamboo products suitable for use as roofing or cladding materials in Australia.




                   http://www.stylelimited.com                           http://www.designawards.com.au/applica
                   (08) 9367 8388                                        tion_detail.jsp?applicationID=2299

                                                                         84 Centenial Cct, Byron Bay, NSW 2481
                                                                         p: 02 6685 6804
                   http://www.ecoflooring.com.au
                   (02) 9410 0640

                                                                         http://www.houseofbamboo.com.au
                   http://www.bamboozle.com.au                           1300 665703
                   Osborne, WA 08 9445 9011
                   Myaree, WA 08 9317 2883

25
   Wikipedia, received 14 may, 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamboo>
26
   Ibid
27
   ibid
28
   ibid
29
   ibid
30
   ibid
31
   Green and biodegradable, bamboo fabric store, received 14 may, 2009.< http://www.bamboofabricstore.com.au/biodegradable.html>




                                                                    7.
                      The notion of using straw as a building material has been around since at least the
                      32
       middle ages where due to a need to build housing using what limited resources were available
       straw was used as thatching on roofs and even as walling material in the overcrowded villages.
       Although when first used it was usually combined with other materials such as clay and sand33 it
       was not until the baling machine was invented in the late 1800s that builders recognised the
       potential to use blocks of straw as a viable building material34. The first know straw bale
       constructed houses were built more than a hundred years ago by European settlers in the sand
       hills region of Nebraska35.

                     Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalk of a cereal plant, after the grain or
       seed has been removed36 and is mainly utilized as feed or bedding for livestock. Straw can be
       bought in the form of straw bales which can be used as building blocks to construct the exterior
       or interior walls of straw bale homes, concurrently another way of using straw in buildings was
       developed in Sweden in 1933 whereby straw was compressed into boards called stramit boards37
       which were rough boards used mainly for insulation in roofs and walls. Decades later the product
       was invested in by Australian company Ortech Industries whom today manufacture and sell their
       refined version of the original Stramit board which they call Durra Straw Panels which use no
       water or gas during the manufacturing process38.

32
   Wikipedia, received 15 may, 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thatching>
33
   Hollis, M, Practical straw bale Building, Landlinks Press, Collingwood, 2005. Pp. 1
34
   ibid
35
   King, B. Straw Bale Construction A Review of testing and lessons learned to date, Building Safety Journal, May - June 2004 pp. 38
36
   Wikipedia, received 15 may, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Straw>
37
   History and Heritage, Ortech Industries, received 15 may, 2009. <http://www.ortech.com.au/about.html>
38
   Durra Panel, Ortech Industries, received 15 may, 2009. <http://www.ortech.com.au/durra/durrapanel.html>




                                http://www.ortech.com.au                                    http://www.straw.com.au
                                1800 805 919                                                (02)69 546 121



                                 http://glassford.com.au                                    http://www.strawtec.com.au
                                 (02) 6927 6027                                             02 4443 5282
                                 john@glassford.com.au                                      strawbales@bigpond.com


                                 http://www.solomit.com.au
                                 (03) 9793 3088



                                                                         8.
                          Silk is produced from silk secreting insect larvae, in particular the caterpillar known as
              the silkworm39, it was first harvested as early as 6000 B.C. by the Chinese40. Silk is one of the
              strongest natural fibres although unlike spider silk it does not perform as well in terms of
              elasticity and can lose up to 20% of its strength when wet41. If silk is stretched it is liable to remain
              elongated and if exposed to copious amounts of sunlight it can remain attenuated or vitiated. Silk
              is rarely used in buildings save for in some circumstances it may be adopted as a covering to
              copper electrical conductors42 or may be used as coverings for household furnishings or as
              curtains or screen which act as dividers or window coverings.

                          The process for harvesting silk is relatively environmentally friendly. It involves the
              collection of silkworm cocoons before the silkworm pupae have time to emerge from the cocoon,
              once collected the pupae are killed by dipping the cocoons in boiling water43 which prevents
              damage to the cocoon and silk thread by preventing the emergence of the adult moth. Another
              way to destroy the pupae is by piercing the cocoon with a needle44, the reason the pupae is
              destroyed is to preserve the silk thread so that it may be harvested in one continuous thread. An
              alternative to domestically cultivated silkworms is to harvest the cocoons from the wild although
              these cocoons are usually damaged as a result of the emergence of the adult moth which is
              conducive to the damage of the silk thread which is torn into shorter lengths45. Not only is the
              quality of wild silk vitiated compared to that of domesticated silkworms but it is also found that
              “wild silks tend to be more difficult to dye than silk from cultivated silkworms”46

39
  Silk, BDP environmental design guide, received 18 May, 2009
<http://content.environmentdesignguide.net.au/i-cms?page=1375>
40
   Silk, Wikipedia, received 18 May, 2009 < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silk>
41
   ibid
42
   Silk, BDP environmental design guide, received 18 May, 2009
<http://content.environmentdesignguide.net.au/i-cms?page=1375>
43
   Silk, Wikipedia, received 18 May, 2009 < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silk>
44
   ibid
45
   ibid
46
   ibid




                                       http://www.halcyonsteppe.com.au




          http://www.silkdirect.com.au                               http://www.silkworld.com.au
          03 9882 6555                                               03 9419 0666



                                                                9.
                      Although Spider Silk is still in the developmental stages of the material it is worth
       noting the properties spider silk has which gives it the potential to be a material suitable for a
       diverse range of applications. Milligram for milligram spider silk is a stronger material than steel
       or Kevlar47 which leads it to have the potential for being used for the production of such products
       as super lightweight bullet proof vests or pocket portable parachutes48.

                       Bioengineering company Nexia Biotechnologies Ltd. Have been working on a
       process to commercially produce what they term BioSteel® which is produced with their
       recombinant dragline spider silk program which is based on their transgenic goat technology49.
       Because of the difficulties in harvesting the silk directly from spiders, research has revolved
       around trying to find other species of insects that are capable of producing a similar silk such as
       some bee, ant and moth species and modifying their silk to produce the same properties found in
       spider silk although as yet no other silks have compared to the strength found in spider silk 50.
       Another way researchers are trying to develop the silk is by recreating the silk by taking cells
       from the mammary glands of dairy cows and modifying them with spider genes to produce the
       proteins used to make spider silk51. The end result will be the production of silks and BioSteel®
       that is “5 times stronger than steel, 30 times more flexible than nylon and twice as elastic”52
       suitable for a range of different applications.

47
   Life Scientist, Lorne 2009: Silk structure from a social insect, received 20 may, 2009,
<http://www.biotechnews.com.au/article/276292/lorne_2009_silk_structure_from_social_insect?pp=1>
48
   ibid
49
  BioSteel, Nexia Biotechnologies Inc., received 20 may, 2009 < http://www.nexiabiotech.com/en/01_tech/01-bst.php>
50
   Life Scientist, Lorne 2009: Silk structure from a social insect, received 20 may, 2009,
<http://www.biotechnews.com.au/article/276292/lorne_2009_silk_structure_from_social_insect?pp=3>
51
   . Spider Silk – Stronger than steel, Queensland Government, received 20 may, 2009,
<http://www.smartfuture.qld.gov.au/(fgxb3555x5zzfr45cis1mq45)/content/default.aspx?ID=AHQEI>
52
   ibid




     http://www.smartfuture.qld.gov.au/(fgxb3555x5zzfr45cis1mq45)/content/default.aspx?ID=AHQEI


     http://www.nexiabiotech.com/en/01_tech/01-bst.php


     http://www.biotechnews.com.au/article/276292/lorne_2009_silk_structure_from_social_insect?pp=1




                                                                   10.
                             Formed from the pressed stalks of rice sorghum, Kirei board is an agricultural by
                product which can be used to create non-toxic, lightweight boards suitable for use as an
                alternative to wood. Kirei boards can be used for anything that common wooden boards can be
                used for from cabinetry, furniture, wall coverings or even flooring. Although not classified as a
                plywood, Kirei board is manufactured simular to plywood but without the use of toxic
                formaldehyde resins53. The boards are first woven tightly together then heat pressed together in
                diagonally opposing layers to give the boards extra strength. Kirei boards can either be clear
                coated and left in their natural state or a wooden veneer can be placed over the material to
                protect it if it is to be used as cabinet material due to it being a naturally soft material. Because of
                its softness Kirei board is not recommended for use as flooring in high traffic areas54.




                            http://www.kireiusa.com




53
     Kirei Board, Wikipedia, received 30 may, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirei_board>
54
     ibid




                                                                 11.
                           Although most products are derived from recycled card or paper products,
      the fact that paper itself comes from tree’s which are renewable is why I have described this
      material as a renewable resource as opposed to a recycled product.

                          International Manufacturing Company Xanita Pty Ltd has developed a
      multipurpose manufacturing process whereby recycled paper and cardboard material is
      converted into a multipurpose product they call X-Board. X- Board is marketed as a VOC free
      (Volatile Organic Chemical) alternative to MDF (Medium density Fibreboard) suited to
      applications such as temporary or semi-permanent indoor walls, Kitchen Joinery, Tables, Shelving,
      Ceiling panels, room dividers, bulkhead formwork, doors, partitions and a range of other
      household and building applications55. In describing their product, Xanita refer to their product as
      being made from post consumer paper waste56 manufactured into a honeycomb core where
      “particle board or plywood are structurally bonded to both sides of this core, creating a
      lightweight composite panel which can be direct edge banded with huge strength-to-weight ratio
      advantages over heavyweight, formaldehyde-based, solid MDF and particle board”57. Apart from
      any resins used in the bonding process all other materials used in the creation of the X-Boards can
      be sourced from renewable resources. Xanita recommend their product for the purposes of
      general construction, boat building, recreational vehicles, caravan manufacturing and portable
      office solutions58.

55                               th
   X-Board Plus, Xanita, received 20 may, 2009 < http://www.xanita.com/site/about/x-board-plus.html>
56
   ibid
57
   ibid
58
   ibid




                       http://www.visionwall.com.au                       http://www.xanita.com
                       (02) 9997 5222                                     07 3821 7730



                       http://www.halcyonsteppe.com.au                    http://www.taylorwalloptions.com.au
                                                                          0438 275 400




                                                              12.
                         Plywood is manufactured by bonding multiple sheets of thin wood known as plies or
             veneers together into layers with each layer of veneer being glued and placed at a right angle to
             the previous layer in order to provide more rigidity and strength to the finished plywood board59.
             Each plywood board is usually manufactured with an odd number of plies so as to create
             symmetry in the board which allows it to be less prone to warping60. Plywood veneers are
             typically bonded using heat along with a phenol formaldehyde resin which makes plywood a type
             of composite material61. Although plywood can be sourced from renewable resources, the use of
             the formaldehyde and the carcinogens that it produces has been a source of concern regarding
             the safety and environmental impact of the product and alternative bonding agent would be
             desirable as “government regulations become stronger against the use of these adhesives”62.

                         Plywood is considered superior to wood due to” its resistance to cracking, shrinkage,
             twisting /warping, and its general high degree of strength”63. Plywood comes in a variety of
             different varieties in both hardwood and softwood and is suited to a range of different
             applications from marine use, aircraft manufacturing in the early 20th century as well as building
             construction64 and it has been used as the main construction material for skateboards for about
             as long as they have been around. Benefits of plywood is that it can usually be bought in larger
             sizes than standard timbers65 and as previously mentioned it is commonly stronger and less prone
             to deformity. In Australia Plywood is available from a number of retailers including Boral, Austral
             Plywoods and Mr Ply&Wood all of which have a large range of plywood products available to
             architects, builders and designers.

59
   Plywood, Wikipedia received may 20, 2009. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plywood>
60
   ibid
61
   Ibid
62
   ibid
63
   ibid
64
   ibid
65
   ibid                                      http://www.boral.com.au/plywood



                                            http://misterplywood.com.au
                                            1300 138 771


                                            http://www.australply.com.au
                                            07 3426 8666




                                                               13.
                          Cotton is a natural fibre grown in the form of a Boll around the seeds of the
       Cotton Plant which is a shrub native to most tropical and subtropical regions around the world66.
       Cotton is a textile that has been widely used by various cultures as a means to make clothing and
       other accessories since early Mesopotamian times. Civilizations such as early Indian, Chinese and
       Egyptians picked, spun, wove and traded cotton and cotton products even before the dawning of
       the 1st century A.D.67. At present, Cotton is Australia’s Largest Agricultural Industry taking up
       400,000 hectares of land68 and producing $1.7 billion worth of cotton a year of which the
       exportation of cotton contributes $1.5 billion to that figure69 with Australian producing around
       3% of Global cotton production70 .

                         Cotton is a textile which is mainly used to produce clothing and other forms of
       fabrics such as curtains or carpets although at least in America cotton only represents less than
       1% of all fibres used in the American floor covering industry71. One reason some companies might
       avoid cotton as a material for use in carpets is its high dependence on pesticides to protect the
       cotton crop72 and the fact that backing on cotton carpet requires the use of extremely toxic glues
       for the bonding process73. Whether it is because of the harvesting process or the more difficult
       manufacturing process of cotton products it is not as common for companies to supply items such
       as cotton carpets as opposed to woollen carpets or other nylon products, never the less cotton
       can be used as insulation or as an option as an alternate wall covering to either wood or plaster.

66
   Cotton, Wikipedia, received 24 may, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton>
67
   ibid
68
  Cotton research & development Corporation, received 24 may, 2009. <http://www.crdc.com.au/index.cfm?pageID=23>
69
  Cotton Overview, CSIRO, Recieved 24 may, 2009 <http://www.csiro.au/org/CottonOverview.html>>
70
  Cotton research & development Corporation, received 24 may, 2009. <http://www.crdc.com.au/index.cfm?pageID=23>
71
  Cotton inc. Received 24 may 2009. < http://www.cottoninc.com/1998EFSConferencePresentations/CottonRugsAndCarpets/>
72
  Cotton, Wikipedia, received 24 may, 2009< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton>
73
  Faqs, Natural Home Products, received 24 may, 2009< http://www.naturalhomeproducts.com/faqs.html>




                                  http://www.livingfabrics.com.au
                                  1800 224 184



                                   http://www.halcyonsteppe.com.au




                                                                   14.
                          Thatching is a more traditional method for covering roofs that involves the use of dry
             vegetation such as grass, straw, leaves, reed or a number of other materials as a roofing material
             for houses. Thatch was widely used in the middle ages as a cheap effective way to provide shelter
             for the villagers where it was also know to be used as a walling material74. A range of thatches are
             available and easily accessible in Australia with companies such as House of Bamboo, Oz Thatch,
             Mr Thatch and Tropical Thatch offering Indonesian thatch, African Reed, Alang Alang Thatch,
             Natureed, Bac Bac Thatch and Palm Fibre Thatching just to name a few. Depending on the type of
             thatch used, the quality of installation and the pitch of the roof thatch can last as long as 70 years
             for water reed thatching75, 45 to 50 years for straw thatching76 or anywhere from 10 to 25 years
             for other forms of thatching77.

                         Benefits of thatch roofing includes the ability of most thatch materials to provide
             competitive thermal insulation when applied in thick amounts78 and that it is versatile when it
             comes to covering odd shaped or more difficult roof structures79 while some of the drawbacks to
             using thatch is that it is less resistant to fires80 even though most thatches do come with fire
             resistant coatings81. The biggest threat to thatch roofing is from animals such as birds and rodent
             that might find the thatch a source for food or as nesting material and as a result would
             contribute to the decay of the thatch roof. Another contributor to the decay of thatch roofs is the
             presence of fungi in high moisture environments82, for this reason thatch is generally more suited
             to be used in more tropical or warmer environments.




     http://www.thatch.com.au/                          http://www.tropicalthatch.com
     (08) 9530 1347                                     1300 781104


74
   Thatched roof, Wikipedia, received 26 may, 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thatched_roof>
75
   ibid
76
   ibid
77
   Thatch.com.au, received 26 may, 2009 <http://thatch.com.au/content/view/10/26/>
78
   Thatched roof, Wikipedia, received 26 may, 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thatched_roof>
79
   ibid
80
   ibid
81
   Thatch.com.au, received 26 may, 2009 <http://thatch.com.au/content/view/10/26/>
82
   Thatched roof, Wikipedia, received 26 may, 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thatched_roof>




                                                              15.
      Linoleum is produced from a herb called a Linseed and is used in the manufacture of flooring
      materials such as Lino and natural oil based paints83 although in recent years Lino has been
      succeeded by another material known as vinyl which is made using Polyvinyl Chloride84 due to
      vinyls characteristics being simular to Linoleum but producing a material of greater brightness
      and translucency85. To make Lino the oil from the linseed is oxidized at elevated temperatures
      while it is being stirred, this process continues until the flow rate of the oil decreases and a resin
      is then added to the oil and the mixture exposed to hot air86. The material that forms is then
      blended with a mixture of wood flour, Whiting, binder, filler and pigments then made into sheets
      which are then attached to a felt or canvas backing, these sheets are then hung and heat treated
      to induce hardening of the material87.

                          Linseed oil is also used to create natural paints. Linseed has been used as a
      component in paint for over a hundred years with linseed based paint often proving more durable
      and longer lasting than paints containing more modern toxic materials88, lasting anywhere
      between 50 to 100 years before it begins to deteriorate89. Linseed oil can also be used as a
      treatment for raw wood materials, textiles, wood preservation, industrial lubricant, earthen floors
      and as a polish or leather treatment90.

83
   Environmentally Sae Paints, Paint Brushes and Rollers, received 29 May, 2009.
<http://www.paintbrushesandrollers.com/environmentally_safe_paint.htm>
84
   Linoleum, Wikipedia, received 29 May, 2009 < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linoleum>
85
   Ibid
86
  Linoleum, Encyclopaedia Britannica, receive 29 May, 2009. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/342589/linoleum>
87
   Ibid
                  88
                     Environmentally Safe Paints, Paint Brushes and Rollers, received 29 May, 2009.
                  <http://www.paintbrushesandrollers.com/environmentally_safe_paint.htm>
                  89
                     Ibid
                  90
                    Linseed Oil, Wikipedia, received 29 May, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linseed_oil>




                          http://www.earthpaint.net                        http://www.tarkett-floors.com
                                                                           +61 2 96 34 73 73


                         http://www.generalflooring.com.au
                                                                           http://www.forbo-flooring.com.au
                         02 9622 1811
                                                                           1800 224 471


                                                             16.
                     Soy is used in the production of Paints and paint strippers as an alternative to using more
              toxic materials that are more harmful to the environment. The real Milk Company provides a
              product they call Soy-Gel which is a professional industrial strength paint stripper which contains
              no methylene chloride and is safe enough to be used indoors91. Unlike some more flammable
              paint strippers, soy bean paint stripper has a high flash point of approximately 200 degrees F92.
              Soy Based Acrylic paints are available from EarthPaint.net which are considered to perform better
              than paints made from using more toxic material93. In terms of the manufacturing of soy into a
              usable paint product “Soy bean oil alone does not make a good paint. It needs to be converted
              into an alkyd or polyester”94 , each converting process requiring a substantial amount of energy to
              perform. Benefits of using soy based paints include not having any lead, formaldehyde, mercury,
              arsenic, or other harsh and harmful chemicals in the paints, the paints tend to last longer than
              traditional more toxic chemical based paints95 and no ozone depleting halogen hydrocarbons are
              released into the atmosphere96.

                     Aside from paints and paint strippers, soy can be used to produce resins, plastics, clothing
              and a fuel known as biodiesel, soy accounting for 80% of American biodiesel production97.
              Although the product does not contain any harsh substances of any great threat to the
              environment it should be noted that pesticides may be used in the cultivation process of the soy
              plant.




     http://www.naturalbuilthome.com/products/372-soy_paint



     http://www.healthyhome.com/products/2014/Soy-Green-Polystripper.aspx



     http://www.realmilkpaint.com/soygel.html                  http://www.earthpaint.net

91
  Soy-Gel, the Real Milk Company, received 18 May, 2009 <http://www.realmilkpaint.com/soygel.html>
92
   Ibid
93
   Non Toxic Paint, EarthPaint, received 18 May, 2009 <http://www.earthpaint.net/nontoxicpaintinfo.php>
94
   Ibid
95
   Soybean Polystripper, Healthy Home, received 18 May, 2009
<http://www.healthyhome.com/products/2014/Soy-Green-Polystripper.aspx>
96
   Ibid
97
   Soybean, Wikipedia, received 18 May, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soy>




                                                                     17.
                     Hemp is the name given to materials made from the cannabis plant, which is widely
      known for its drug related use. Hemp is one of the fastest growing biomasses known and is one
      of the earliest known domesticated plants98. Hemp requires no pesticides in its production 99
      which makes it an environmentally safe alternative to some other plants and trees used for the
      production of papers and fabrics. Hemp can be manufactured and used for a range of different
      applications including paper, textiles, biodegradable plastics, construction, health food and
      fuel100. On the building site, hemp fibres are being incorporated into concrete blocks in Europe
      and China to give extra strength to the concrete101 while dried seeds of the cannabis plant
      produce oil similar to that of the linseed which can be manufactured into natural oil based
      paints102. Another hemp product available is what is known as Hemp rope which is made using
      the fibres of the cannabis plant, although hemp fibres are used less in the last two centuries as
      opposed to previous centuries it still remains a viable material as it has the ability to produce
      250% more fibre than cotton and 600% more fibre than flax when grown on the same land103.

                       Hemptech.com has listed a range of different products made using hemp. Included
      in its list for construction materials is Fibreboard, Insulation, Hemp reinforced concrete, Paints
      and plaster. Hemp Resources Ltd describes a Hemp product which can be used as an alternative
      to fibreglass known as Hempmat. Hempmat is said to be much safer than fibreglass, lightweight
      and gives a better surface finish than glass although Hempmat is not as strong as fibreglass104.

98
   Hemp, Wikipedia, received 27 may, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemp>
99
   ibid
100
    ibid
101
    ibid
102
    ibid
103
    ibid
104
    Info, Hemp Resources, received 27 may, 2009 <http://www.hempresources.com.au/hempinfoPg5.html>




                                                http://www.ecodirectory.com.au/index.ph
                                                p/hemp



                                                http://hemptech.com




                                                            18.
                           Natural Rubber is produced from the milky substance found in the sap of a number of
              trees and some plants105 but the most common source of commercial natural rubber latex comes
              from the Para Rubber tree due to its production of latex in large amounts as a response to
              damage to the outer layer of the tree106. It takes 7 years for a rubber tree to reach the productive
              phase of its life before being capable of producing latex suitable for collection for up to 25
              years107. Rubber can be used for the purpose of making tires, shoes, balls, door and window
              profiles, gloves, hoses, belts, matting, flooring108 and a range of other products available on
              today’s market for residential commercial and industrial purposes. Clark Rubber, one of
              Australia’s biggest sellers of rubber products sells anything from rubber mats, door and window
              channelling, weather seals, o rings and silicone which can all be used in many types of buildings
              while other companies such as Australian Rubber Supplies produce rubber sheeting for use as
              flooring and mats for industrial and high traffic flooring needs.

                          Rubber flooring products are available from a number of different retailers
              throughout Australia such as Logic Australia, who also produce Cork Flooring, Mat World, Activa
              Rubber Flooring and signature floor coverings. Because of rubbers elastic qualities it is well suited
              for the purpose of creating weather seals around openings whether it be used as a moulded
              rubber product or as liquid silicone rubber.




http://www.regupol.com.au                               http://www.clarkrubber.com.au
rubbersales@regupol.com.au                              13 80 90
acousticsales@regupol.com.au

                                                        http://www.ausrubber.com.au
http://www.ecoflex.com.au                               61 2 9681 6815
+61 2 4940 0178
mail@ecoflex.com.au
                                                        http://www.a1rubber.com
                                                        07 3807 3666

 105
     Rubber, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubber>
 106
     ibid
 107
     ibid
 108
     ibid




                                                              19.
                             Native to Tropical and Sub tropical areas, the palm tree is an exotic tree
       which can be used for its wood, leaves and its coconuts109. Palm trees are grown up until they
       reach the age of 70, by which time they no longer produce coconut fruit and are considered to be
       at the end of their economic life110, after which they are cut down to make way for new crops.
       Traditionally palm wood was overlooked as a source for building products and was disposed of as
       a waste product111, in recent years producers of palm trees have begun to see the potential for
       palm wood to be used as an alternative to traditional timbers in the building and furniture
       industry and as a result palm wood is now available as an option for hardwood flooring, structural
       posts and furniture112. The Fibre of the Palm tree is used to make anything from carpets to ropes,
       flat boards, paper, acoustic material insulation and bricks and can be made from the fibres of the
       palm tree itself or from the coconuts that some palm trees bare113. Palm leaves can be used as
       thatching on roofs while Palm oil is able to be used as a lubricant or as a cooking oil used to make
       such foods as margarine and other processed foods114.

                             Although Palm trees are a natural product the use of palm products, in
       particular Palm oil is having a detrimental impact on the environment with the loss of rainforest
       which is the natural habitat for Sumatran and Bornean Orang-utans115. This destruction is
       threatening the extinction of these species and is bought upon by the increasing demand of Palm
       Oil. Other Palm Products however are sourced from different species of Palm Trees and have less
       of an impact on the environment.

109
    Palm Tree, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_tree>
110
    Palmwood, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palmwood>
111
    ibid
112
    ibid
113
    Palm Fibre, ECPlaza.net, received 28 may 2009 <http://www.ecplaza.net/product/133365_570062/palm_fiber.html>
114
    Palm Oil, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_oil>
115
    Crisis, PalmOilAction.org, received 28 may, 2009 <http://www.palmoilaction.org.au/pages/crisis.html>




                             http://www.ecospective.com.au                          http://www.houseofbamboo.com.au
                             0408 681 604                                           02 9666 5703



                             http://www.palmfibre.com                               http://www.geocities.com/starpalmfiber
                                                                                    starpalmfiber@yahoo.com


                            http://www.jiancai365.cn/building/company.asp?id=811
                            86-757-85209909

                                                                    20.
                       Green paints are paints that are manufactured using Linseed, Soy, Citrus oil, lemon peel
              oil, natural minerals or other plant oils. The main benefit of using green paints is that less or no
              toxic chemicals are present in the product116, less or no toxic by products are produced in the
              manufacturing process and the paints are safer to our health117as they don’t contain lead,
              formaldehyde, mercury, arsenic, or other harmful chemicals118. Another benefit of using green
              paints is that they tend to outlast and outperform paint made using more toxic materials lasting
              anywhere from 50 to 100 years119.

                      Green Paints are available from such companies as Colours by Nature, Bauwerk, allback
              from Sweden, Earthpaint and Volvox just to name a few. Plant based paints are not water
              resistant however they do “allow the substrate to 'breathe', are anti-static (avoiding dust),
              discourage mould growth, and improve air quality”120 and a particular benefit of mineral and clay
              based natural paints is that they are resistant to cracking, peeling and blisters121, all of which are
              defects associated with the use of toxic based paints which were not present over a hundred
              years ago when it was the norm to have paints made from natural materials122. Colour ranges are
              the same for natural based paints as for traditional paints while lucidity qualities also do not differ
              from traditional paints123 .




             http://www.bauwerk.com.au                               http://www.paintbrushesandrollers.com
             (08) 9433 1008                                          1(585) 924-8070



             http://www.coloursbynature.com.au                       http://www.earthpaint.net
             1300 249 347
             sales@coloursbynature.com.au


116
    House of Paint, received 29 May, 2009 <http://www.house-paint.com.au/index.html>
117
   Green Paint shop, received 29 May, 2009 < http://www.greenpaintshop.com.au>
118
    Environmentally Safe Paints, Paint Brushes and Rollers, received 29 May, 2009.
<http://www.paintbrushesandrollers.com/environmentally_safe_paint.htm>
119
    Ibid
120
    Natural Paints, Greenpainter, received 29 May, 2009 <http://www.greenpainters.com.au/natural_paints.htm>
121
    Ibid
122
    Environmentally Safe Paints, Paint Brushes and Rollers, received 29 May, 2009.
<http://www.paintbrushesandrollers.com/environmentally_safe_paint.htm>
123
    Colours by Nature, received, 29 May, 2009 <http://www.coloursbynature.com.au/home>




                                                                   21.
                    Other Materials that have not really been mentioned in this report but are still
    classed as renewable resources include:

-                   Agar
-                   Alcohol
-                   Beeswax and other known waxes
-                   Casein
-                   Coir
-                   Flax
-                   Jute
-                   Kenaf
-                   Manilla
-                   Other Startches and Sugars
-                   Ramie
-                   Seagrass
-                   Shellac
-                   Sisal
-                   Turpentine
-                   Various other plant and Vegetable oils
-                   And peanuts

                   All of which can be made or incorporated into products used in the construction
    of dwellings whether it be glues, paints, adhesives, lubricants, sealants, screening, reinforcing or
    to form composite materials.

                     In conclusion any resource on the planet that comes from an organic form can be
    found as a renewable resource. Whether it comes from a plant such as in the case of oils or
    thatching for example or whether the material comes from animals such as in the production of
    wool, any biological organism is capable through its very nature of reproducing itself to renew life
    on the planet and ensure that its species lives on for future generations. Other materials such as
    minerals like iron ore, clay or aluminium for example although produced by the earth take many
    centuries to form and such resources are being depleted rapidly due to the rate at which
    civilization on the planet is increasing and constantly needing new supplies for houses,
    automobiles, and other living needs. If we can begin taking a closer look at just what we can do to
    reduce waste and material depletion we can find that we have at our very fingertips the ability to
    live sustainably and at greater benefits to our health, our planet and even in some cases the
    sustainable choice option may prove to produce a better quality product than its alternative of
    which is destroying the environment with its harmful chemicals and waste products.

                    Sustainable materials have been around for a long time, but while it is newer
    more toxic products that are causing the damage to the environment, it will take a move back to
    the tried and tested sustainable products to ensure this planet will survive for future generations
    to prosper.


                                                          22.
        With the ease of use of the Internet, it is now easy to access information with just a mouse click that
previously would have taken many phone calls, visits to the appropriate institutes and organisations or waiting for
information to be sent in the mail. The following pages contain links to websites where information about
sustainable building materials can be found from a range of sources including government, corporate, and some
more private organisations. Once again this is not a comprehensive list as there are many more companies,
organisations and websites were further information can be available.




            Alternative Technology Association                           www.ata.org.au
            Australian Green Procurement Database                  www.geca.org.au/green-procurement
            Australian Sustainable Built Environment Council             www.asbec.asn.au
            Csiro                                                        www.csiro.au
            Department of Agriculture and Food                           www.agric.wa.gov.au
            Department of Primary Industries                             www.dpi.vic.gov.au
            Eco Companies Directory                                      www.ecofirms.org
            Eco Directory                                                www.ecodirectory.com.au
            Eco Specifier                                                www.ecospecifier.org
            Eco Voice                                                    www.ecovoice.com.au
            Eco.Com Directory                                            www.eco.com.au
            EcoZine                                                      www.ecozine.com.au
            Good Environmental Choice Australia                          www.geca.org.au
            Green Building Council Australia                             www.gbca.org.au
            Green Building Press                                         www.greenbuildingpress.co.uk
            Green Magazine Online                                        www.gmagazine.com.au
            Greenfest                                                    www.greenfest.com.au
            Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development       www.oecd.org
            Smart & Sustainable Homes                                    www.sustainable-homes.org.au
            The Green Directory                                          www.thegreendirectory.com.au
            The Green Pages                                              www.thegreenpages.com.au
            TransStudio                                                  www.transstudio.com
            UNEP Sustainable Buildings & Construction Initiative         www.unepsbci.org
            Your Building                                                www.yourbuilding.org




            Australian Wool Growers                                              www.australianwoolgrowers.com.au
            Australian Wool Innovation Limited                                   www.wool.com.au
            Department of Primary Industries                                     www.dpi.vic.gov.au
            Elders                                                               www.sheep-cattle.elders.com.au
            Wikipedia                                                            www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wool
            Woolwise                                                             www.woolwise.com




            Forest & Wood Products Australia                                     www.timber.org.au
            Forest and Wood Products Research and Development Corporation        www.fwprdc.org.au
            Forest Australia                                                     www.daff.gov.au/forestsaustralia
            Tasmanian Timber                                                     www.tastimber.tas.gov.au
            The Australian Timber Database                                       www.timber.net.au
            Timber Communities Australia                                         www.tca.org.au
            Wikipedia                                                            www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timber

                                                             23.
Cork                                                             www.cork.pt
Cork Supply                                                      www.corksupply.com
Ecology.info                                                     www.ecology.info
Wikipedia                                                        www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cork
World Wildlife Fund                                              www.panda.org




Bamboo Society of Australia                                      www.bamboo.org.au
Earthcare                                                        www.earthcare.com.au/bamboo
Rainforest Info.Org                                              www.rainforestinfo.org.au
Wikipedia                                                        www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamboo




Ausbale                                                          www.ausbale.org
Department of Agriculture and Food                               www.agric.wa.gov.au
Straw.com.au                                                     www.straw.com.au
Wikipedia                                                        www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Straw




Fabrics.Net                                                      www.fabrics.net/silk.asp
The Silkroad Foundation                                          www.silkroadfoundation.org
Wikipedia                                                        www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silk




Australian Museum Online                        www.amonline.net.au/spiders/toolkit/silk/structure.htm
Life Scientist  www.lifescientist.com.au/article/276292/lorne_2009_silk_structure_from_social_insect
Smart Future
             www.smartfuture.qld.gov.au/(fgxb3555x5zzfr45cis1mq45)/content/default.aspx?ID=AHQEI




Green Building Supply                                            www.greenbuildingsupply.com
Kirei USA                                                        www.kireiusa.com
Straws Sticks and Bricks                                         www.strawsticksandbricks.com
Wikipedia                                                        www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirei_board




Paper Online                                                     www.paperonline.org
Wikipedia                                                        www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paper
Xanita                                                           www.xanita.com




                                                           24.
Australian Wood Panels                              www.awpanels.com.au
Plywood Services                                    www.plywoodservices.com.au
Timber.Org.au                                       www.timber.org.au
Wikipedia                                           www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plywood




Cotton Australia                                    www.cottonaustralia.com.au
Cotton Inc.                                         www.cottoninc.com
Cotton Research and Development Corporation         www.crdc.com.au
CSIRO                                               www.csiro.au/org/CottonOverview
Natural Home Products                               www.naturalhomeproducts.com
Wikipedia:                                          www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton




Fibre Thatch                                        www.fibrethatch.com.au
Thatch.Org                                          www.thatch.org
The Thatched Roofing Company                        www.thatch.com.au
Wikipedia                                           www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thatched_roof




About.Com                  www.inventors.about.com/od/lstartinventions/a/linoleum.htm
Encyclopedia Britannica    www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/342589/linoleum
Paint Brushes & Rollers    www.paintbrushesandrollers.com/environmentally_safe_paint.htm
Research Products          www.research-products.com.au/pdf/rp_linoleum.pdf
Wikipedia                  www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linoleum
                           www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linseed_oil




EarthPaint                           www.earthpaint.net/nontoxicpaintinfo.php
Spec-Net                             www.spec-net.com.au/press/1008/let_291008.htm
The Real Milk Paint Company          www.realmilkpaint.com/soygel.html
Wikipedia                            www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soybean




Australian Government                   www.agriculture.gov.au/browse/crops/industries/hemp
Green Hemp Australia                                   www.greenhemp.com
Happy Planet                                           www.happyplanet.com.au
Hemp Embassy                                           www.hempembassy.net
Hemp Gallery                                           www.hempgallery.com.au
Hemp                                                   www.harbay.net
Hemp.Com                                               www.everything.hemp.com
HempTech                                               www.hemptech.com
Natural Fibres                                         www.binhaitimes.com/hemp.html
Rain Forrest Info.Org                   www.rainforestinfo.org.au/good_wood/hemp.htm
Wikipedia                                              www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemp




                                              25.
  All Rubbers                                                     www.allrubber.com.au
  Allied Rubber Technologies                                      www.alliedrubber.com.au
  Australasian Plastic & Rubber Institute Inc.                    www.apri.org.au
  Nine News      www.news.ninemsn.com.au/technology/816732/rubber-plantations-may-be-devastating
  Wikipedia                                                       www.wikipedia.org/wiki/rubber




  ECPlaza Global                                                  www.ecplaza.net
  Palm fibre                                                      www.palmfibreindia.com
  Palmex                                                          www.palmex-international.com
  PalmOilAction.Org                                               www.palmoilaction.org.au
  Spec-Net                                                        www.spec-net.com.au/
  Wikipedia                                                 www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palmwood
                                                            www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_oil
                                                            www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_tree




  Earth Paint                                                      www.earthpaint.net
  The Real Milk Paint Company                                      www.realmilkpaint.com
  Green Shop                                                       www.greenshop.co.uk
  Colours by Nature                                                www.coloursbynature.com.au
  The Green Paint Shop                                             www.greenpaintshop.com.au
  Green Painters                                                   www.greenpainters.com.au




Cavalier Bremworth Pty Ltd.           1800 251 172              www.cavbrem.com.au

Golden Fleece Insulation              1800 641 101              www.goldenfleeceinsulation.com.au

Higgins Insulation                    1300 130 233              www.higgensinsulation.com.au

Sustainable Living Fabrics            1800 224 184              www.greenliving.com.au

Woolset Quality Carpets               1800 111 231              www.woolset.com.au




                                                      26.
Big River Timbers             1800 800 619                 www.bigrivertimbers.com.au

Boral                         1300 732 010                 www.Boral.com.au

Choice Timber                 03 9761 6645                 www.choicetimber.com.au
                              info@choicetimber.com.au
Demark Timber and Hardware    1300 783 067                 www.demark.rtrk.com.au
                              sales@demark.com.au
Home Hardware                                              www.homehardware.com.au

Outdoor Timber and Fencing    13 000 87328                 www.outdoortimber.com.au




AmCork USA                                               www.amcork.com

Jelinek Cork Group USA         +905 827 4666             www.jelinek.com

Logic Australia                03 9544 2288              www.logicaustralia.com.au

Premium Floors                                           www.spec-net.com.au/company/premium.htm


The Floor Shop                 03 9569 2222              www.corkfloors.com.au




Bamboo Surfboards Australia    02 6685 6804               http://www.designawards.com.au/applicatio
                                                          n_detail.jsp?applicationID=2299

Bamboozle                      08 9445 9011               www.bamboozle.com.au
                               08 9317 2883
Eco Flooring Systems           02 9410 0640               www.ecoflooring.com.au

House of Bamboo                1300 665 703               www.houseofbamboo.com.au

Style Limited                  08 9367 8388               www.stylelimited.com




                                         27.
Huff’n’Puff Strawbale Construction    02 69 276 027                         www.glassford.com.au
                                      john@glassford.com.au
Ortech Industries                     1800 805 919                          www.ortech.com.au

Solomit Strawboard                    03 9793 3088                          www.solomit.com.au

Straw.com.au                          02 69 456 121                         www.straw.com.au

Strawtec                              02 4443 5282                          www.strawtec.com.au
                                      strawbales@bigpond.com




Halcyon Steppe                                                           www.halcyonsteppe.com.au

Silk Trade Online                          03 9882 6555                  www.silkdirect.com.au

Silk World                                 03 9419 0666                  www.silkworld.com.au




  At Present Spider silk is not available to consumers however research is currently being undertaken into how to make a
  commercially available products using spider silk technology.




Kirei USA                                                                www.kireiusa.com




Halcyon Steppe                                                           www.halcyonsteppe.com.au

Hume International                         03 93356711                   www.humeinternationale.com

Newmor                                     +44 (0)1938 55 2671           www.newmor.com
                                           enquiries@newmor.com
Taylor Wall Options                        0438 257 400                  www.taylorwalloptions.com.au

Vision Wall Covering                       02 9997 5222                  www.visionwall.com.au

Xanita Pty Ltd                             07 3821 7730                  www.Xanita.com


                                                                   28.
Austral Plywoods               07 3426 8666              www.austply.com.au

Boral                          1300 732 010              www.boral.com.au/plywood

Mister Ply & Wood              1300 138 771              www.misterplywood.com.au




Halcyon Steppe                                           www.halcyonsteppe.com.au

Sustainable Living Fabrics     1800 224 184              www.livingfabrics.com.au




Endureed                     sales@endureed.com           www.endureed.com

House of Bamboo              02 9666 5703                 www.houseofbamboo.com.au
                             info@houseofbamboo.com.au
Mr Thatch                                                 www.mrthatch.com.au

Oz Thatch                    1800 842 824                 www.ozthatch.com.au

The Thatch Roofing Company   08 9530 1347                 www.thatch.com.au

Tropical Thatch              1300 781 104                 www.tropicalthatch.com




Earth Paint                                              www.earthpaint.net

Forbo Flooring                 1800 224 471              www.forbo-flooring.com.au

General Flooring               02 9622 1811              www.generalflooring.com.au

Tarkett                        02 9634 7373              www.tarkett-floors.com



                                        29.
Earthpaint                     orders@earthpaint.net            www.earthpaint.net

Healthy home                                                    www.healthyhome.com/products/2014/soy-green-
                                                                polystripper.aspx

Natural Built Home             answers@naturalbuilthome.com     http://www.naturalbuilthome.com/products/372-
                                                                soy_paint

The Real Milk Company          dosiever@realmilkpaint.com       www.realmilkpaint.com




Eco Directory                                                         www.ecodirectory.com.au

Hemptech                                 info@hemptech.com            www.Hemptech.com




A1 Rubber                        07 3807 3666                             www.a1rubber.com

Australasian Rubber Supplies     02 9681 6815                             www.ausrubber.com.au

Clark Rubber                     13 80 90                                 www.clarkrubber.com.au

Ecoflex Australia Pty Ltd        02 4940 0178                             www.ecoflex.com.au

                                 mail@ecoflex.com.au

Regupol Australia Pty Ltd        rubbersales@regupol.com.au               www.regupol.com.au
                                 acousticsales@regupol.com.au




                                                                30.
Ecospective                   0408 681 604                     www.ecospective.com.au

Foshan Lvyuan Fibre Molding   lvtech@pulpmold.com.cn           www.pulpmold.com.cn/en/introduce.ht
Technologu Co.,Ltd.                                            ml

House of Bamboo               02 9666 5703                     www.houseofbamboo.com.au

Palm Fibre India              palmfibre@airtelbroadband.in     www.palmfibreindia.com

Star Palm Fibre               starpalmfibre@yahoo.com          www.geocities.com/starpalmfibre




Bauwerk                       08 8433 1008                    www.bauwerk.com.au

Colours by Nature             1300 249 347                    www.coloursbynature.com.au
                              sales@coloursbynature.com.au
Earthpaint                                                    www.earthpaint.net

Paint Brushes and Rollers     1(585) 924 8070                 www.paintbrushesandrollers.com




Australian Government, Australia’s forests at a glance 2009. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Union
Offset Printers, Canberra, 2009.

BioSteel, Nexia Biotechnologies Inc., received 20 may, 2009
http://www.nexiabiotech.com/en/01_tech/01-bst.php



                                             31.
Carbon Footprint, The Australian timber database, retrieved 9 may 2009
http://www.timber.net.au/index.php/Environmental-Design-Carbon-Footprint.html

Colours by Nature, received, 29 May, 2009
http://www.coloursbynature.com.au/home

Cork (Material), Wikipedia, received 14th may, 2009.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cork_(material)

Cork Oak, Wikipedia, received 14th may, 2009.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cork_Oak

Cork Supply, Sustainable Forestry, received 14th may, 2009.
http://www.corksupply.com/sustainability-matters/sustainable-forestry.aspx

Cotton inc. Received 24 may 2009.
http://www.cottoninc.com/1998EFSConferencePresentations/CottonRugsAndCarpets

Cotton Overview, CSIRO, Recieved 24 may, 2009
http://www.csiro.au/org/CottonOverview.html

Cotton research & development Corporation, received 24 may, 2009.
http://www.crdc.com.au/index.cfm?pageID=23

Cotton, Wikipedia, received 24 may, 2009
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton

Crisis, PalmOilAction.org, received 28 may, 2009
http://www.palmoilaction.org.au/pages/crisis.html

Durra Panel, Ortech Industries, received 15 may, 2009.
http://www.ortech.com.au/durra/durrapanel.html

Environmentally Safe Paints, Paint Brushes and Rollers, received 29 May, 2009.
http://www.paintbrushesandrollers.com/environmentally_safe_paint.htm

Faqs, Natural Home Products, received 24 may, 2009
http://www.naturalhomeproducts.com/faqs.html

Green and biodegradable, bamboo fabric store, received 14 may, 2009.
http://www.bamboofabricstore.com.au/biodegradable.html

Green Paint shop, received 29 May, 2009
http://www.greenpaintshop.com.au


Hemp, Wikipedia, received 27 may, 2009
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemp

History and Heritage, Ortech Industries, received 15 may, 2009.
http://www.ortech.com.au/about.html


                                                32.
Hollis, M, Practical straw bale Building, Landlinks Press, Collingwood, 2005
House of Paint, received 29 May, 2009
http://www.house-paint.com.au/index.html

Info, Hemp Resources, received 27 may, 2009
http://www.hempresources.com.au/hempinfoPg5.html

Kirei Board, Wikipedia, received 30 may, 2009
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirei_board

Life Scientist, Lorne 2009: Silk structure from a social insect, received 20 may, 2009,
http://www.biotechnews.com.au/article/276292/lorne_2009_silk_structure_from_social_insec
t?pp=1

Linoleum, Encyclopaedia Britannica, receive 29 May, 2009.
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/342589/linoleum

Linoleum, Wikipedia, received 29 May, 2009
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linoleum

Linseed Oil, Wikipedia, received 29 May, 2009
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linseed_oil

Natural Paints, Greenpainter, received 29 May, 2009
http://www.greenpainters.com.au/natural_paints.htm

Non Toxic Paint, EarthPaint, received 18 May, 2009
http://www.earthpaint.net/nontoxicpaintinfo.php

Palm Fibre, ECPlaza.net, received 28 may 2009
http://www.ecplaza.net/product/133365_570062/palm_fiber.html

Palm Oil, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_oil

Palm Tree, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_tree

Palmwood, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palmwood

Plywood, Wikipedia received May 20, 2009.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plywood

Australian Government, Review of the Environmental Impact of Wood Compared with
Alternative Products Used in the Production of Furniture, Australian Gov. Forest & Wood
Products Research & Development Corporation, 2003

Rubber, Wikipedia, received 28 may, 2009.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubber



                                             33.
Silk, BDP environmental design guide, received 18 May, 2009
http://content.environmentdesignguide.net.au/i-cms?page=1375

Silk, Wikipedia, received 18 May, 2009
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silk

Soybean Polystripper, Healthy Home, received 18 May, 2009.
http://www.healthyhome.com/products/2014/Soy-Green-Polystripper.aspx

Soybean, Wikipedia, received 18 May, 2009
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soy

Soy-Gel, the Real Milk Company, received 18 May, 2009
http://www.realmilkpaint.com/soygel.html

Spider Silk – Stronger than steel, Queensland Government, received 20 may, 2009,
http://www.smartfuture.qld.gov.au/(fgxb3555x5zzfr45cis1mq45)/content/default.aspx?I
D=AHQEI

State of Victoria, Department of Natural Resources and Environment 2002, retrieved date
9 may 2009,
http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nreninf.nsf/9e58661e880ba9e44a256c640023eb2e/c12b
1a2fd793afaeca2571800000981f/$FILE/ag0134.pdf

Thatch.com.au, received 26 may, 2009
http://thatch.com.au/content/view/10/26/

Thatched roof, Wikipedia, received 26 may, 2009.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thatched_roof

Bamboo, Wikipedia, received 14 may, 2009.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamboo

Straw, Wikipedia, received 15 may, 2009
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Straw

Thatching, Wikipedia, received 15 may, 2009.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thatching

Wool Insulation, Wikipedia, received 9 may 2009,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Wool_insulation

Sheep Wool, Wikipedia, received 9 may 2009,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheep_wool

X-Board Plus, Xanita, received 20th may, 2009
http://www.xanita.com/site/about/x-board-plus.html




                                               34.

				
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