Department of Mechanical Engineering HKU by jennyyingdi


									    MECH1010 – Engineer in Society

Sustainable Built Environment
                Dr. Sam C M Hui
      Department of Mechanical Engineering
          The University of Hong Kong
                                             Mar 2008
Built Environment

• Built environment is everything that has been
  made by humans to modify the spaces in
  which we live and work
  • Ranges from the large-scale civic surroundings to
    the personal places
  • May be residential, commercial, industrial,
    schools, parks, roads and highways
  • Include architectural design, building engineering,
    interior design, landscape design, town planning
    and urban design
"We shape our buildings and
 thereafter they shape us."
    (Winston Churchill)
Built Environment

• Scope of the built environment
  • Economy
  • Environment
  • Social
• Possible impacts, such as on
  •   Quality of life, economic goals
  •   Climate, bio-sphere, global resources
  •   Air quality, water and ground pollution
  •   Land use, waste, local resources
Built Environment

• Our world today has limited resources
• Excessive use of materials is not only wasteful
  of natural products, but also costs money
• There is a need to promote “sustainable
  development” in our society/planet
• Two key questions to ask ourselves:
  • What is sustainable development?
  • How to make the built environment sustainable?
Built Environment

• The Brundtland Report (Our Common Future)
  • “S.D. is development which meets the needs of
    the present without compromising the ability of
    future generation to meet their own needs.” –
    World Commission on Environment and
• Two important concepts
  • Needs – maintain an acceptable life standard
  • Limits – within the carrying capacity of supporting
    ecosystems and resource base
Human needs and

Supply   Waste

                                         Ecological footprint
 Supporting                              (hectares/person) *:
 ecosystems and                          - world average = 2.3
 resource base                           - USA = 10.3
                                         - Hong Kong = 6.0
                                         - China = 1.2
                                         [* Source: Friends of the
                                         Earth (HK)]

         Carrying capacity and ecological footprint
Built Environment

• One day in HK (popul. = 6.97 million) [1999]
  • Fresh water consumption = 358 litre/person
  • Electricity consumption = 13.9 kWh/person
  • Food consumption:
     •   Vegetables 1,100 tonnes; fruits 1,800 tonnes
     •   Live pigs 6,200 heads; live cattle 170 heads
     •   Live poultry 190 tonnes; fresh eggs 200 tonnes
     •   Freshwater fish 120 tonnes; marine fish 170 tonnes
  • Solid waste production = 18,040 tonnes
Sustain-able Future?
Built Environment

• How to make the built environment
  • Achieve a balance among economy, environment
    and social
  • Promote sustainable design and operation of
    buildings which consider
     • Economy and efficiency of resources
     • Life cycle design
     • Human well-being
Environmental Sustainability
Ecosystem integrity
Carrying capacity
Biodiversity                        Social Sustainability
                                         Cultural Identity
                        Environment        Empowerment
Economic          Economy           Society
Productivity                        Human Well Being
                 Three dimensions of sustainability
      Energy issues                     Water conservation
Efficiency    Renewable                Reduce      Recycle

Designers                   Design                     Pre-Building

Contractors              Construction
Users             Operation & maintenance

                     Demolition/Disposal               Phase

Materials and systems                   Waste management
Reduce         Select                  Recycle     Reuse

         Building life cycle and sustainable construction
                         - site selection
                         - urban design
                         - landscape planning

- CO2 emissions                                  - energy performance
- acid rain                                      - renewable energy
- ozone depletion                                - water conservation
- rainforest depletion    Environmental
                            Criteria &           - material selection
- environmental policy       Factors             - recycling of materials
- transport strategy                             - waste management
- building maintenance                           - disposal & reuse

                         - air quality
                         - thermal comfort
                         - lighting & noise
                         - hazardous materials
      Upstream                                    Downstream

Bldg. materials                                   Used materials

Energy/fuels                                      Combustion by-
Fresh water                                       Waste water

Consumer goods                                    Garbage

Solar radiation                                   Heat
Wind                                              Polluted air
Rain                                              Ground water

         Resource and material flow in the building ecosystem
Avoid “sick building syndromes” by maintaining
            good indoor air quality
              What is it?

Ans.: A sustainable washing machine
(Benefits: save energy and water, reuse
materials, promote human exercises)
Built Environment

• Video presentation:
  • A democratic building (17 min.) [AV
    725.1209421 D3]
     • The Greater London Authority's headquarters (GLA
     • To study the aims, design and implementation of an
       environmentally considered building
     • Contributors:
        •   Richard Banks, CIT Group (the client)
        •   David Kong, architect with Foster and Partners
        •   Sara McGowan, building services engineers with Ove Arup
        •   Macolm Turpin, structural engineer with Ove Arup
                               London City Hall GLA Building

Built Environment

• Role Model – Mechanical Building Services
  Engineer: Sara McGowan
  • Young Women Engineer of the Year 2003, UK
  • Uses science & art to design modern buildings
  • Further info:
     •   Sara McGowan: Case Study (PDF)
     •   A day in the life... Sara McGowan
     •   Snapshots - Sara McGowan, Engineer
     •   Video online (from Vega Science Trust) (14 minutes)
Be a creative and ‘green’ engineer! THANK YOU

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