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					                    ISA Division Newsletter
                            Summer 2002
                                                                       The Odyssey
                        Gary Whitworth, Editor
                                                                  Aerospace Industries Division

                                   Director’s Message
Director’s Message       1         By Bill Stange
Director-elect’s         2
                                   Hello Again:
Another Successful       2
Symposium                          48th International Instrumentation Symposium
                                   As most of you know, the Aerospace Industries Division and the Test Measurement Division
48th IIS Vendor &      3-4         jointly sponsor the annual International Instrumentation Symposium. We have just completed
Exhibits                           our 48th International Instrumentation Symposium, held this year 6-9 May at the Catamaran
Network With             4         Resort Hotel in San Diego. In spite of the poor economy and the reluctance to travel brought on
Your Peers Online                  by the events of September 11th, we had approximately the same number of technical papers
                                   and attendees as last year. As you can imagine, many people do a tremendous amount of hard
New Educational          5         work to make the symposium the high quality technical event that it is. Special thanks go out to
Product                            the General Chair, Steve Allison, and to the many volunteers, authors, session developers, ven-
50th Anniversary         5         dors and attendees who made this symposium a great success!
Editor’s Message         6             Congratulations to Michael J. Hayduk, Rebecca J. Bussjager, Steven T. Johns and Cheryl
                                   Gerhardstein of the Sensors Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Rome, NY and co-
Message from the       7
                                   author Eric Donkor of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of
49th IIS General Chair
                                   Connecticut, Storrs, CT on their winning of the Major Charles Bassett III Award. Their paper
Welcome New Members 7              entitled “Analog-to-Digital Signal Conversion Using Optoelectronic Techniques” was judged
                                   best paper at the 47th International Instrumentation Symposium held in Denver, CO last May.
ISA 2002 Joint           7         The Major Charles Bassett III Award carries with it the opportunity to name a college or univer-
A&T/I&S Luncheon                   sity to receive a $1000.00 scholarship for a deserving student in the instrumentation, systems, or
ISA 2002 Technical     8-9         automation field. Congratulations also to Dr. Jeffery Jordan on his winning the Dr. Charles
Conference for ASD                 Stark Draper Award. Jeff’s tutorial on Pressure Sensitive Paint Technology was judged the best
                                   tutorial at last year’s IIS.
ASD Board Members       10
Flight Testing With Toys 11        ISA 2002
                                      The Aerospace Industries Division is developing two technical sessions for ISA 2002, which is
PDTIBWKHWH              12         being held at the McCormick Place Convention Center in Chicago IL, 21-24 October. This
                                   annual event is sponsored by ISA, and is North America’s largest and most comprehensive con-
49th IIS Call For       13
                                   ference and exhibition dedicated to instrumentation, systems and automation technologies. ISA
                                   2002 will provide you with a hands-on comparison of the latest products in the expansive exhi-
Analog-to-Digital     14           bition, including specialty pavilions for sensors, motion control, temperature control, and more;
Signal Conversion Using            comprehensive Applications Conference and the Second Annual ISA Emerging Technologies
Optoelectronic Techniques          Conference; thought-provoking keynote and plenary talks; and networking with colleagues at
                                   North America’s largest meeting of instrumentation, systems, and automation professionals. If
Snapshots from the      22
                                   you are interested in presenting a paper or developing a session at the ISA 2002 Conference in
48th IIS
                                   Chicago please contact me. In addition, I further encourage you to attend the Joint A&T/I&S
ISA 2002                24         Department Awards Luncheon at ISA 2002. The Luncheon will take place on Monday, 21
                                   October in the McCormick Center at 11:30 a.m. This is a great place to meet and talk with
                                   Division officers and get a good idea of how Divisions operate. ASD will have at least one
                                   table, and we invite you to come and join us. This is also a good time to volunteer your servic-
                                   es as a Committee member or Chairman, or express your interest in becoming an Officer of a
                                   Division. We have some big plans for our Division, so we can always use volunteers. For more
                                                                                                               continued on page 23
Page 2                                                                                                                  Summer 2002

                                              Director-Elect’s Message
Greetings Everyone,                          contact the 49th IIS General Chairman,        years. Call or e-mail me and let me
    I hope everyone is finding time to       Ron Dieck (,                  know your concerns or complaints. This
enjoy the days of summer while they          561- 627-1321) or the ISA Conferences         is your Division and your Society – let
last. After a trying year of security con-   contact, Richard Arriola (,   your leadership know how you feel
cerns and economic turmoil, I hope           919-990-9303) for details.                    about things – we won’t know your
some of you are finding time to relax            I should also mention the short           concerns unless you tell us.
and recover. How many of you made it         courses and tutorials that will be offered        Thanks everybody for making ASD
to San Diego in May? The 48th                in Orlando. These are great opportuni-        one of ISA’s best technical Divisions.
International Instrumentation                ties to learn from folks that are experts     Until the next newsletter, please have a
Symposium (IIS) in San Diego went very       in their respective fields, and I would       pleasant and productive six months.
well this year. Attendance was stronger      encourage you to take full advantage of
than expected and it seemed as though        them. The short courses offered by the           Sincerely,
everyone who attended enjoyed the            IIS are always less expensive than you’d         Patrick Russler
symposium - I certainly did! Please join     find elsewhere for the same content – a          Director-Elect, Aerospace Industries
our Division Director, Bill Stange, and      real deal. Check the ISA web site                Division
me in congratulating the Symposium  regularly for upcoming 
General Chair, Steve Allison, on a job       details on which courses will be avail-          919-582-3367
well done. Thanks, Steve!                    able in Orlando.
    Next year, the 49th IIS will take            ISA’s premier event, the ISA 2002
place in Orlando, Florida at the Adam’s      Instrumentation, Systems and
Mark Hotel on May 4th through 8th,           Automation Conference and Exhibition,               Another Successful
2003. The Aerospace Industries               will be in Chicago, Illinois 21-24                     Symposium
Division and our partner, the Test           October. It is “North America’s largest
Measurement Division, jointly sponsor        and most comprehensive conference and             The 48th International Instrumentation
the IIS. Come to Orlando and partici-        exhibition dedicated to instrumentation,      Symposium held in San Diego, 5-9 May
pate in the premier event of your            systems and automation technologies.”         was a success. It is sponsored by the two
Division. There will be the usual mix of     Check out ISA’s new and improved web          ISA Divisions, Test and Measurement and
great technical content and opportuni-       site for details. Your Division is devel-     Aerospace. The setting for the Symposium
ties to talk to vendors and sensor tech-     oping two technical sessions for ISA          was the Catamaran Hotel. The beach
nology experts. Where else can you have      2002, but it is not too late to help. If      was only a few steps from the hotel and
lunch with folks who have been in the        you are interested in presenting a paper      the Tuesday evening cruise around the
business for 30 years and with sensor        or developing a session at ISA 2002 in        bay, in a paddle boat reminiscent of the
technology mavericks straight out of         Chicago please contact division director      Missisippi River was enjoyed by all.
graduate school? The opportunities for       Bill Stange at 937-255-7197 or                Sessions covered the topics of Real Time
good technical discussions and general, or myself.       Systems, Optical Diagnostics and
networking abound. So don’t miss the             ISA and the Aerospace Industries          Measurement Techniques, Data
show.                                        Division in particular are always look-       Acquisition, Flow Measurements,
    We are currently soliciting papers,      ing for new leadership. Remember that         Engine Health Monitoring, Sensor
presenters, and developers for the 49th      ISA’s primary mission is the advance-         Technology, and Aerospace Propulsion
IIS. If you are interested in presenting     ment of sensor technology in general.         Research Instrumentation. Short Courses
and contributing to the technical pro-       That includes professional development        offered were Fundamentals of Temperature,
gram, please let us know. The IIS is an      and fostering leadership in the technical     Pressure, and Flow Measurements;
excellent forum in which to present          community as a whole. If you feel as          Measurement Uncertainty: Methods and
your ideas to colleagues that understand     though you have something to con-             Applications; andSelection and
your topic. Having no one ask questions      tribute, or just want to participate in the   Application of Process Measurement
at the end of your presentation is a let     general advancement of sensor technolo-       Sensors. The tutorials were Fiber Optics
down – I can almost guarantee that           gy, please give us a call. I’ve said it       Sensors, Technical Writing that Pleases
you’ll get questions and comments after      before and I’ll say it again…we’re            Your Boss, The Design of a Successful
you present at the IIS. Remember to          always looking for new blood.                 Measurement System, Thermographic
bring your business cards and be pre-            As Director-Elect of ASD, I’m still       Phosphor Thermometry, Information
pared for spirited discussion. If you are    learning the names and faces of every-        (In)Security, and Wireless Technology.
not a member of ASD or TMD, but              one in our Division - all 964 of us. I’m      The latter two topics were new this
have a topic relevant to the aerospace or    also a relatively young guy – wet behind      year. Attendance for the conference was
test measurement community, please           the ears some of you might say. As            a little higher than the previous year.
contact us. The 49th IIS will be award-      such, I’m open to any ideas members           This is especially encouraging consider-
ing honoraria to presenters and session      may have on what the focus of the             ing the events of the last year and the
developers from other Divisions. Please      Division should be over the next several      state of the economy.
Aerospace Industries Division Newsletter                                                                                                   Page 3

    The symposium banquet was fortunate           Instrumentation Working Group(PIWIG).             it will be an excellent setting which
to have not one but two speakers! The             This is a consortium aimed at coordinat-          includes what is probablythe largest hotel
first was by Pino Zani, ISA President, who        ing and performing instrumentation                gift shop in the world. The hotel is
luckily was in the area and dropped in for        development for the Air Force, NASA               attached to a mall! Next year’s event,
an all-too-brief visit to see our conference      and DOE. PIWIG Members attended a                 and this is a new feature, will provide a
and to share his thoughts on cooperation          special IIS session on Thursday open to           special vendor’s session after the
between the various ISA organizations. Jeff       both PIWIG and IIS attendees. On                  Wednesday banquet. The vendor’s will be
Krinsky of AT&T gave us an excellent talk         Friday, the day after the symposium, the          encouraged to make presentations. The
on consumer wireless technology that will         group held another session. The arrange-          limits on commercial presentations in
soon be available. It was an exciting pre-        ment probably increased the attendance            regular sessions will be lifted for this ven-
view of useful communications gadgetry.           to bothevents. The Symposium provided             dor session. This will provide another
    The conference organizers are especially      and coordinated registration, room                benefit to these important contributors to
grateful to the Vendors who displayed             arrangements and food services to                 the success of our symposia.
their wares at the conference and provided        PIWIG.                                               We hope to see you all there next year.
for lunches and the reception.                       Next year’s Symposium will be held in          Thanks,
    Another added feature of this year’s          Orlando, FL. 4-8 May 2003 at the                     Steve Allison
conference was a mutually beneficial              Adam’s Mark Hotel. Under the able lead-
arrangement with the Propulsion                   ership of Ron Dieck, General Chairman,

                                              Thanks to All Supporting Vendors

           Druck Incorporated,        Technology Corporation,             It is family owned and man-                  nels and a 2MHz aggre-
           a leader in pressure       Lockheed Martin, Northrop           aged, founded by Dr. Anthony                 gate throughput rate.
           measurement and cal-       Grumman, General Dynamics           Kurtz in 1959, and incorporat-             • System 495 with sampling
           ibration for over 25       Land Systems, and numerous          ed in the State of New Jersey.               rates to 1MHz per chan-
           years, manufactures        system suppliers to these and       Currently Kulite has more than               nel and on-board memory
           products ranging           other key aerospace and mili-       100 patents making us, by far,               to 64Msamples per chan-
from pressure transducers and         tary companies.                     the most prolific innovators in              nel.
transmitters to high perform-                                             the industry.                              Mozayik is a full-featured
ance, pitot static air data instru-                       HBM, with                                              data acquisition software pack-
ments.                                                    U.S. head-                           Neff Instrument   age that requires no program-
   Additionally, Druck offers a                           quarters                             Corporation       ming. It supports all the hard-
complete line of field calibra-                           located in                           manufactures      ware functions including hard-
tors for pressure, temperature        Marlborough, Mass., is a lead-                           complete data     ware and transducer calibra-
and electrical parameters and a       ing global supplier of measure-     acquisition products and sys-          tion. It is offered as a comple-
comprehensive range of pri-           ment technologies, products         tems. Signal conditioning is           ment to all Neff hardware prod-
mary and secondary pressure           and solutions for industrial test   built-in to products which             ucts.
standards.                            and measurement applications.       include:
                                      HBM provides complete meas-            • System 470 Low-Level
                 FCI Aerospace is     urement solutions - from sensor            Multiplexer - capable of
                 the "one stop        to software - for industrial and           handling large numbers of
                 source" manu-        laboratory applications. Its               analog and digital I/O at       Pressure scanning instrumenta-
                 facturer of tem-     wide range of measurement                  prices as low as $60 per        tion for wind tunnel and turbo
perature, liquid level, flow and      parameters includes force,                 channel.                        machinery research and test
pressure sensors to the world         torque, weight, strain, displace-      • System 472 Data                   applications achieving total sys-
aerospace, military, marine and       ment and pressure. Primary                 Acquisition System featur-      tem measurement uncertainty of
space industries. FCI's manu-         markets include aerospace,                 ing built-in calibration,       better than +/-0.03% FS.
facturing facility in San Marcos,     automotive and manufacturing.              very low noise operation
California features a multi mil-         HBM is a wholly owned sub-              and 50Khz throughput
lion dollar flow laboratory that      sidiary of Spectris plc.                   rates.
permits the development of new                                               • System 620/Series 600
instrumentation applications                           Kulite                    Data Acquisition System         Intelligent Pressure Scanning
and full technical support for                         Semiconductor             also featuring built-in cali-   Modules from vacuum to
flight test programs. ISO 9001        Products, Inc. is a company                bration and 100KHz              1000psi. New Intelligent
certified and AS 9000 compli-         which designs, develops and                throughput.                     Temperature Module accepts
ant, FCI has been selected as a       manufacturers solid-state semi-        • System 730 with simulta-          type J, K, E, S, T, R & N
sensor partner by Boeing,             conductor pressure sensors                 neous sampling, zero            Thermocouples
Bombardier, Raytheon, United          using piezoresistive technology.           phase shift between chan-
Page 4                                                                                                                                       Summer 2002

             48th ISA International Instrumentaion Symposium Vendor Exhibits
                                                         By Bill Atkinson
                                                      48th IIS Vendors Chair
   The 48th ISA International Instru-       years, manufactures products ranging                         Fluid Components International. HBM,
mentation Symposium was enriched by         from pressure transducers and transmit-                      with U.S. headquarters located in
the displays of seven vendors. The vendor   ters to high performance, pitot static air                   Marlborough, Mass., is a leading global
exhibits were displayed in the Kon Tiki     data instruments.; Kulite Semiconductor                      supplier of measurement technologies,
Ballroom at the Catamaran Resort Hotel.     Products, a company which designs,                           products and solutions for industrial test
The exhibits opened on Monday evening       develops and manufactures solid-state                        and measurement applications. HBM
with pizza and soda provided through the    semiconductor pressure sensors using                         provides complete measurement solutions
generosity of Kulite Semiconductor          piezoresistive technology; Neff                              - from sensor to software - for industrial
Products. The exhibits opened again mid-    Instruments, a manufacturer of complete                      and laboratory applications. Its wide
day on Tuesday with box lunches being       data acquisition products and systems                        range of measurement parameters
served in the exhibit area. On Tuesday      with signal conditioning is built-in;                        includes force, torque, weight, strain, dis-
evening the exhibit area was open for two   Pressure Systems Inc., a manufacturer of                     placement and pressure. FCI Aerospace is
hours prior to the reception cruise.        pressure scanning instrumentation for                        the “one stop source” manufacturer of
Wednesday evening the exhibit hall was      wind tunnel and turbo machinery                              temperature, liquid level, flow and pres-
open for two and one half hours.            research and test applications achieving                     sure sensors to the world aerospace, mili-
Thursday midday was the final session of    total system measurement uncertainty of                      tary, marine and space industries. FCI’s
the exhibits with box lunches again being   better than +/-0.03% FS; and Scanivalve,                     manufacturing facility in San Marcos,
served in the exhibit hall.                 a manufacturer of Intelligent Pressure                       California features a multi million dollar
   The vendors were a mix of familiar       Scanning Modules from vacuum to                              flow laboratory that permits the develop-
faces and several new exhibitors. Among     1000psi. and New Intelligent                                 ment of new instrumentation applications
the long time supporters were: Druck        Temperature Modules that accept type J,                      and full technical support for flight test
Incorporated, a leader in pressure meas-    K, E, S, T, R & N Thermocouples. New                         programs.
urement and calibration for over 25         exhibitors this year were HBM, Inc. and                                            continued on page 5

                  Network With Your Peers Online!

                                                    You are no longer limited to networking with people
                                                  locally or at conferences. You can now network with your
                                                  peers around the world electronically.
                                                   Got a question? Ask your peers! Got a problem?
                                                  Ask your peers! Got advice? Tell your peers!
                                                   Every ISA Division has an e-mail discussion list
                                                  exclusively for its members. And they want you to join!
                                                    Sign up today from your Division’s home page.


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                                                   confidential and is not made available to the public.
Aerospace Industries Division Newsletter                                                                                             Page 5

48th IIS Vendor Exhibits
continued from page 4                              Preparations Are Underway for 50th Anniversary
   The support of all these vendors was
much appreciated by the Symposium staff.
In general the vendors expressed satisfac-
tion with the show and their feedback
indicates that they felt the show results
were worth the investment. Pipe and drape
for the show was provided by the Carden
Convention Service Company and their
efforts caused the mechanics of the show
to go very smoothly with none of the usual
minor problems and annoyances.
   The vendor exhibits were adversely
affected by the current business climate.
Several of our long term supporters opted              Registration at the first sym-
not to return this year citing reduced                 posium with Registration
budgets. A number of vendors signed up                                                      A technical session at first sympo-
                                                       Chair, Bill Stephens, and
for the show hoping economic conditions                                                     sium with Walt Gabriel divulging
                                                       assistant, Jane Noble.
would improve. We had six vendors can-                                                      the “Black Art” of magnetic tape
cel out in the three weeks preceding the                                                    recording
show. Although this was disappointing,
we can take heart that they were willing          The 50th International Instrumentation           Beginning with this issue of the
to try to exhibit and hopefully will join us   Symposium (IIS) will be held in May of           Odyssey, and continuing in future issues
next year if conditions improve.               2004 in San Antonio, Texas. At this              up to the 50th Anniversary, historical
                                               Symposium, a 50th Anniversary                    information from this book will be pre-
                                               Celebration for both the Aerospace               sented.
                                               Industries Division and the Symposium is
          New Educational                                                                       The First Symposium
                                               currently being planned that will hopeful-
            Product                            ly be a gathering place for the “old                ASD and the symposium were both
                                               timers” that were involved in the early          founded in 1954. In 1953, the ISA recog-
       The popular Short Courses on The
  Engineering & The Dynamics of                years. A past ASD Director, Bill Comer,          nized a need for a forum for the dissemi-
  Measurement Systems for Test &               has been appointed to head a committee           nation of information devoted exclusively
  Evaluation, are now available on 62 full     that will plan an Old Timers Reunion, as         to aircraft and missile instrumentation. It
  hours of Videotapes recorded during a        well as, update the ASD History Book,            responded to this need by sponsoring and
  live performance at NASA Langley.            which also chronicles the Symposium’s            forming a D-14 Aeronautical
       Based on the Unified Approach devel-    history. ASD Historian Dick Cusick,              Instrumentation Committee in 1954.
  oped by Peter Stein, they include numer-
                                               another past ASD Director, will assist in        Floyd B. Simpson was appointed chair-
  ous demonstrations, over 1000 refer-
  ences keyed to the lectures and compre-      this effort and provide needed historical        man.
  hensive text material. The programs fea-     data from the ASD History Library that              In October, 1954 Delmas C. Little, ISA
  ture the electrical measurement of           he has maintained for many years.                Technical Division Vice-President, sent
  mechanical and thermal quantities.              Bill and Dick are developing a database       Bernard Alberts, President of the Wichita
       Contact: Peter Stein, Phone/Fax:        of names and addresses of persons who            Section, an invitation on behalf of the
  1-800-meas-sys or 480-945-4603. e-                                                            Aeronautical Instrumentation Committee
                                               have previously been involved with the
  mail:; For
  detailed description send blank e-mail to    Symposium but are no longer members of           to cooperate in presenting a Flight Test
  autoresponder:        ISA. Please send any information you may         Symposium. It is noteworthy that Wichita
       Stein Engineering Services, Inc.,       have to Bill at or Dick         Section attendees at the ISA Meeting in
  5602 E. Monterosa, Phoenix, AZ               at This informa-          Philadelphia broached (with others) the
  85018.                                       tion will be used to reestablish communi-        desire of flight test instrumentation engi-
       Over 300 weeks of these programs        cations and help develop interest.               neers to hold their own national assem-
  have been presented over the last 40
                                                  The 1st Edition of the ASD History            blage as one topic of an historic ad hoc
  years in 17 countries to engineers, scien-
  tists, managers and senior technicians in    Book was compiled and published in               committee meeting convened by Mr.
  industry, government and educational         1974 on the 20th Anniversary by Irv              Little. This invitation was enthusiastically
  institutions who are charged with obtain-    Lantor. On the 30th Anniversary, Joe             accepted and John See (Boeing) was
  ing valid, noise-free, undistorted data      Newnham updated the information and              selected by the Section as Symposium
  under difficult conditions.                  published the 2nd Edition. The current           General Chairman. ISA (National) as rep-
       $1100 with one set of text delivered,   update for the 50th Anniversary will be          resented by the D-14 Committee retained
  10% discount for payment with order.
                                               the 3rd Edition.                                                       continued on page 6
Page 6                                                                                                                         Summer 2002

                                                       Editor’s Message
                                              By Gary Whitworth, ASD Newsletter Editor
    I remember, on more than one occa-         more easily distracted by fishing and golf-       new ideas, new insight, new enthusiasm.
sion I believe, Peps Schneider standing in     ing (presumably their current “business”).            There are a large number of ASD
the “bloody pulpit” of editorship of this          In most cases, retirees don’t just walk       members that take advantage of the bene-
newsletter, talking about how perhaps too      up and volunteer for a job; they held that        fits offered by the Division. Some have
many Board positions (and perhaps IIS          and/or other position(s) before retirement.       for considerable time, and some for much
staff positions), were being filled by         If no one moves up or steps forward to            less. But all have talents to offer the
retirees. Not a great number of positions,     claim his position, and the retiree has not       Division, by serving in the “startup” posi-
of course, but somewhat more than none.        yet made a clean break to the full occupa-        tions that come into existence as their
And the positions were not usually ones        tional vacuum, he simply agrees to con-           predecessors move up the responsibility
of highest leadership. Nonetheless, Peps       tinue to fill the position on a “tempo-           ladder. No matter if these slots are filled
argued that this is not the way it is sup-     rary” basis. Until someone does step for-         by retirees, they are probably recycling
posed to be, in the overall scheme of          ward. (Note: not usually “until he dies.”)        from the more responsible positions any-
things. On the heels of the 48th Annual            And there is the rub. New people must         way, because there was no “new blood”
International Instrumentation                  step forward, or the retirees are never           stepping up. This of course makes these
Symposium, and looking forward to the          relieved, or just have ultimately to walk         retirees very valuable, and greatly appre-
49th, 50th, and hopefully many more,           away from the responsibility.                     ciated for being available when necessary.
please allow me a thought or two on                Most volunteer organizations fill their           But retirees don’t last forever. And
retirees and “new blood” in our positions      un-elected positions by younger and               because they are so valuable, it is neces-
of responsibility.                             newer members stepping up voluntarily,            sary to continually replenish the crop.
    Not that there aren’t some possible        and making themselves available for posi-         After all, today’s newcomers are like seed
advantages to having retirees available for    tions of lesser responsibility. In these slots,   corn. They will be tomorrow’s retirees.
these positions, such as the conceit that      the newcomers learn the ropes, “pay their             The Board and IIS staff always wel-
retirees have more time to apply to            dues” and generally gain the experience           come new faces and talents. If you as a
Division tasks. (I’m not at all sure that      so that their accession to the more               Division member are interested in getting
this is true.) But it is not good from some    responsible positions comes naturally and         more involved, contact the Division lead-
pragmatic aspects: less income to the IIS,     easily, as if by osmosis. In addition, they       ership. Help push the retirees out the top.
since retirees have greatly discounted reg-    are now known to their peers, and have            Why already I can think of at least one
istration fees; retirees have no corporate     the benefit of immediate acceptance and           position currently filled by a retiree who
backing and can less afford to attend          trust. The usual phrase “new blood”               would not be unhappy to be gently float-
meetings and symposia; and retirees are        implies much more than youth; it means            ed out...

50th Anniversary Celebration                   inevitably arose. Those that are docu-            Evolvement of Names and Sponsorship
continued from page 5                          mented relate to Section/Division versus             In 1957, at the ISA National Meeting
                                               ISA Headquarters policy and practice              in Cleveland, the D-14 Committee was
responsibility for the technical program       concerning symposium conduct and                  renamed the Aeronautical Industry
and authorized $300 working capital to         financing. To quote from a letter from            Committee. Then, in 1960, it was
cover symposium expenses. Preprints            National “...our interest arises not only         renamed again as the Aero/Space
were to be available at symposium time         because of our normal concern that                Industry Division and in 1961 the Flight
and it was decided at a January 1955           these nationally sponsored events be              Test Instrumentation Symposium was
meeting not to have material exhibits.         successful, but particularly so because           renamed The National Aero/Space
Between March 1 and March 21 pre-              we advanced $300 working capital for              Instrumentation Symposium. The
program announcements were mailed              this symposium.” However, the first               Division’s name was changed to its pres-
and the program was finalized.                 meeting had successfully been produced            ent name, The Aerospace Industries
Announcements were prepared by for             and directed - The Flight Test                    Division, in 1971. In 1973, Aerospace
April publication in ISA media. The            Instrumentation Symposium, as an insti-           was dropped from the Symposium’s
Symposium was a resounding success,            tution, was off to a stimulating begin-           name to encourage participation from
technically, financially, and socially.        ning.                                             other industries such as oceanography,
Attendance was a respectable 249. The             Indicative of the growth of the                environmental, mass transportation, and
proceedings of the first symposium were        instrumentation community, the D-14               automotive safety testing. The Test
printed by the Wichita Section and con-        Committee was expanded in 1955 to                 Measurement Division became a joint
veniently included a list of attendees.        include Bernard Oldfield (Edwards                 sponsor of the Symposium in 1974 and
   As with any such new enterprise,            AFB), Floyd Bryan (Douglas), Eugene               the Symposium name was changed to
particularly one driven by a crew of           Spencer (Hughes) and G.E. Sanderson               The International Instrumentation
fledgling aerospacers, misunderstandings       (Lockheed).                                       Symposium – the name it carries today.
Aerospace Industries Division Newsletter                                                                                                Page 7

  Message from the 49th                                                  WELCOME ASD NEW DIVISION MEMBERS
  IIS General Chairman:                           April                         George E. Crowder         Ronald Pawlowski
                                                                                Glenn Taylor Cunningham   Alicia Perez Ballester
    It is a pleasure and honor to invite you      H T. Bentley, III
                                                                                Thomas E. Dinjus          Trevor Rice
to the finest International Instrumentation       Kapil Bhatnagar
                                                                                Stephen Kirby Doyle               .
                                                                                                          James P Roberts
and Control Symposium, the ISA 49th                     .
                                                  Bert P Fontenot
                                                                                Mike Drumm                Carlo D. Roman
International Instrumentation                     Robert Foster
                                                                                George T. Gillies         James Scire
Symposium. We will be meeting 5-8 May             Gerald Michael Hill
                                                                                Frank Greitzer            Darrell Sego
2003 in wonderful Orlando, FL. This site          William Stansbury Horne
                                                                                Mark Haberbusch           William A. Sotomayer
is especially nice for families and our           Steven Yuan Sun Lu
hotel rate is set up for bringing families.                                     Dan Lee Hanson            Shane Warner Taylor
                                                  W. H. Newton, Jr.
The rate is for single, double, triple or                                       James E. Hardy            Vincent S. Thompson
                                                  Willard Nott
quad! Our Vendors will have a special                                           Edward E. Hartman         Chin-Chi Tsai
                                                  Don Pittenger
session on Wednesday afternoon to pres-                                         Terry Hayes               Jim Wang, PhD
                                                  Michael R. Sponsler
ent their latest and greatest products. We                                      Robert Howard
                                                  Robert Stack
are working to get some cross-fertilization       John Stevens
                                                                                Gary L. Hunt              June
from other disciplines in ISA by inviting                                       Paul Ivey                 Tom Brockmann
several ISA Divisions to program paper                                          Martin Kudela             William F. DiSilvestro, III
sessions with us. We expect this to be a
                                                  May                           Michael Lockhart          Joseph H. Goodrich
fabulous symposium and well worth your            Daniel A. Barberree           Joseph Mach               Jan Ickroth
time to attend.                                   Brian K. Beachkofski          James R. Markham          Thomas Perrin, Jr.
    For more information on this upcom-           Wayne Belew                   Javier Martinez N
ing event please visit     Michael Bennett               Martin J. Morris
    I’ll look forward to meeting you in           Jim S. Birger                 Peter J. Neild
Orlando!                                          Tom C. Bonsett                Rolf Orsagh
                                                  Mike Cates                    Timothy Carl Owen
   Ron Dieck                                      Jimmy Coleman                 Pachaivannan Partheeban

                                            INSTRUMENTATION, SYSTEMS,
                                                    AND AUTOMATION
                                           CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION

                   Join us in honoring your Division colleagues at the Joint A & T and I & S
                   Department Awards Luncheon at ISA 2002: in the McCormick Place
                   Convention Center, Chicago, IL on Monday, 21 October at 11:30 a.m.
                    Department Awards will be presented for
                    Outstanding Division and Most Improved
                    Division, along with the Division Communications             Tickets are $28.00 per person
                    awards. We will also recognize individual
                    Division members for their outstanding contribu-             and may be purchased using
                    tions to Division activities.                                the online registration form at
                    Each Division will host a table at the luncheon.
                    Come meet your Division leaders and hear the                 or call Kelly L. Bishop
                    latest on Division activities.                               at (919) 990-9249.
Page 8                                                                                                                    Summer 2002

                                              ISA 2002 Technical Conference
                                                  For Aerospace Industries Division

Wednesday, 23 October                                                     Special Forums Fuel Your Focus
1:45 p.m. — 3:15 p.m.                           Cybersecurity of Industrial Control Systems*
                                                11:45 a.m., Tuesday, 22 October
Real-Time Systems (Paper Session)
                                                   Remote access. Wireless. Web-enabled hardware. Open architecture. These and
Smart Sensor Usage in Gas Turbine               other technologies offer significant business advantages for industrial real-time
Testing                                         computer control systems; but they can create security vulnerabilities unless they
   Michael Bennet, Jacobs Sverdrup/             are implemented with security in mind through all phases of the system life-cycle.
   AEDC Group                                   This high-level overview examines the security implications of these technologies,
Integration of Automation PLC                   the concerns and plans of users and vendors, what is being done, and what more
Development With Real-Time                      can be done to ensure an adequate level of security as we move toward greater
Simulation                                      connectivity and openness in industrial control systems, and as the business IT
   Stephen Salita, Sverdrup Technology          and control system IT worlds merge. (For more information on this topic, please
                                                see the Security sessions on pages 8 and 12.) Topics covered will include:
An Automation System Based on                       • User and vendor perspectives on control system security and risk
LabVIEW to Control the Test of                        management
Mechanical Meter Calibration                        • US Government activities, including NIST’s Process Control Security
  Javier Martinez Navarro, Instituto                  Requirements Forum
  Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua                   • Education, awareness, and training needs and issues
Automation of Space Materials
Contamination Measurement                       Moderator:
  Randy Buchanan, University of                 Al Wavering, Acting Chief, Intelligent Systems Division, NIST
  Southern Mississippi
Developer: William Stange                       Dr. Sujeet Shenoi, University of Tulsa, Center for Information Security
Company: USAF

3:30 p.m. — 5:00 p.m.

Fiber Optic Sensors (Tutorial)
Provides an overview of optical fiber
                                                                Get in the
sensor theory for interfero-metric,
grating-based, and other fiber optic
sensor types, with a focus on optical
                                                                   Driver’s Seat!
fiber sensors being used in laboratory,                                REGISTER TODAY
industrial/commercial, and aerospace
applications. Representative applications                                                  Online:
discussed include industrial sensing, civil                                      
structure and aerostructure health moni-
toring, space-based shape monitoring/
control, advanced materials testing,                                                       Mail: ISA 2002
manufacturing yield improvements, and                                                            P. O. Box 3561
biological/chemical sensing. Examples of                                                         Durham, NC 27702
COTS fiber optic sensor/ systems prod-                                                           USA
ucts will be on display.
                                                                                           Call: (919) 549-8411
Developer: Steve Poland
                                                                                           Fax: (919) 549-8288
Company: Luna Innovations
Aerospace Industries Division Newsletter                                                                                         Page 9

                                           Cyber Security Sessions at ISA 2002
             Sponsored by the POWID, FPID, G&C, TXD, ASD, and TMD Divisions and the Standards & Practices Dept.
                                 ISA 2002 Technical Conference, 21-24 October, Chicago, IL

Monday, 21 October                             3:30 p.m. – 5:00 p.m.                          1:45 p.m. – 3:15 p.m.
9:30 a.m. – 11:00 a.m.                         The Role of Standards in the                   Internet (In)Security (Tutorial)
Real Time Control System Security              Development of Secure Control                      Dr. Sujeet Shenoi, Oliphant Professor
Issues and Direction (Panel Session)           Systems Design (Panel Session)                 of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
                                                                                              at The University of Tulsa is one of the
The Issues and Challenges — An Overview        ISA 84 — Programmable Electronic
                                                                                              leading computer scientists in the United
  NIST or NSA                                  System (PES) for Use in Safety
                                                                                              States in the field of computer security,
The Electric Power Industry                                                                   information assurance, and anti-cyber
                                                  Vic Maggioli
  Joe Weiss                                                                                   terrorism. He leads a team of faculty
                                               ISA 95 — Enterprise/Control                    that have gotten TU named one of 22
Examples of Cyber Attacks and System           Integration                                    National Centers of Excellence in
Failures                                          J. Unger                                    Information Assurance by the National
   Industry Specialist                                                                        Security Agency, and one of 6 universi-
                                               ISA POWID Activities
Developer: Joe Weiss                                                                          ties awarded a “Cyber Corps” program
                                                  Marjorie Widmeyer
                                                                                              by the National Science Foundation. TU
Company: EPRI                                  Future Directions Standards Integration        has also been awarded a DoD Cyber
                                               or Diversification?                            Corps program, being the only institu-
1:45 p.m. – 3:15 p.m.                             Bob Webb                                    tion to have both programs, and the
                                                                                              only one to offer three levels of NIST
                                               Developer: Robert Webb
Vendor Solutions to Maintain Real Time                                                        certification in security training. (The
Control and Network (Panel Session)            Company: Power Engineers                       Cyber Corps was established in 2001
                                                                                              modeled on ROTC, providing full
Honeywell Approaches to Cyber
                                                                                              tuition, room and board scholarships
Security Threats
                                                                                              for two years to students who will com-
   Honeywell                                    Tuesday, 22 October
                                                                                              plete a degree—BS, MS, or PhD—in two
Allen Bradley’s Approach to Security,          No Cyber Security Sessions                     years if they agree to work for the feder-
Access, and Connectivity                                                                      al government in a civilian position for
   Allen Bradley                                                                              two years upon graduation.)
                                                Wednesday, 23 October                             Shenoi is also an outstanding teacher,
Foxboro Approaches
                                               9:30 a.m. – 11:00 a.m.                         having been named the US Professor of
                                                                                              the Year in 1998 for doctoral level insti-
Technology Summary                             Network Applications (Paper Session)           tutions by the Carnegie Foundation’s
   All                                                                                        Council for the Advancement and
                                               Applying Fieldbus to US Power Plants
                                                                                              Support of Education.
Encryption                                       Daniel Calandrini

Intrusion Detection and Resolution             Asset Optimization: Start with Unit            Developer: Sujeet Shenoi
(Security Agents, etc.)                        Performance
                                                                                              Company: University of Tulsa
                                                  Steve Brennan
Processes and Procedures
                                               Developer: Karen Clay
Who Offers What S upport Today?
                                               Company: Siemens Westinghouse Power
A Vision of the Future — Remote
Method Security in a Distributed
Processing Architecture
   B.Taylor and S. Muftic

Developer: Robert Webb
Company: Power Engineers

                                                                        INSTRUMENTATION, SYSTEMS,
                                                                                AND AUTOMATION
                                                                       CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION
Page 10                                                                                                            Summer 2002

                             2002 Aerospace Industries Division Board Members
DIRECTOR                                 HISTORIAN                                   TECHNICAL AREA CHAIRMAN
  Mr. William A. Stange                    Richard T. Cusick                           Data Acquisition and Display
  US Air Force                             Johns Hopkins University                    Open
  AFRL/PRTC                                6108 Goodman Rd
  1950 Fifth St                            Laurel, MD 20707-2606                     BLAST, SHOCK AND VIBRATION
  Wright Patterson AFB, OH 45433           Phone: (240) 228-5567                       Dr. Patrick L. Walter
  Phone: (937) 255-2351                    Fax: (240) 228-5937                         TCU/Endevco Corp.
  Fax: (937) 255-2660                      E-mail:           PO Box 298640
  E-mail:                                                 Fort Worth, TX 76129
                                         HONORS AND AWARDS                             Phone: (817) 257-6318
DIRECTOR ELECT                             Mr. Robert E. Lindeman                      Fax: (817) 921-7704
  Mr. Patrick M. Russler                                                               E-mail:
  Senior Scientist                       MEMBERSHIP CHAIR
  Applied Research Associates              Mr. William T. Holt                       FLIGHT TEST
  811 Spring Forest Rd Ste 100             Aero Systems Engineers                      Mr. Gary G. Whitworth
  Raleigh, NC 27609                        914 Prestige Ct
  Phone: (919) 876-0018                    Newport News, VA 23602-9437               GROUND TEST
  Fax: (919) 878-3672                      Phone: (757) 865-6371 x201                  Mr. Louis R. Harris
  E-mail:                 Fax: (757) 856-6373                         Scanivalve Corp.
                                           E-mail:              17445 Montero Rd.
DIRECTOR EMERITUS, TREASURER,                                                          San Diego, CA 92128-2343
PROGRAM CHAIR                            MEMBERSHIP SERVICES                           Phone: (509) 891-9970
  Mr. Robert E. Lindeman                   Mr. Kenneth J. Slusser                      Fax: (858) 613-0417
  Sverdrup Technology, Inc.                Boeing Co.                                  E-mail:
  1099 Ave C                               7333 Jumilla Ave
  Arnold AFB, TN 37389-9013                Winnetka, CA 91306-3018                   49TH IIS GENERAL CHAIR
  Phone: (931) 454-6850                    Phone: (818) 586-5744                       Mr. Ronald Dieck
  Fax: (931) 454-6406                      Fax: (818) 586-5753                         Ron Dieck Associates, Inc.
  E-mail:       E-mail:     7 Dunbar Raod
                                                                                       Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33418-6816
SECRETARY                                SPECIAL PROJECTS                              Phone: (561) 627-1321
  Mr. Tim Hardin                           Mr. Bruce Land, III                         Fax: (561) 627-1321
  Endevco                                  Johns Hopkins University - APL              E-mail:
  30700 Rancho Viejo Rd.                   11100 Johns Hopkins Rd
  San Juan Capistrano, CA 92675-1789       Bldg 10                                   STAFF CONTACT
  Phone: (714) 493-8181                    Laurel, MD 20723                            Kelly Bishop
  Fax: (714) 661-7231                      Phone: (240) 228-6083                       ISA - The Instrumentation, Systems, and
  E-mail:                  E-mail:                  Automation Society
                                                                                       67 Alexander Dr.
EDUCATION CHAIR                          NEWSLETTER EDITOR                             Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
  Dr. Roger N. Blais                       Mr. Gary G. Whitworth                       Phone: (919) 990-9249
  Provost & Vice President Academic        Retired                                     Fax: (919) 549-8288
     Affairs                               11948 Simpson Rd                            E-mail:
  The University of Tulsa                  Clarksville, MD 21029
  Office of the Provost                    Phone: (301) 498-3590
  600 S. College Ave                       E-mail:
  Tulsa, OK 74104-3189
  Phone: (918) 631-2554                  STANDARDS AND PRACTICES
  Fax: (918) 631-2721                      Technical Papers Review
  E-mail:           Dr. Otto M. Friedrich, Jr.
                                           University of Texas
HISTORIAN                                  1125 Shady Ln.
  William Comer                            Austin, TX 78721-3024
  404 Hidden Spring Rd.                    Phone: (512) 385-3758
  Tullahoma, TN 37388                      E-mail:
  Phone: (931) 455-5791
Aerospace Industries Division Newsletter                                                                                        Page 11

                                             FLIGHT TESTING WITH TOYS
                                             Part 2 - Dealing with Torque and Power

                                                         By Allan Schanzle

DEATH, TAXES, AND CHANGE                     verse a circular pattern, as this avoids       angle, resulting in a possible stall where
    It has been stated many times that       extended chases and helps to minimize          there is essentially no forward motion,
there are two things that can be consid-     crashes with downwind obstacles. Let’s         and consequently, a complete absence of
ered as guaranteed…. death and taxes.        assume we want a left turning glide            airflow over the wing and tail surfaces.
If the past decade or so has shown any-      path, so we’ll tweak the rudder to give a      The resulting flight path can be almost
thing, a third sure-fire item can be         small offset to the left. Of course, if        anything, but is usually a disaster. The
added to these two….“change.” We’ve          there is a small warp in one of the            solution here is to point the direction of
all experienced this. We get older and       wings or if one wing is heavier than the       the propeller shaft down. So now we
can’t do the things we used to, or our       other, the model may want to glide to          require both right thrust and down
home that was previously out in the          the right, and trying to make it go left is    thrust. When we begin flight testing, we
sticks is now suburbia. Don’t even think     tantamount to avoiding taxes. That’s           need to determine just how much of each
about the tax laws.                          when you don’t fight Nature…. let the          thrust offset is necessary to produce the
    Change is inevitable in practically      little critter glide to the right. Now let’s   proper flight path. Needless to say, it is a
everything. In Part 1 of this series (the    attack the power flight path.                  trial and error scenario, and will vary
Winter 2002 issue), I discussed some of                                                     from model-to-model, even for the same
the problems that occur in the flight        TORQUE AND POWER                               model when different size rubber motors
testing of model airplanes that are              As we wind up the motor, the torque        are used. What we need is a simple tech-
allowed to fly wherever the wind takes       in the rubber increases. Therefore, when       nique that allows us to go to our flying
them. We call these “free-flight” models.    we launch the plane with a fully wound         field and, based upon what we observe
Many times, these are powered by rub-        motor, there is a relatively large amount      from flight-to-flight, make any combina-
ber bands. The “power” comes from            of torque (and power) fed to the pro-          tion of up, down, or sideways adjust-
tying a knot in a strand of rubber to        peller, and for a traditionally wound rub-     ments to the direction of the propeller
form a loop, inserting it into the fuse-     ber motor, this, in conjunction with the       shaft.
lage of the model and anchoring it near      rudder setting, tends to produce a serious         Before discussing the solution to the
the rear, attaching the other end of the     rolling and turning tendency to the left       torque problem, we need to understand
loop to a hook attached to the propeller,    (the prop is like a gyroscope) with a pos-     how the front end of a rubber-powered
and “winding it up.” How many turns          sible end result that the model spirals in     model is designed, and why. The “why”
go into a motor depends on many dif-         and rips off the left wing, which usually      is simple. Seventy years ago, young
ferent parameters: the size of the rubber,   takes a good portion of the fuselage with      teenage modelers discovered that it is
the length of the loop, the quality of the   it! As the motor unwinds, the torque           possible to put many more turns into a
rubber (it varies for different manufac-     becomes less, (as does the effect of the       given rubber motor if it is first
turers), and satisfying our ego to get the   rudder due to reduced power, and there-        stretched….. a lot. Like about 4 to 7
highest and longest flight possible,         fore, speed) and the rolling tendency          times the relaxed length of the loop.
which means winding until the rubber is      decreases. As we near the end of the           Needless to say, the more turns in the
one turn short of breaking, which is an      motor run, torque is all but non-existent.     rubber, the longer the motor will produce
unknown. Sometimes we have to use            As we enter the glide pattern, we hope         power, and all other things being equal,
more than one loop, which adds anoth-        the rudder offset is sufficient to produce     the longer the model will fly. Most model
er parameter to the problem. For the         the desired circular flight path and not go    competitions are based on endurance of
models I usually fly, which have             straight…. into the downwind trees or          flight, so the length of the motor run is
wingspans of 16 to 24 inches and weigh       building. Balsa wood and tissue paper          important. This dictates that the design
from about 3/4 of an ounce to 2 ounces,      just don’t win those battles. Torque and       of the model must allow the rubber to be
I put in 1000 to 2000 turns. You can’t       power change, and that’s the problem.          stretched before winding, and this in turn
do this with the rubber bands in your            So what can be done to compensate          requires a removable portion of the front
desk drawer because the rubber used for      for these two characteristics of rubber        of the plane we call “the nose section.” A
model airplanes is specially formulated      power? The usual treatment is to offset        typical front-end design is shown in
by companies that produce rubber for         the direction the propeller is pointing by     Figure 1
the core of golf balls.                      a few degrees. To compensate for the ten-          Now we’re ready to attack the
    So what has this got to do with          dency to go left, we point the propeller       adjustable thrust line problem. My solu-
change? Two things. The flight path          shaft a few degrees to the right. But that’s   tion to this dilemma is not original, and
under power and the corresponding            not the only problem with a fully wound        I’ve heard that it was developed back in
glide after the motor has unwound.           motor. The relatively large torque pro-        the late 1930’s. This is shown in Figure 2
    Let’s start with the glide path. The     duces an initial power burst that usually      (next page).
ideal situation is to have the model tra-    makes the model climb at a very steep                               continued on page 12
Page 12                                                                                                                         Summer 2002

                                                                                                  appropriate line of thrust is obtained
                                                                                                  and then tighten the screw. Let’s start
                                                                                                  with about 200 turns and launch the
                                                                                                  model, observing the flight pattern. If it
                                                                                                  turns sharply to the left, give it a few
                                                                                                  more degrees of right thrust. If it goes
                                                                                                  straight, remove some right thrust. As
                                                                                                  we increase the turns, torque and power
                                                                                                  will begin to produce a greater effect, so
                                                                                                  we again make adjustments to render
                                                                                                  the desired flight pattern. As we increase
                                                                                                  the turns even more, we will likely see
                                                    Figure 2.                                     the model begin to climb steeply and
                                                                                                  tend to stall. Here’s where we begin to
                                                    prop shaft as you feel appropriate.
                                                                                                  add down thrust while maintaining the
                                                    Tighten the screw and we have created a
                                                                                                  right thrust. It’s a trial and error
                                                    new guess to the thrust line. Pretty
                                                                                                  process, and we need to continue to
                                                    clever for a bunch of young boys back
                                                                                                  make small adjustments until the plane
                                                    in the 1930s. Let’s go to the flying field
                                                                                                  flies in the desired pattern under power.
                                                    and try to get our new model trimmed
                                                                                                  But how about the resulting glide after
                                                    for flight. As discussed in Part 1, initial
                                                                                                  the motor has expended all its turns?
                                                    flights are to demonstrate basic stability
                                                                                                  Do we need to make an adjustment to
                                                    characteristics and use only 15 to 50
                                                                                                  the rudder to get the proper glide circle?
Figure 1.                                           turns in the motor, so the thrust line
                                                                                                  If so, this means we need to go back to
                                                    direction will not be all that important.
                                                                                                  block one and start al over. Sorta like
   Loosen the screw and move the                    Experience dictates that as we increase
                                                                                                  x2 + y2 = 1
adjustable plate around. Due to the con-            the number of turns in the rubber, we
                                                                                                      Oh yes. Did you notice the “reverse
ical hole in the nose block and the fact            will require a few degrees of right
                                                                                                  S” bend at the back of the prop shaft?
that the prop shaft goes through the                thrust. So we loosen the screw and push
                                                                                                  That design is very important.
adjustable plate, you can redirect the              the adjustable plate around until the

            Take Forgetting Out                                                                            PDTIBWKHWH*

              of the Equation.                                                                        Pity poor Ted, an instrumentation
                                                                                                  engineer who let his technical skills
                                                                                                  atrophy to the point that his employer
                                                                                                  assigned him the task of selling sensors
                                                                                                  door to door. Ted rang the door bell at a
                                                                                                  house one day and a youngster about 13
                                                                                                  or 14 years of age answered the door
                                                                                                  holding a can of beer in one hand and a
                                                                                                  cigarette in the other. Somewhat sur-
                                                                                                  prised, Ted asked the young lad if his par-
                                                                                                  ents were at home. The teenager paused
                                                                                                  for a second, chugged down a big gulp of
                                                                                                  beer, took a long drag on the cigarette,
                                                                                                  flicked the cigarette ashes on the floor,
                                                                                                  and then finally responded “Do you real-
                                                                                                  ly think my parents are at home?”
                                                                                                      The moral to this story is stay active
                Forgot to renew your ISA        ■ No detailed forms to fill out.                  with ISA and the annual International
                membership? Never forget again, ■ No break in your InTech                         Instrumentation Symposium, so you will
                sign up for Automatic Membership      subscription.
                Renewals and we’ll renew your
                                                                                                  always know more about advanced
                                                   ■ Take advantage of this                       instrumentation systems than how to
                membership automatically.
                                                     convenient benefit today.
                                                                                                  sell them door to door.
                                                                                                      (* Peps Didn’t Tell It But We Know
     Choose the Automatic Renewal Option on the enrollment or renewal form                        He Would Have)
                  at or call ISA at (919) 549-8411.
Aerospace Industries Division Newsletter                                                                                                 Page 13

                                                       th      International Instrumentation
                                                               4-8 May 2003 • Orlando, FL
                                                               Adam’s Mark Hotel

      Call for Papers
                                                            The 49th International Instrumentation Symposium will convene in Orlando, FL,
                                                            on 4-9 May 2003. This annual symposium is sponsored jointly by the ISA Aerospace
                                                            Industries and Test Measurement Divisions. This symposium has become recognized
                                                            as the outstanding forum for discussion of new and innovative instrumentation
                                                            techniques, development and applications. Prospective authors are invited to submit
                                                            papers in the following areas:
                                                            Measurements/Sensors                        Data Systems
              20                                  03        ✔ Pressure                                  ✔ Data Acquisition Processing
                               49                           ✔ Flow                                      ✔ Real Time Systems
                         T M EA S U R E M E N T

                                                            ✔ Temperature                               ✔ Telemetry Systems
                                                            ✔ Force/Vibration/Strain                    ✔ Remote Systems
            Questions?                                      ✔ Heat Flux                                 ✔ Computer Applications
         Contact Ron Dieck                                  ✔ Measurement Uncertainty                   ✔ Human Engineering
      49th General Chairman                                 ✔ Metrology and Calibration                 ✔ Data System Management
          (561) 627-1321                                    ✔ Blast and Shock                                                                                 Advanced Systems/
                                                            Instrumentation Systems                       Sensor Technology
                                                            ✔ Flight Test and Avionics                  ✔ Electro Optical Systems
                                                            ✔ Wind Tunnel                               ✔ Fiber Optic Sensors and Systems
     Conference contact:                                    ✔ Aerospace                                 ✔ Photonics
                                                            ✔ Energy                                    ✔ NDT & Acoustic Test Equipment
          Richard Arriola
     ISA Technical Conference                               ✔ Transportation                            ✔ Automatic Test Equipment
     Programs and Publications                              ✔ Factory Automation                        ✔ Modeling Techniques
          (919) 990-9303                                    ✔ Special Test Facilities                   ✔ Laser Systems
                                  ✔ Re-entry Vehicles/Systems                 ✔ Micro Electro Mech Systems (MEMS)
                                                            ✔ Expert Systems
                                                            ✔ Safety

                                                                                                                Deadline Dates:
      Guidelines for Submission:                                                                                Abstracts Due:
                                                                                                                31 October 2002
      • Intent to Present Application must be submitted electronically and in English by
        31 October 2002.                                                                                        Paper Review Drafts Due:
      • Must include a 200-500 word abstract.                                                                   10 December 2002

      • Papers should be no longer than 10 pages, including figures and illustrations.                          Final Papers Due:
                                                                                                                8 February 2003
      • Papers accepted for publication will require copyright transfer to ISA.
      The lead author is the main contact. Submit your electronic Intent to Present
      Application with abstract online at                                                   Registration Policy:
                                                                                                                All participants must pay
                                                                                                                registration fees.
Page 14                                                                                              Summer 2002

          Analog-to-Digital Signal Conversion Using Optoelectronic

              Michael J. Hayduk, Rebecca J. Bussjager, Steven T. Johns and Cheryl Gerhardstein
                                            Sensors Directorate
                                      Air Force Research Laboratory
                                          Rome, NY 13441-4515

                                                 Eric Donkor
                              Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
                                          University of Connecticut
                                           Storrs, CT 06269-2157


    Analog-to-digital converters, photonics, mode-locking, saturable absorbers


    Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) have wide spread application in both commercial and military
    systems. These systems cover a wide range of continuous-time analog signals including radar,
    electronic warfare, communications, and medical imaging. In all of these systems the analog signal
    must be converted into a discrete-time digital signal which is then processed using digital signal
    processing techniques. The development of ADCs has not kept pace with the rapid advancements of
    digital processors. For example it has recently been shown that it takes approximately eight years for
    each improvement of 1.5 bits of digital resolution. There has been much recent interest in the use of
    photonics to aid in the signal conversion process. This paper will present the development of two
    unique photonic ADC architectures. One system uses an array of passive photonic semiconductor
    saturable absorbers to convert the signal. The other system that will be presented within this paper uses
    a unique optoelectronic sampling and quantizing circuit to convert the analog signal at sampling speeds
    up to tens of gigahertz.


    The rapid advancement in digital signal processing architectures has led to an increased interest in the
    development of high resolution and wide bandwidth ADCs that can directly digitize high-frequency
Aerospace Industries Division Newsletter                                                                                          Page 15

     analog signals. The development of electronic ADCs has not kept pace with the advancement of this
     digital processing technology. As shown in Figure 1 using the data compiled by Walden, roughly eight
     years is required for 1.5 bits of increased resolution [1]. However, as the sampling rate of the ADC is
     doubled there is a loss of one bit of resolution. The practical limitations of electronic ADC development
     are due to three common noise sources. Thermal noise appears to limit ADC operation below 2 MS/s.
     This is the result of voltage fluctuations in any resistive circuit element at a given temperature.
     Sampling time fluctuations or aperture uncertainty limits ADC operation between 2 MS/s to 4 GS/s.
     Finally, comparator ambiguity appears to limit ADC operation as the sampling speed is pushed past 4
     GS/s. This is a result of the finite speed with which the ADC electronic circuitry can respond to small
     changes in voltage.


                     20                                                     A p e rtu re
                     18                                                                             A m b ig u it y


                     12                                                                                  T h e rm a l


                       6                            2
                                                    0 2


                                4               5              6        7              8        9             10             11
                           10              10             10       10             10       10            10             10

     Figure 1. Electronic ADC evolution showing the limiting factors of thermal noise, aperture jitter and
     comparator ambiguity [1].

     The limitations in electronic ADC development have led to an increased interest in using novel
     optoelectronic techniques to overcome these barriers [2,3,4]. The achievement of narrow sampling
     pulsewidths at high sampling rates with low jitter by photonic systems will allow for a simultaneous
     increase in both the conversion speed and accuracy of ADCs. The increase in ADC performance will
     also lead to a decrease in the complexity of receiver systems. A typical receiver is currently limited by
     the speed of the ADC. Single or multiple down conversion stages are often required to convert the
     frequency of the received analog signal into a frequency that can be processed by the ADC. The down
     conversion process requires many analog components including local oscillators, mixers and filters.
Page 16                                                                                                 Summer 2002

   Improved ADC performance will eliminate these components which often consume large amounts of
   power and are typically unreliable. However, the revolutionary advancement of ADC performance
   through the use of photonics requires the development of compact, low noise and low power systems.
   Two unique photonic ADC architectures that are currently under development will be presented within
   this paper.

   A basic photonic ADC module consists of a short pulse sampling source, an electro-optic modulator and
   a quantizer. The sampling source is a mode-locked laser producing pulses on the order of a picosecond
   at a repetition rate equal to the desired sampling speed of the ADC. The sampling of the analog RF
   electronic signal by the optical pulse train is done using an electro-optic (E-O) modulator. In the final
   portion of the system, a quantizer converts the analog signal into digital format. Depending upon the
   system architecture the quantization function can take place either in the optical domain or in the
   electronic domain. The stability of the mode-locked laser is critical in achieving a large number of bits
   at a high sampling rate. Both amplitude and timing fluctuations will serve to reduce the number of
   resolvable bits. The linearity or dynamic range of the E-O modulator is also a key concern in achieving
   a large number of bits.

   A critical issue in the development of photonic ADC modules is the ability to integrate the entire system
   into a small physical footprint. An ideal photonic ADC system will be integrated onto a single chip
   using integrated opto-electronic techniques allowing for insertion into numerous platforms. Figure 2
   shows the block diagram of one such photonic ADC system that can potentially meet these
   requirements. The flash photonic ADC architecture consists of a series of semiconductor saturable
   absorbers whose transmission is a function of incident optical intensity. As in electronic flash ADC
   architectures, 2N–1 saturable absorbers are required, where N is the number of desired bits of resolution
   [5]. For example a 4-bit system requires, 24–1 or 15 saturable absorbers. The optical properties of each
   saturable absorber channel is tailored so that the non-linear intensity is monotonically scaled over the
   entire range of channels. As described above the front end of this system consists of a mode-locked
   laser and an E-O modulator which samples the electronic RF signal. The modulated analog signal is
   then passed in parallel to the series of semiconductor light absorbing channels. Supposing a sampled
   optical pulse of very low intensity, corresponding to a small voltage, is incident upon all of the saturable
   absorption channels, the signal will be absorbed by the first channel in the array and also by all of the
   other absorbers except for the Nth absorber in the array. This structure has the lowest absorbance and
   will pass the weakest signal. A detector following this absorber is then turned “on” by the transmitted
   optical signal. All of the other detectors remain “off” because the optical signal did not pass through
   these light absorption channels. The corresponding digital word representation of the converted analog
   signal then corresponds to a certain predefined bit pattern output from the optical detectors. Similarly,
   suppose a signal with a slightly larger intensity, corresponding to a larger voltage, is incident upon the
   series of the saturable absorption channels. The signal is still absorbed by the upper light absorption
   channels but then it gets passed by remaining light absorption channels, turning on the corresponding
   detectors. All of the ‘off’ detectors are considered to have a value of ‘0’ and the ‘on’ detectors are
   considered to have a value of ‘1’. Optical delay lines are also required following the saturable absorbers
   to ensure that the optical signal in all of the light channels reaches the detectors at the same instant in
   time. Comparing the detector output to a reference voltage forms a true electronic digital signal. The
Aerospace Industries Division Newsletter                                                                  Page 17

    output of the comparator is then sent to digital memory for storage and then on for further digital
                                                                     Light is fully transmitted
                                           Saturable Absorber
                                                                     or absorbed (on or off)
                                                T                                                    D
                                                                                          Signal      I
                  Modulated Optical                             Intensity
                    Pulse Train
                                                T                                                    L

                                                                Intensity                            M
             From RF/Optical Sampler                                                                 O


                                                      Clock From
                                                    Mode-locked Laser

    Figure 2. Block diagram of semiconductor saturable absorber photonic ADC architecture.

    The tailoring of the optical properties of the saturable absorbers to either turn ‘on’ or remain ‘off’ is
    highly dependent upon the material properties of the semiconductor. InGaAs was chosen as the
    saturable absorber material due to its optical properties around 1550 nm. This operating regime
    coincides with a primary transmission window of optical fiber and allows the use of commercially
    available devices such as high-speed detectors. The optical properties of primary interest include the
    nonlinear transmission or saturation intensity and the recovery or lifetime of the carriers within the
    InGaAs. The nonlinear transmission of a series of InGaAs saturable absorbers was characterized. The
    incident intensity upon the samples was varied using a rotating quarter waveplate in conjunction with a
    polarizer. A continuous-wave chromium-doped:YAG laser operating at 1500 nm was used as the
    excitation source. A beamsplitter prior to the sample was used to calibrate the intensity incident upon
    the sample. A microscope objective focused the light onto the sample. Another objective then collected
    and collimated the transmitted light which was then sent to a detector. The results of the nonlinear
    transmission experiment for three different samples is shown in Figure 3. The values of the linear
    portion of the transmission were all normalized to a value of 1 to allow for easier comparison between
    the different samples. All three samples have similar saturation intensity values that occur at
    approximately 10 kW/cm2. The samples labeled 2797 and 1437 consist of InGaAs/InAlAs multiple
    quantum wells (MQWs) while sample 2796 is bulk InGaAs grown lattice matched on semi-insulating
Page 18                                                                                              Summer 2002

                   1 5

                   1 4                          2797
                                                14 7


                   1 2

                   1 1

                   1 0
                            1                           10                          100

   Figure 3. Nonlinear transmittance of three samples of InGaAs grown lattice matched on InP. The
   transmittance values of all three samples are normalized to a value of one.

   The lifetimes or carrier dynamics of the InGaAs was characterized using a standard pump / probe
   technique. The chromium doped:YAG laser was operated in a mode-locked fashion producing 130 fs
   pulses at 1500 nm. The mode-locked pulses were split into orthogonal polarizations using a polarization
   dependent beamsplitter. The pump beam is set to be approximately 100 times stronger than the probe
   beam so that only the pump beam induces transmission changes within the sample. The probe beam was
   delayed in time with respect to the pump beam using a motion controlled stage. The beams are then
   spatially recombined and focused onto the sample. A Glan-Thompson polarizer is inserted following
   the sample to ensure that only the probe beam reaches the detector. The probe beam monitors the pump-
   induced change in transmission in the InGaAs as a function of time. The lifetime of the carriers is then
   determined from the exponential decay in transmission. The results of the pump / probe experiment for
   a MQW InGaAs/InAlAs sample grown at low temperature are shown in Figure 4. The exponential fit of
   the decay indicates a carrier lifetime of 18 ps. The sample fully recovers in approximately 75 ps
   indicating that this absorber could be used at speeds up to 1/75 ps or 13 GHz. We are currently
   continuing to explore the fundamental material parameters of the InGaAs to determine the correlation
   between the layer thickness, material lifetime and alloy composition upon the saturation intensity of the
   material. A thorough understanding of these material properties is required in order to fabricate a
   photonic ADC that meets both the sampling speed and resolution requirements of the desired

   The second photonic ADC architecture that is being explored uses a pair of photodiodes triggered by
   mode-locked optical pulses placed back to back in series to sample the electronic RF analog signal. This
   RF sampling architecture is shown in Figure 5. The RF analog signal is split in parallel to N different
   channels each of which has its own sampling circuit. Figure 5 illustrates the use of 8
Aerospace Industries Division Newsletter                                                               Page 19

                                0 006

                                0 005

                                0 004

                                0 00

                                0 002

                                0 001

                                0 000
                                               100     0    100   200               00        400

     Figure 4. Measured 18 ps recovery of low temperature grown InGaAs / InAlAs MQW sample.

                                                       Ts           pulses

                                                                  Sam pled output
                                       Optical delay
                                                                  1 to quantizer

                                                                  Sam pled
                                                                  output 2 to

                                                                  Sam pled output
                                                                  3 to quantizer

                                           RF                     Sam pled output 8 to
                                           input                  Quantizer.

     Figure 5. Schematic representation of 8 channel RF sampling using mode-locked laser pulses to trigger
     the sampling circuit.
Page 20                                                                                             Summer 2002

    different channels. The optical pulses that trigger each of the N channels are delayed with respect to
    each other so that the photodiodes for each of the channels turn on at different times. The photodiodes
    are changed from a high impedance state to a low impedance state only when turned on by the optical
    pulses. This allows the RF signal to be sampled across the load resistor when the diodes are turned on.
    In contrast, there is no signal across the load when the diodes are in the high impedance state. The
    successive time delays between the N channels are set so that the RF signal is sampled N times per
    cycle. The results of 5 GS/s sampling of a 2 GHz RF signal are shown in Figure 6.

    Figure 6. Superposition of 5 GS/s sampling of 2 GHz RF input signal.

    A novel quantization scheme has also been designed to be used in conjunction with this RF sampling
    circuit. The quantizer uses the RF sampled signal to drive an RC circuit which is then fed into an
    electronic comparator. The exponential decay of the RF signal through the RC circuit is transformed by
    the comparator into a pulse whose width is directly proportional to the amplitude of the sampled RF
    signal. The electronic pulse in turn drives an E-O modulator that is optically fed by a stream of mode-
    locked pulses. The number of pulses that pass through the modulator depends upon the width of the
    electronic pulse which in turn depends upon the amplitude of the RF signal. The number of pulses can
    then by used to form a corresponding digital code. Each of the N channels requires a separate
    quantizing circuit.

    The use of photonics for ultrafast sampling and signal processing can greatly advance the development
    of ADCs. Higher sampling speeds and greatly improved resolution will lead to the direct digitization of
Aerospace Industries Division Newsletter                                                                 Page 21

    RF signals eliminating the need for frequency down conversion techniques. However, compact,
    integrated and low power photonic ADC architectures must first be developed in order to make these
    advanced converters practical. This paper has presented the development of two unique photonic ADC
    architectures. The first approach utilizes semiconductor light absorbing channels to all-optically
    quantize a signal. Time-resolved results presented within this paper indicate that operating speeds well
    past 10 GS/s are possible using low temperature grown InGaAs. A second photonic ADC architecture
    has also been presented which utilizes a unique sampling circuit triggered by optical pulses from a
    mode-locked laser. Sampled data at 5 GS/s using this technique was presented. The sampling speed of
    this architecture appears to only be limited by the small signal response of the photodiodes.

    [1] R. H. Walden “Analog-to-Digital Converter Survey and Analysis”, IEEE J. on Select. Areas in
    Commun., 17, 539 (1999).

    [2] A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, and B. Jalali, “Nondispersive wavelength-division
    sampling”, Opt. Lett. 24, 738 (1999).

    [3] T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a Time- and Wavelength-Interleaved
    Photonic Sampler for Analog-Digital Conversion”, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., 11, 1168 (1999).

    [4] J. C. Twichell, P. W. Juodawlkis, J. L. Wasserman, R. C. Williamson, and G. E. Betts, “Extending
    the performance of optically sampled time-demultiplexed analog-to-digital converters”, in Digest of
    Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), 624 (2000).

    [5] D. F. Hoeschele, Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion Techniques, (John Wiley and
    Sons, New York, 1994).
Page 22                                                                                                  Summer 2002

                                   Snapshots to Enjoy From The 48th IIS!

Registration started slowly…                            …but picked up quickly

Staff leadership looked relaxed…                        ….but stayed busy

The backdrop for the meeting was gorgeous               ….and everyone turned out for the reception on
                                                        the water
Aerospace Industries Division Newsletter                                                                                          Page 23

Part of the luncheon attendees…….                                        ….and Speaker, Jeff Krinsky accepting a token of apprecia-
                                                                         tion from ISA President, Pino Zani

As usual, the attendance drawing was a bit hit                           Past Directors, Hank Hegner, Ron Dieck and Bill Comer
                                                                         start planning the 49th IIS in Orlando

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