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					   What is intelligence?
   How would you test intelligence cross-
    culturally?
   Most definitions include the word knowledge
   Most also include problem solving
   Also helps in the adaptation to changing
    environments

   There are several Western approaches to
    intelligence
     Spearman, 1927-g
     Thurstone, 1938—3 intellectual skills—verbal,
      mathematical, spatial
     Sternberg, 1985—3 aspects—analytic, creative, practical
     Gardner, 1983—logical, linguistic, spatial, musical, bodily
      kinesthetic, personal intelligence and interpersonal
      intelligence
   What do IQ tests actually measure?
   How can it be show that the score was not
    influenced by other factors?

   1921—Nat’l Academy of Sciences—massive study
    of intelligence nationally
     African Americans scored lower than whites generally
     Rated intellectual order of immigrants
         England-Holland-Denmark-Scotland-Germany-Canada-
         Belgium-Norway-Austria-Ireland-Turkey-Greece-Russia-
         Italy- Poland
   Today in US:
        Asian American-White-Hispanics-African
        American.
       On average, African American scores 10-15% lower
        than white kids
   By religion, Jews score the highest
   Native Americans—below average verbally,
    but high visual-spatial skills in some groups
   Using Western measures, average IQ in sub-Saharan Africa
    is about 82 (Wicherts et al, 2010)
   Lynn and Vanhanen (2006) examined IQ across cultures
       Controversial study, argue for biological/genetic causes
       Dark red <65, purple >105
   Intelligence vs. intelligent behavior
   Biological factors and intelligence
       Nativist view—all cognitive phenomena are inborn and unravel as a result of bio
        programming
       Snyderman and Rothman, 1988—asked 1000 scholars about the ethnic differences
          1% always due to genetic factors
          45% both genes and the environ
          14% entirely environ
       Heredity and bio are a good part of individual differences
       Arthur Jensen—big proponent of innate diff in IQ between groups says that 80% of
        IQ is inherited
   Environment and intelligence—factors related to IQ
       Overall availability and access to resources
       Family climate
       Educational opportunities
       Access to books and travel
       General attitudes
       Cultural practices
       Presence or absence of cultural magical beliefs
   Attitudes toward testing
   Acquisition of skills depends on the
    environment
       Brazilian and Columbian street kids
   SES
   Family factors
       Birth order
   Flynn Effect
   Years in school—about 2/3 of the variance in IQ
    scores
   Poverty can change the developing brain (Teicher
    et al, 2002)
   Witnessing domestic violence can reduce IQ
    (Delaney-Black et al, 2002)
   Cross-national IQ scores are related to low birth
    weight and proportion of agricultural workers
    (Barber, 2005)
   Exposure to parasites (Eppig et al, 2010)—both
    developing the brain and fighting parasites take a
    lot of energy
   Many languages have no word that means
    intelligence
   Mandarin—a character that means “good brain
    and talented” and is associated with effort, social
    responsibility
   Baganda of East Africa—obugezi—mental and
    social skills that make a person steady, cautious,
    friendly
   Djerma-Songhi of West Africa—akkal—intelligent,
    know-how, social skills
   Baoule—n’glouele—mentally alert but willing to
    volunteer without being asked
   Lexicon—vocabulary of a language
   Syntax and grammar—rules that govern word
    forms and how words are strung together to form
    meanings
   Phonology—systems of rules that govern how
    words should sound
   Semantics—what words mean
   Pragmatics—rules that govern how language is
    used and understood in social contexts
   Phonemes—smallest and most basic units of sound
    in a language
   Morphemes—smallest and most basic units of
    meaning in a language
   Some aspects are innate, others learned
   Not just imitation
   1950s—Berko—showed that kids learn rules to
    generate and test hypotheses
   Overregularization—goed instead of went
   Different cultures teach language diff
     Kaluli of Papua New Guinea—believe children won’t
      learn language or conversation skills unless explicitly
      taught
     Samoa-no real language instruction—kids actually learn
      from older sibs
   Chomsky—1967—language acquisition device
   Dyslexia-- Firth et al 2001
       Looked at English, French, Italian writing and
        dyslexia—in English there are 1120 ways of rep of 40
        phonemes, Italian-33 graphemes for 25 phonemes
   Some words exist in some languages but not
    others
       Wharf, 1956—3 words for snow in Eskimo, only one
        in English
       Literal equivalents may not have same connotations
   Self/other referents
   Collectivists
     More likely to drop pronouns
     Japan—rate intimacy higher for words related to
      ingroups (coworkers, students)
         Also use “yes” as a regulator
   Individualists (American)—greater self-disclosure
   Differences in apologies
     Americans preferred explanation, Taiwan preferred
      compensation
     Japan—more direct, extreme apology, Americans prefer
      more indirect, less extreme
   Speakers of different languages think differently because of
    the differences in their languages
   Supporting Research
       1958—Navajo vs. English—Carroll and Casagrande
         Navajo has words that indicate very specialized ways of handling
          different shaped objects and found that Navajo kids are more likely to
          use shapes to categorize
       1954—Brown and Lenneberg
         Accuracy with which a color is remembered is related to how easily
          coded it is
       More recently…
   Research against
       Work on color being biologically- based regardless of linguistic
        diff in labeling
   Bottom line—some support for this theory, but some areas
    may be too bio based
   Knowledge of more than 1 language can
    increase cognitive flexibility
   Foreign language processing difficulty—
    negative impressions (lower IQ) because
    people speaking in 2nd language take more
    time to process info
   Foreign language effect—temporary decline in
    thinking ability of people who are using a
    foreign language in which they are less
    proficient
   Hall, 1966
   Work on proxemics—the interrelated observation and
    theories of man’s use of space as a function of culture
   4 distance areas
       Intimate-0-18 in. reserved for our closest and most trusted
        friends
       Personal distance—1.5-4 ft.—small protective sphere or bubble
        that an organism maintains between self and others—
        conversations with people with whom we are comfortable
       Social distance—4-12 ft.—conversations with strangers and to
        conduct business
       Public distance—begins at 12 ft.—famous public figures,
        speeches, formal occasions
   Early studies—Russo and Sommer, 1966—
    unsuspecting students left the library more quickly
    the closer a stranger sat to them
   Hall predicted that people from contact cultures
    (cultures emphasizing touch and close contact)
    would interact at closer distances
       Arabs—touch more, more visual contact, face to face
        orientation, less distance between each other. Speak
        loudly—believe loud is sincere, soft is devious. Arabs
        stand close enough to smell each other’s breath
       Latin Americans—small physical distances
       US—medium
       Japan—large
       Sussman and Rosenfeld, 1992
   Purposes
   Illustrators—nonverbal behavior that highlights
    aspects of the words we speak
   Adaptors/manipulators—all cultures have
    etiquette about these
   Emblems—nonverbals that convey a message by
    themselves
   Only a small fraction of the meaning people get in
    an interaction comes from spoken words.
       When speech and nonverbals don’t agree, nonverbal is
        dominant
   Many are culture specific
       Some cultures are very expressive with gestures as
        illustrators—Italian, Jewish
       Others—Japan, Thai—more reserved
       Get used to what we see with respect to gesticulation
   Two types
       Referential—meaning can be derived from the
        gesture itself
       Conventional—meaning is dependent on culture-
        specific codes and conventions
   CC—among people of unequal status, looking
    directly in the eye is more common in Anglo-
    Saxon cultures than in Latino or Native
    American cultures
   Arabs—more eye contact
   Asians—less eye contact
   US—middle
   A stranger is simultaneously within (physically present) and
    without (not acquainted)—Simmel, 1950
   Immediate result of being in a new situation—lack of
    security
   Physique, dress, mannerisms, speech may indicate that a
    person belongs to a different group
     People may believe that stranger’s group follows a different
      lifestyle
     May worry that interacting with stranger is disloyal
     May believe that stranger’s group is aggressive toward their own
     Probable outcome: avoidance
        Unless—role constraints (customer, guest, teacher, employer)
        May be curious or open to novel experiences
        Find stranger physically attractive
        Come from a culture that encourages accommodation of
         diversity
   Gender, age, race, attractiveness, body shape,
    baby-facedness, clothing, proxemics, body odor,
    gaze behavior, speech volume & speed, fluency,
    accentedness
   Allows us to use stereotypes and make snap
    judgments
   Ingroup or not?
     Certain categories are universally salient
     Distinctiveness of a person’s behavior
     Prototypicality
     Deviations from normal speech in terms of accent, syntax,
      or grammar
   2 processes
       Encoding—process by which people select the mode
        by which we’ll communicate
       Decoding—process by which receive signals from an
        encoder and translate those into meaning
   Signals—specific words and behavior sent in a
    communication
   Messages—meaning that is intended or received
   Uncertainty is a hallmark of intercultural
    communication
   Misattributions
   Hall, 1976
       High vs. low context cultures
         High—much of the information is transmitted in the
          physical context, implicit messages; rely less on spoken
          language
         Low-much of the information is in explicit code
         LC countries are used to very explicit contracts, but this
          can be insulting in HC cultures
   May be one way or mutual
   Or, if groups are antagonistic toward each
    other or if group membership is salient,
    divergence of speech may occur
   Those who speak in second language may be
    assumed to have preferences more like those of
    2nd language (Bond, 1985)
   And 2nd language speaker may have cognitive
    shifts when speaking
   Assumptions of similarities
   Language differences
   Nonverbal misinterpretations
   Preconceptions and stereotypes
   Tendency to evaluate
   High anxiety or tension
   Gudykunst, 1993
       Motivational factors
       Knowledge factors
       Skill factors
       Basically, knowledge and skills must be combined with openness
        and flexibility
   Intercultural sensitivity
       Bennett, 1979, 1988
       6 stages—developmental continuum of ethnocentrism to
        ethnorelativism
         Denial
         Defense
         Minimization of impact or importance
         Acceptance
         Adaptation
         Integration of plurality
   Affect—an evaluative response that includes a
    combination of physiological arousal, subjective
    experience, and behavioral expression
   William James (1884)
     Emotion is embedded into bodily experience physical
      experience leads person to feel aroused and arousal
      stimulates the subjective experience of emotion
     James-Lange Theory

   Cannon-Bard—alternative outlook—various life
    situations can simultaneously elicit both an
    emotional experience and bodily responses
   Must perceive stimulus
     1) Must experience physiological arousal
     2) Must label that sensation
   Darwin --facial expressions of emotions are
    evolutionarily adaptive and biologically innate
   Margaret Mead and others--must be learned
   In 1960s, psych began universality studies
   Initial studies—Ekman and colleagues showed
    photos of facial expressions to observers in 5
    countries—US, Argentina, Brazil, Chile and
    Japan—label expressions
       Ekman et al repeated the study in New Guinea with 2
        preliterate tribes
   Nonhuman primates and congenitally blind
    infants also support the universality theory
   Smiling is universally understood to be happy
   Facial expression of emotion seems to be universal
    but we are often clueless about how to interpret
    emotions of people in other cultures
   Different rules govern how to express emotions
   Most rules are designed to restrain emotions.
   Can assess emotion expression by frequency and
    intensity
   Variations in expression of sadness
     Japan—often smile when informed of a loss—don’t want
      to offend bearer of bad news
     Tahiti—report feeling tired in response to a loss
     Bedouins (Egyptian desert)—crying is weakness
   Southern Europeans (hot blooded)—more
    increase in BP in response to joy, sadness, fear
    than Northern Europeans
   But response is similar cc—ie., embarrassment
    causes increased body temperature
   Both universal and culturally specific
   Relative intensity
   But—cultures vary in how intense they rate
    emotion in others
       Americans rate emotions as more intense than Japan
       But Americans rate subjective (internal) experience
        as less intense than the Japanese
       Appears that Americans exaggerate external display
        attributions
   Three dimensions moderate effects of happiness on well-
    being
     Arousal
       Chinese/Chinese Americans value low-arousal positive states
        more than high-arousal states
       Discrepancies between low-arousal actual and ideal states are
        more predictive of depression in Chinese.
     Social engagement
       Japanese value socially engaged emotions. US values socially
        disengaged
       In Japanese, socially engaged emotions predict well-being, in
        US, socially disengaged emotions do
     Emphasis on personal hedonic experience
       In North America, experiences linked to personal contexts are
        linked to better outcomes
       In East Asian cultures, hedonic experiences are not linked as
        strongly to well-being
   Several universal anger provoking antecedents
   But terms for anger aren’t equivalent
   English—involves letting the other person know
   Ifaluk (Pacific region) “song”—indicates an
    attempt to change behavior of the offending
    person—may be aggressive but may also include
    attempted suicide or refusal to eat
   Collectivist culture—anger is a threat to integrity
    of society. Individualistright to independence
    and self-expression
   Utko Inuit—virtual absence of anger.
   Cultural similarities—
       Baucher and Brandt, 1981—asked US and Malaysians to
        generate situations that cause anger, disgust, fear, happiness,
        sadness, or surprise
       Results replicated in Korea and Samoa
       Scherer et al--cc
       Happiness—relationships with friends, temporary meeting
        with friends, achievement
       Sadness—relationships and death
       Buunk and Hupka, 1987—7 countries—flirting elicits jealousy
   Differences in antecedents
       Fear—US—strangers, achievement; Japan—Traffic,
        relationships
       Anger—more commonly due to strangers in Japan than US or
        Europe
   Latent and manifest antecedents
   German—schadenfreude—pleasure from another’s
    misfortune
   Japanese-itoshii—longing for an absent loved one
       Amae—dependence between 2 people
   English—frustration doesn’t translate into all Arabic
    languages
   Gidjngali—Aust. Aborigine—one word conveys terror,
    horror, dread, apprehension, timidity, fear, and shame

   Location of emotion
       US—heart and gut
       Japan—gut
       Chewong of Malay—liver
       Tahiti—intestines
   A condition that initiates, activates, or maintains individual’s goal-
    directed behavior
   Origin is biological
   Need—a motivated state caused by physiological or psychological
    deprivation
       Drives—condition that directs an organism to satisfy a need
   Arousal theories of motivation—people seek to maintain optimal levels of
    arousal by actively changing their exposure to arousing stimuli
   Psychoanalytic explanations…pleasure principle vs. reality principle
   Humanistic theories—focus on human dignity, individual choice, and
    self-worth
       Self-actualization
         Maslow’s hierarchy
              Physiological
              Safety needs
              Belonging and love needs
              Esteem needs
              Self-actualization
   Learning and motivation
       Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation
   Social need that directs people to constantly
    strive for excellence, success, influence, and
    accomplishment
   McLelland (1958)—this motivation is learned
    during childhood
   Linked to social norms
       Confucian dynamism –Japan and Hong Kong
   Individualist-success vs. collectivist-success
   Aggressive motivation—desire to harm or
    injure others
   Aggression—a sequence of behaviors, the goal
    response of which is the injury to the person
    toward whom it is directed
   Avoid using crime as a definition
   Killing an infant is homicide, right?
       Minturn & Sashak (1982)—study of HRAF
         Found infanticide in 53% of cases in mostly non-industrial
          societies
         They suggest that infanticide is best termed “terminal abortion”
           Reasons given are very similar to abortion (illegitimacy, excess children)
           Almost always done before the naming ceremony that announces babies
            to the community
   Killing an adult also varies
       Among the Kapouku of New Guinea, punishment for killing a
        person varies according to whether or not the killing occurred in
        the village or tribe. Intent didn’t matter.
   Wife beating is not a crime in many cultures.
       Afghanistan—2009 controversial law about marital rape
         Protested around the world
         Was repealed, but new law is very rarely enforced
   Rates of aggression vary considerably
     In some cultures, aggression only occurs when alcohol is
      involved (Finland) or honor is at stake (Turkey)
     Within cultures, aggression ranges from very low
      (Iceland, Japan) to very high (Peru, Nigeria)
     Murder rates
       Norway .8/100,000
       China 1.2/100,000
       Finland 2.5/100,000
       US 5.2/100,000
       South Africa 36.5/100,000
       Venezuela 46.2/100,000
       Jamaica 59.5/100,000
   Simbu of New Guinea (belongs to Australia)
       Despite prohibitions by Australia, they engage in frequent warfare
       Very + attitudes about aggression
       Admire the most aggressive
       Sex segregation and male domination
         Currently campaigning to have women in office
       High status: males, violent, competitive, loyal to men’s group
       When fight started, everyone joined in
       Frustration because of shortage of food, no confidence in justice
        system, no chance of equitable distribution of resources
   Semai—Malaysian rain forest
       Very negative attitudes toward aggression
       Believe only bad people are violent
       Abundant resources
       Associate great danger with being alone
   Nisbett (1990)—another two culture comparison
   Both Truk and Tahiti are in Pacific.
     Truk fish in the dangerous open sea
     Tahiti fish in safer lagoons with plentiful fish
   Truk—need to be aggressive, fearless to fish in
    open sea
       Males are violent fighters, compete with each other in
        physical contests, have many love affairs, sire children
        early, women are submissive, men are protective.
   Tahiti—peaceful, cooperative.
       Not overprotective of women. No requirement to protect
        honor. Men should be passive and submissive, ignore
        slights.
   When resources are limited and basic motives
    are aroused, aggression is common
   Large cities are more violent than rural areas—
    in part due to deindividuation.
   Less aggression in democracies
   Shortage of resources and increased rates of
    unpredictable events increases aggression
   Observing aggression increases aggression
   Some evidence that any kind of strong arousal
    may facilitate aggression
       Heat and humidity
       Noise, pain, insult, frustration, hunger, exposure to
        sexual stimuli
   Hot climates are more aggressive than cold
    ones—true both seasonally and spatially
       Eskimos feel contempt for white people because they
        “hunt each other like animals”
   Exposure to the media, but not everywhere
   Inequality of opportunity
       R/P ratio—ratio of GNP controlled by top and
        bottom 10% of the income distribution
         Norway 6.1
         United States 15.9
         South Africa 33.1
         Honduras 59.1
   Testosterone—not as big as you might think
   Gender stereotypes
     Williams and Best (1982
     High degree of pancultural agreement
     Also, male traits were viewed as more + in some
      countries (Japan, South Africa), females more + in others
      (Italy, Peru)
     Male traits—generally stronger and more active
     Children agreed with adults
     Then looked at sex role ideology
       Women had more modern views
       More modern/egalitarian cultures tended to be
           More developed
           More urban
           More Christian
           More northern latitudes
   Lot of consensus across cultures about men being
    more dominant, having greater autonomy, being
    more aggressive, being more achievement oriented,
    possessing greater strength and endurance
   Common female traits—being more deferent,
    providing nurturance, demonstrating more
    affiliation
   Males—more likely to initiate sexual activity
   Females—more likely to express conformity and
    compliance
   Many things are attributed to gender that are
    actually due to something else.
   Cognitive differences
   Men outperform women at spatial tasks in US
       However, women do better on spatial tasks in cultures
        that are loose, nomadic, hunting & gathering
       Men better in tight, sedentary, agriculturally-based
        cultures
       In agricultural cultures, men need to do heavy
        workfamily maintenance tasks go to girls
       Greater role specialization leads to female preoccupy
        with child-rearing activities
       In hunt/gather cultures, there is a higher valuation of
        women’s activities
   Aggression
       Males account for a disproportionate amt of violent
        crime in both industrialized and nonindustrialized
        countries
       Males—more aggressive in every culture for which
        we have data
   Anxiety and self-esteem
     In Sweden and Hungary, but not Japan, girls report
      more anxiety than boys in response to hypothetical
      situations
     Overall, boys seem to perceive themselves as more
      competent than girls, but this varies
   Sex culture
   Varies widely
   Universal taboo—incest
   Nearly universal—masturbation
   Chastity—not as important in countries such as
    Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Holland
       But in other cultures—China, Iran, India—chastity is important
        for women
   Labor
   However, even in more traditional sex cultures, some
    non -traditional beliefs exist
       Rathus et al 1993—70% of Chinese respondents didn’t
        denounce extramarital affairs, 50% engage in premarital sex,
        14% of urban Chinese women have extramarital affairs
   Western soc tend to accept homosexuality
   In the rest of the world, varies
   CC facts about homosexuality
       Never predominant or >5%
       Generally frowned on
       Always > in males
       Always present
   Societies with polygamy—low on homosexuality
   Lowest in hunter/gather, middle levels in agricultural
    societies, highest in industrialized
   Increased density of population is related to higher
    levels of homosexuality
   Many countries, is a crime
   Kissing is unknown in some African and South American
    cultures
   Among some Arctic cultures, it is normal and hospitable to
    offer your wife to a guest
   Attraction
       Men almost universally prefer good looks
       Women prefer earning potential
       Both men and women want someone kind and understanding
   5 types of menstrual taboos in the HRAF
       Ban on sexual intercourse
       Restrictions on activities and contacts with other people
       Taboos against contact with men’s ritual equipment or
        weaponry
       Taboos on handling or cooking food
       Total seclusion in a special hut
       Of 156 cultures, 8 had no bans or taboos; 19 had all types of
        taboos
   80 million women today
   Infibulations—removal of labia minora, stitching
    together of labia majora by thorns or thread
   Typically by a midwife on girls 5-11
   28 countries—primarily Islamic in Africa, but some in
    middle east and far east
   Not required by Koran, but also true that no major
    Islamic religious figures have spoken against it
   1995—International Conference on the Status of
    Women in Beijing—declared FGM as violation of
    human rights
   1996—Board of Immigration ruled that woman from
    Togo (1st day of class) was due political asylum to
    prevent fgm
   On the other hand, Levine et al 1995 asked students in 11 nations,
    “If a man/woman had all the other qualities you desired, would
    you marry this person if you weren’t in love with him/her?”—
       Respondents in India, Pakistan, Thailand were more likely to answer yes--
        % yes
   What do people mean by being in love?
       Shaver, Wu and Schwartz, 1991—young people in US link love with
        happiness, but China linked love with sadness
       Rothbaum & Tsang—compared US and Chinese love songs—Chinese
        songs had more references to sadness, future, and context in which love
        occurs, but US songs focused more directly on object of love
   Love Attitude Scale of Munro and Adams
       Looked at how strongly respondents endorse 3 dimensions
         Romantic power (love as a powerful force)
         Romantic idealism (love is the essence of life)
         Conjugal love (love demands careful consideration, has a calming love)
       No clear pattern emerging from scale
   Generally, romantic love is valued highly in less traditional
    cultures with few strong extended family ties and less valued in
    cultures where extended family ties reinforce the relationship
    between marriage partners
   Vaidyanathan and Naidoo, 1991—found Asian Indian immigrants
    to Canada show generational changes in attitudes toward love
    and marriage
   Gupta and Singh looked at couples in Jaipur, India—some
    married for love, others were arranged
       Couples who married for love were only in love for first 5 years or so but
        were less in love than arranged marriages after 5 years and much so after
        10 years
   Arranged marriages are more common in collectivist cultures
       India, Pakistan, China
       India “How can you let emotional youths decide something that affects so
        many people?”
       Japan—1993—24% arranged; today about 10%
         Marriage meetings
   Buss et al 1990—37 samples, 10,000 people
       6 continents, 5 islands, 33 countries
       Listed potential mate characteristics
         Both genders rated “kind and understanding”1st
              Intelligent 2nd
              Exciting personality 3rd
              Healthy 4th
              Religious 5th
     Women generally valued good earning capacity higher
      than men
     Men valued physical appearance more
     Overall a lot of similarity CC
     Except chastity—North European countries don’t seem to
      care but groups in China, India, Iran really value chastity
   US research—people who are good looking are
    ascribed characteristics like being sensitive, kind,
    sociable, pleasant, likable, interesting
     Greater height for men
     Neat dressers—viewed as conscientious
   CC attractiveness
     Different things are viewed as attract, which affects
      impression formation
     Japan—attractiveness is related to large eyes, small
      mouths and small chins
     Korea—large eyes, small and high noses, thin, small faces
     China—moon shaped face
   Socialization—how we learn and internalize the rules and patterns
    of a behavior that are affected by a culture
   Enculturation—the process by which children adopt the manners
    and ways of their culture (different from acculturation—learning a
    new culture)
   Socialization agents—people, institutions, orgs that exist to help
    ensure that socialization occurs—parents, peers, sibs, extended
    family

   Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems approach
       Ontogenic development—individual
       Microsystem—immediate surrounding such as family, school, peers
       Mesosystem—links between Microsystems
       Exosystem—contexts that indirectly affect kids
       Macrosystem—culture, religion, society

   Children are active participants in their own socialization
   In large, complex cultures, there are at least 4 levels.
     Wealthy upper class—can afford luxuries
     Comfortable middle class-pleasant lifestyle
     Struggling working class—uncertainty about job stability and
      necessities
     Frustrated underclass
   Other markers…
   Parents from different backgrounds emphasize different
    values
   Class differences are stronger than cultural ones

   Why class?
       Expectations about the world
       What one is comfortable with (if obedience is emphasized, kids
        may be more comfortable with highly supervised jobs)
   People who know about a task or skill adjust
    behavior to guide children in learning about a
    culture
   India—right hand is eating, left hand is for
    hygiene—some kids learn through observation,
    others need someone to, say, hold left hand
    down when eating
   A characteristic behavioral style or typical pattern of
    responding to events in the environ
       Easy
       Difficult child
       Slow to warm up
   Heritability—about 50% for extraversion and
    neuroticism
   Goodness of fit—match bet environ and child’s
    temperament
       Masai of Kenya—difficult children survive better in times of
        droughtcry more, attract more attention
       Dutch parents vs American parents—Am parents are more
        likely to see difficulty as inherent in kids. Dutch see it is
        environmental
       Malay parents described babies as less regular in attn, less
        adaptable, lower threshold for responses to stimuli
   Emotional bond between child and caretakers
    that allows children to feel secure and to know
    to whom they can turn in threatening
    situations
   Process of attachment seems similar across
    cultures
   3 types of attach styles—securely attached,
    anxious/avoidant , anxious resistant
           A/A   A/R   SA
US         21%   14%   65%
China      25%   25%   50%
Germany 35%      9%    56%
Great Brit 22%   3%    75%
Israel     7%    29%   64%
Sweden 22%       4%    75%
   Each day, 750,000 individuals become new parents
   Parenting styles—Baumrind, 1971, 1993
       Permissive, authoritarian, authoritative—each assoc with kid behavior
   So, we have to look at specific behaviors and beliefs
       Richman et al compared
         Gusii of Kenya and Am mothers—found that G held and soothed babies more,
           but looked at and talked to them less
         Why might this be?
              Infant mortality is high and hold and soothing increases chance of survival
              Belief that language isn’t understood by children until age 2
              Culture teaches to avoid direct eye contact
              US believes playpen helps teach independence
              US believes language learning should begin early
   Mothers vs. fathers
   Spanking—leads to aggression and anxiety cc—Lansford et al, 2005—6
    countries
       China, Sweden, Italy, Thailand, India, Kenya
       Mothers in Thailand—least likely to physically discipline children, Kenya—most
       More frequent use of discipline was less strongly assoc with child aggression and
        anxiety when it was perceived as being more culturally accepted, but physical
        discipline was also associated with more aggression and anxiety regardless of
        cultural acceptance
   Most research in US
   Japan—traditionally much respected—grandmothers wore
    red to show their status. Filial piety (respect) was key
       Undergoing big change now
         Decrease in % of elderly living with family
           44% in 1955 were extended family households
           15% by 1985
           Grandparents believe their status is eroding
   China
     In 80s—40% of rural and 24% of urban families were 3 generation
      families
     4-2-1 problem
         Falbo, 1991--found no – consequences (like spoiling) for kids with
          grandparents in house in fact, educated grandparents helped kids
          academically
         But many consider son’s children their true grandchildren vs ‘outside’
          grandkids
   17 nations in Europe, NA, and Asia
   What are adolescents primary concerns?
       Family, education, self-concept
       Turkey—personal future, relations with others, identity
       Singapore—succeeding in school, getting a good job, general
        concern for future
   30 studies in 14 countries
       3 major domains of concern
         Major normative life events (career, established a family)
         Non-normative life events related to parents (death, divorce)
         Global events (nuclear war, AIDS, terrorism)
         But adolescents from traditional cultures were somewhat more
          concerned about family issues
   Peer influences
   Specific behavior varies
       eg., Adolescents in Greece and Italy drink 2x as much as in Ireland
       TIMSS—Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study—most recent, 2007
8th   grade                    Global Rank         Math               Science

Singapore                      1                   593                 567
Taiwan                         2                   598                 561
South Korea                    3                   597                 553
Japan                          4                   570                 554
Hong Kong                      5                   572                 530
Hungary                        6                   517                 539
England                        7                   513                 542
Czech Republic                 8                   504                 539
Russia                         9                   512                 530
Slovenia                       10                  501                 538
United States                  11                  508                 520
Lithuania                      12                  506                 519
Australia                      13                  496                 515
Sweden                         14                  491                 511
Armenia                        15                  499                 488
Italy                          18                  480                 495
   Differences in math begin to show by 1st grade
   Why?
   Not biology. No differences in IQ have been found.
   Social and cultural factors
       Language—Japanese language indicates value of numbers –2-
        10-1 versus our 21—at a young age, kids make fewer errors in
        counting
       School systems
         Schools reflect what a culture thinks is important both now
          and for future success
         Teaching reflects location
           Pulawat of Micronesia—learn math through navigation
         Hours in school--# of days/yr and hours/day and % time on
          math
   Parental and familial values
     Am value innate ability, China and Japan—value effort
       Fundamental attribution error issues
     Chao, 1996—Chinese mothers of preschoolers convey high
      value on educationself-sacrifice for children’s success
   Attitudes and appraisals of students
     Pang, 1991—reported Asian Am kids had higher desire to
      please parents , higher parental pressure and higher parental
      support than Euro Am kids
     Attributional styles
   Teaching styles
     Chinese and Japanese teachers spend a greater % of time
      working with the whole class than Am teachers
     Am teachers use praise, Japanese use mistakes as lessons
   Piaget
       0-2     sensorimotor—object permanence
       2-6     preoperational—dev of language, use of symbols
       6-12    concrete—reversibility, conservation
       12 on   formal—hypotheticals, abstracts
   Evaluation
       Criticisms in the West
         Underestimates children’s competence
         Age norms don’t fit the data
         Neglects social factors
         Theory describes but doesn’t explain
         Ignores post adolescent dev
         But…a sig impact in the West
   Infancy—sensorimotor period least studied of 4
    cc.
   Childhood
       Early studies found a distinct adv for Western kids
       Kamara, 1977 pointed out three flaws
         The study of thinking depends on language, but most
          researchers had little knowledge of language they were
          studying
         P favored clinical interviews, but these studies used tasks req
          little language to explain thinking
         Birth dates weren’t always available—estimates were off by
          as much as 2 years
       Mexican pottery makers’ kids—develop conservation
        earlier
   Adolescence
       Some researchers (Byrnes, 1988, Shea, 1985) think
        some individuals in some cultures will never dev
        this
       This assumes scientific reasoning in this way is
        valued by all cultures in the same way
         No/little formal operations in studies in Rwanda, New
         Guinea, some others
   Kohlberg’s Theory of Morality
     Preconventional—compliance with rules to avoid punishment and
      gain rewards
     Conventional—conformity to rules that are defined by others’
      approval or society’s rules “It is against the law.”
     Postconventional—on the basis of individual principles and
      conscience
   Influential in Western psychology, but challenged by
    Gilligan as biased toward the male view
   Indeed many studies of women and other cultures find that
    they operate as adolescents
   Buddhist monks (Huebner & Garrod, 1993)—reach stage 2,
    maybe stage 4 by mature adulthood
   China—and presumably other collectivist cultures—more
    interested in interconnectedness and interdependence
   Distributive justice
       Need, equity, equality
       Sweden—need based
       US—equity—Protestant work ethic
       India—exchanging helping behavior for helping behavior
        is a moral obligation, not a choice

   Erikson—8 stages of dev
       Works as a framework
       But less useful for CC experimentation
         Strongly values individualism
       Helpful instead to look at culturally identified life tasks—
        self-generated themes—more emic approach

				
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