Landscape as a preservation artifact
• Landscapes as representative of history and
• Landscapes are essential to the built
environment and provide a sense of context
• Searching landscapes for meaning, pattern, and
– The American West
Defining Aspects and Issues
• Cultural ordering of the outdoor world (nature)
– Mixture of culture and nature
– Mixture of function and aesthetics
– Represents an evolutionary outcome
– Has meanings in the past and present
– Landscape architecture
Philadelphia grid plan designed by Thomas Holme and
William Penn in 1682
Pierre L'Enfant in 1791
Plan of Boston, John Bonner, 1722
Annapolis, MD, plan, 1718
Maryland State House,
Examples of Designed Landscapes
•Estate, Plantation Grounds.
•Pleasure Gardens; Utility Gardens.
•Campus, Institutional Grounds.
•Subdivisions, Planned Communities.
•Commercial, Industrial Landscapes.
•Residential Grounds (Yardscapes).
Wm Paca House, Annapolis Md
terraces and increasingly lighter shades of green in early summer
create impression of great distance and height. Plants were placed
in converging lines to accentuate the illusion of distance
William Paca House (Annapolis)
William Paca House
Rural Historic Landscape
a geographical area that has been used,
shaped, or modified over time by human
activity, occupancy, or intervention, and that
possesses a significant concentration,
linkage, or continuity of historic landscape
features, including areas of land use,
buildings, vegetation, roads and waterways,
and natural features.
Types of Rural Historic Landscapes
sites adapted for ceremonial, religious, or other
Rural Historic Landscapes—defining
•Open Space & Lower Density Settlement.
•Agriculture and/or Industry.
•Distinctive Architecture & Land Use
Rural Historic Landscape
processes for which to look
• Patterns of spatial organization
• Land uses and activities
• Cultural traditions
Components of the Rural Historic
• Means of transportation and communication
• Boundaries and divisions
• Distinctive vegetation
• Distinctive buildings and arrangements
• Arts and Sciences Approach
• Mixing history, culture, and nature
Needs and Problems
• Combining historic preservation and nature
• Balancing uses of natural and cultural resources
– Preserving an organic entity
– Pressures from development and tourism
– Issue of private property
• Conservation ethic
– Maintaining historic qualities
– Compatible use
Wye Plantation, Orangery,
Talbot Co., Md., c1780
Orangery: A heated structure for the propagation
of exotic plants
Heated structures for the
propagation of exotic plants,
notably orange and lemon
trees. Such trees were
expensive, only families with
wealth and access to
international trade could
afford them. Moreover, glass
for the greenhouse was
expensive, and it took skill to
build one and knowledge,
skill, and servants to raise
exotic plants outside their
Llewellyn Park, Orange Co., NJ, 1855, A. J. Davis
Orange County, New Jersey, 1855. Laid out by Alexander Jackson Davis, on
a 400 acre estate, 50 houses were built in a variety of contemporary styles.
Picturesque naturalistic settings,
variety of house styles, but
readable as symbols of economic
and social class--[social
homogeneity] romantic exteriors,
modern technology, put distance
between work and home.
Why did suburbs develop?
•1. Moved the politically effective, white collar and trades to suburb away from the
disenfranchised urban areas.
•2. shifting political forces--segregation disenfrancished blacks--emphasizing suburban
development brought rich and middle class together.
•3. Suburbs were segregated through the use of covenants:
•4. Planning movement, which had begun in Europe stressed differential density and
development plans for commercial, residential, industrial areas.
•5. Disadvantages of cities in the 19th century: noise, congestion, pollution and the
expansion of commercial lands, made the land more valuable, but diminished its
•6. Competition among urban elites to make their city the most attractive, or
technologically up-to-date. Wealthy men continued in the Victorian ideal to prominently
display their money.
Riverside, Illinois, 1868, Calvert Vaux and Frederick
Riverside, Illinois, 1868,
Calvert Vaux and
Frederick Law Olmstead
Central Park, New York City, c1857-80,
Frederick Law Olmstead and Calvert Vaux
Central Park, New York City, c1857-
80, Frederick Law Olmstead and
Prospect Park, Brooklyn, NY,
1865-68, Olmstead and Vaux
Fairmont Park, Philadelphia
The Mall, Washington, DC, Andrew Jackson
Graceland Cemetery, Chicago,begun 1860,
Sanitation reform was
another of the model city
movements, like the City
Beautiful movement was
dominated by women as
advocates of public