COGNITION

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					COGNITION
LEARNING
                 Animals
• Instinct- innate behavior
• fixed action pattern- specific behavior
• Reflex-- simple
• Classical conditioning
• Operant conditioning
• Social Learning
                  Learn
• Experience—
• Associative learning– link 2 events
• Conditioning- learning
        Classical Conditioning
•   Pavlov
•   “learned” responses
•   Unconditioned=unlearned
•   Conditioned = learned
•   UCS= unconditioned stimulus
•   UCR= unconditioned response
•   Neutral stimulus= no response
•   CS= learned stimulus
•   CR= learned response
       Pavlov’s Dog- acquisition
•   UCS                      UCR
•   (food)                  (saliva)
•   NS (bell)
•   NS + UCS = UCR
•   (bell)  (food) (saliva)

• CS--------------CR (learned)
• (bell)          (saliva)
•
• Generalization--- apply to similar
• Discrimination– tell difference
          Extinguish=unlearn
• CS--------            CR
• (bell + no UCS)       saliva

• Bell--------------------- no response

• Spontaneous recovery----return
Little Albert
                GARCIA
• Biological predisposition
• Garcia- taste aversion
       12 Operant conditioning
•   “operate” (action)
•   Associative- link
•    behavior + consequence
•   Classical- “automatic”
               Shaping
• Reward, step by step
• Successive approximations
 Law of effect- Thorndike
rewarded behavior recurs
             B.F. Skinner
• “operant conditioning”
• Behavior controlled by reward &
  punishment
• Environment key
• Free will?
   Skinner box-pidgeons/rats
• reward/punishment guides (shapes)
  behavior
           Reinforcement
• “reward”
• Increases frequency behavior
             Punishment
• Decreases frequency of behavior
• “bad thing”
•   Positive + (give)
•   Negative – (remove)
•   Positive reinforcer-
•   Give + increase frequency behavior
      Negative reinforcement
• Remove
• (aversive)
• Increase behavior
               Punishment
•   Positive punishment- decreases behavior
•   (give)
•   Ex. Spanking
•   Negative punishment– decreases behavior
•   (remove)
•   Ex. Time-out
    Reinforcement schedules
• timing
     Continuous reinforcement
• Reinforce every time
• Easy to extinguish
• Example:
 Partial / Intermittent reinforcement
• Inconsistent reward
• Hard to extinguish
                 Schedules
•   Fixed ratio– predictable, #
•   Variable ratio– unpredictable, #
•   Variable interval-
•   Checking college apps
•   Positive– give
•   Negative– remove
•   Positive reinforcement– increases behavior
•   (give)
•   Ex. Grades
•   Negative reinforcement— increases behavior
•   (remove)
•   Ex. Aspirin
      Intrinsic Reinforcement
• Intrinsic motivation—
• Reward from “inside”

• Extrinsic—
• Reward from “outside”

• Good: boosts feeling competence
13 Observational Learning
        Learned Helplessness
•   No reinforcement
•   Give up…decrease behavior…
•   Dog/shock
•   UCLA football?
        Observational Learning
•   “Social” learn
•   Bandura
•   Modeling– parents
•   Bobo doll- violence
•   TV?
•COGNITION
• Memory
• Thought &
• Language
     COGNITION (‘thinking”)
• Memory processng
• Thoughts
• Language
•Memory
      Information processing
• Encoding– into
• Storage– retain
• Retrieval– access
• Sensory– senses
• Short-term Memory (STM)
• Long Term memory (LTM)
• Working memory (STM & LTM)
• Implicit memory--- “unaware”, effortless
• Explicit memory--- “aware”, efortful
• Effortless or effortful?
• Citamotua emoceb nac gnissecorp luftroffE
                 Rehearsal
•   Conscious repetition (studying)
•   explicit
•   Overlearning– time spent
•   STM & working memory
•   Spacing effect (spaced practice)– time
    increases rehearsal, retain
          Serial Position effect
•   List
•   Primacy– 1st
•   Recency– last
•   Forget---middle of list
Iconic memory- brief photographic
            image
       Encoding—into brain
• Visual— sight
• Acoustic – sound
• Semantic– meaning ….most effective
  (make sense of information)
                     Biology
• Long-term potentiation—neurons fire, memory “path”
• Emotion= stronger memory
• Hippocampus—memory brain structure
• JIH BAZ FUB YOX SUJ XIR DAX LEQ
  VUM PID KEL WAV TUV ZOF GEK HIW
                Memories
•   Flashbulb---vivid (emotion)
•   Episodic—from YOUR life
•   Semantic--- information; trivia,
•   Procedural---doing something…tying
    shoes
                  Retrieval
•   Recall— no cues
•   Recognize– cues
•   Relearning– easier
•   Cues--- “tags”, identify a memory
           Improve memory
•   Overlearn
•   Actively rehearse
•   Mneumonics- memory tricks
•   Make meaningful
             Mneumonics
• Memory tricks
• Pegword
• Method of loci
            metacognition
• Thinking about thinking
                Retrieval
• Interference- “block”
• Amnesia--- loss
• Retroactive interference– “ backward
  acting”
•                         block
• Proactive interference– forward acting
•                           block
               Amnesia
• Amnesia – “loss”
• Retrograde amnesia– loss of old memory
•                      (lose “retro”)
• Antereograde amnesia– loss of new
•                   (lose After Accident)
       Memory construction
• Memory “built”, a model
• Misiniformation effect– incorporate wrong
  info
            Memory types
• Episodic– from your life
• Semantic– knowledge
• Procedural– “doing”; ex. Tying shoes
      Information Processing
• Encoding- in
• Storage-
• Retrieval- remember
•THOUGHT &
•LANGUAGE
THOUGHT
• Schema– blueprint of an idea
               Concepts
• Mental grouping
• Prototype– best example, most typical
  example
          Solving Problems
• Algorithm– exact, step by step
• Heuristic– short-cut
  Problems to problem solving
• Confirmation bias– find what you want
• Functional fixedness– 1 use for object
• Fixation– “stuck” in POV
       DECISION “ISSUES”
• Heuristic problems
• Overconfidence
      HEURISTICS-decisions
• Availability heuristic– based on drama, not
  truth
• Ex. Drive or fly
• Representative heuristic– base on
  prototype (stereotype)
• Anchoring heuristic– base on original POV
• Overconfidence--Overestimate self

• Framing– how issue is presented
• 95% effective vs 5% failure
          Language Structure
•   Phonemes– smallest unit sound
•   Morpheme-- smallest unit meaning
•   Semantics– defines meaning
•   Grammar– rules (syntax)
•   Boys word
•   S     morpheme
•   “z”   phoneme (sound of letter s in boys)
•   Boys play (sentence uses grammar)
•   Grammar key…organizes
        Learning Language
• Babbling- universal
• Skinner: reinforcement (reward)
               Chompsky
• innate grammar+ environment
• Overgeneralized rule--- “I go-ed”
• LAD—language acquisition device,
  grammar “switch”
• Critical period– ready for language,
  exposed to it
• Surface structure—sound
• Deep structure– meaning
• “the shooting of the psychologist was
  terrible”
•INTELLIGENCE &
•TESTING
                 What is it?
•   “general (g)” – underlies all?
•   Factor analysis– clusters (correlations)
•   Ex . Vocab + reading
•   Convergent thinking– 1 answer
•   Divergent answer– multiple answers
    #2 Assessing Intelligence
• Measure it?
     Creativity-novel, valuable
• Imaginative thinking– --see “new” way
• Intrinsic motivate: interest in the work
                 Binet
• School achievement –1ST TEST; French
  education test
• Age
• Norms- average scores
• “mental age”– ability level
           Stanford-Binet
• Updated
• New norms

• IQ= mental age X 100
•      chonological age
                   Mean: 100
• Standard deviation: 15
68%: 85-115
95%: 70-130
               Heritibility
• Aptitude– future (SAT)
• Achievement – past content; (AP test)
•
           Standardized Test
•   Uniform (standardized) conditions
•   Norm referenced
•   “norms”– comparison group (pre-tested)
•   Normal curve– results
IQ & genetics: ID twins separated
         correlate IQs
•   Reliable– “repeatable”, consistent
•    high correlation
•   Valid– measures what it supposed to
•   “Content validity”– measures content
•   Predictive validity- measures future (SAT)
•   +.50
                 Labeling
•   Self-fulfilling prophecy—
•   Belief (label)
•   Action
•   Creates reality
•   Expectation—shapes reality
•Motivation
•Emotion
MOTIVATION
• Instinct– innate
• Humans- learn
                 Motivation
•   Instinct
•   Fixed action pattern
•   Maturation---biological development
•   Learning--- environental factors
                Theories
•   Instinct theory
•   Drive reduction theory
•   Homeostasis-
•   Ex. Hunger--- hypothalamus,
•   Arousal theory-
•   Optimal
                 Gender
•   Roles-
•   Androgeny– masculine & feminine
•   Stereotype—
•   Gender typing….roles
          Drive reduction theory
• need– biology
• Drive- psychological
• Behavior– reduce drive
                Homeostasis
• “stay the same”
                Arousal theory
• Increase arousal;
• “Optimal” arousal--
           Maslow’s heirarchy
•   Self-actualized
•   Respect
•   Belonging
•   Safety
•   Food; physio
                           Hunger
•   Drive-
•   Homeostasis
•   Glucose drops
•   Lateral hypothalamus– “eat switch”
•   Eat--- blood sugar rises
•   Ventromedial hypothalamus- stop eat
• Set point– natural weight
• Metabolism– burns calories
       Culture– taste; body image

• Anorexia nervosa
• Distorted self-image
      Achievement Motivation
• High achievers– seek excellence
• Do more, similar ability
• Discipline over talent
• Incentive motivation---pulled by incentives
  or rewards
                     Goals
•   Long term goal-
•   Short term goals– challenging
•                       makeable
•   Proactive, dedicated
•   Top violinists--- 10,000 hours practice
• Intrinsic motivation- best; “inside”
• Extrinsic-- external rewards
8. “EMOTION”
                   Emotion
•   James-Lange theory
•   From body… “just my Liver”
•   Cannon-Bard theory
•   --simultaneous…..brain & body
•   “cannon ball in pool”
•   Singer Schacter (or 2-factor theory)
•   ----appraise or label the experience
•   James –Lange theory—
•   Stimulus---
•   Body= emotion
•   “just my liver”
• Autonomic nervous system
• “fight or flight”
            Cannon-Bard
• Cannon ball in pool
• “simultaneous”
              Singer - Schactor
• “two factor”
• “cognitive label”
• label=emotion
• Smile- universal
• Anger-
         Mood contagious
• Imitate increase empathy
• Empathy- relate experience
                Stress
• Hans Seyle
• G.A.S. (general adapataion syndrome)
• A.R.E. Alarm (stress)
•        Resistence (fight)
•        Exhaution (sick)
•DEVELOPMENT
• Reflex– innate, simple
• Maturation– biological process, “height”
                 Piaget
• Cognitive– “thought”
• Stages, development
                Schema
• “framework”, blueprint– of idea
• “build” idea
              Assimilation
• “fits” in schema
           Accomodation
• Does not “fit” schema
• Make “new” schema, new concept
New concept- “moose”
              Sensorimotor
•   0-1
•   Sense, move
•   “out of sight, out of mind”
•   Object permanence– 8 months
•   Stranger anxiety– aware “not Mom”
            Preoperational stage

•   “preschool” , 2-6
•   “intuition”, not logic
•   Theory of mind–
•   infer others feelings
no conservation
•   egocentrism-
•   “self” focused
•   Irreversibility-
•   See other side
           Concrete Operational

• Elementary school 7-11ish
• Gain Basic logic
• Conservation gained
         Formal Operational
• 12ish----adult
• Full logic. Abstract thought
          10 “Attachment”
• Thurs test…
          Attachment- “bond”
• Secure– dependable
• Insecure- undependable
• Ambivalent– so so
                         Harlow
• Comfort over food
• Mothering “learned”?
                  Parenting

•   Test: Friday “Developmental”
•   Authoritarian– strict
•   Permissive– not strict
•   Authoritative– strict, explains
•   “happy” kids--- sense of control
•   Cultural bias?--
                Studies
• Longitudinal– same people , over time
• Cross sectional- same time, various ages
                        Erikson
•   Psychosocial stages
•   Crisis
•   Trust vs. mistrust (infants)
•   Autonomy (independence) vs. shame (toddler)
•   Industry (competent) vs. inferiority (elementary school)
•   Identity (who am I?) vs. role confusion (teenagers)
•   Intimacy vs. isolation 20s
•   Generativity (give back) vs. stagnation (middle age)
•   Integrity (proud) vs. despair (the end)
•SOCIAL
                   Social
• Attribution– explain behavior
• Fundamental attribution error:
•              others--- personal
•               us-------situation
                   Attitudes
• Attitude---Stored evaluation (belief, opinion)
• Cognitive dissonance–
• attitudes & actions clash
•               ----easier to change thoughts
              Foot in door
• Do small thing 1st,
Role play- actions change people
           Social influence
• Conformity– voluntary
•               norms– unspoken rules
• Asch----------researcher

• Milgram---- obedience study
             Conformity
• “follow”
• Norm- unspoken rules
• Asch—experiment
                     Milgram

•   IV:
•   Authority
•   DV
•   Inflict pain
•   Random sample- newspaper
•   2/3s– max shock: statistical significance?
•   Replication: many
•   Generalize: Americans? Humans?
     How Groups influence us
• Social facilitation--- helps
• Social loafing---- work less
• Deindivuation --- lose self in mob

• Group polarization--- extreme opinions become
•                   more extreme (KKK)
• Groupthink--- smart people, bad decision,
•                please leader
               prejudice
• In group out group
• Stereotype----
               attraction
• Similarities
• Mere exposure effect
                   Helping
•   Bystander effect
•   Diffusion of responsibility
•   Altruism—help, for no selfish reason
•   Super ordinate goals-- shared
       Self-fulfilling prophecy
• Attitude creates action
• Action creates reality

				
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posted:7/25/2012
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