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					Petty, Introduction to Fishes




                                                                          Acknowledgement
                Introduction to Fishes:
                Basic Anatomy and                               Dr. Daryl Parkyn, Research Assistant
                                                                  Professor, UF Fisheries and Aquatic
                Physiology                                        Sciences

                Denise Petty, DVM
                pettyd@ufl.edu




              Plato’s Remark on Fishes                                    What is a Fish?

               Plato was said to consider fish as                               A fish is a vertebrate that possesses a
               “senseless beings…which have                                     cranium, is aquatic throughout its life, and
                                                                                relies mainly on gills for gas exchange and
               received the most remote habitations
                                                                                lack fully formed limbs
               as a punishment for their extreme
                                                                                       Exception: mudskippers (Gobiidae)
               ignorance”




                                                         http://www.earthisland.org/map/Images/mudskipper.jpg        http://www.digimorph.org/specimens/Necturus_maculosus/mudpuppy.jpg




              Fishes                                                      Size

               Of 45,000 vertebrate species, almost                             Large as whale shark (12.1 m) or
               half are fishes                                                  Small as some gobies (0.008 m)
               More than 500 million years of
               evolution, adaptive radiation of fish
               has resulted in incredible diversity of
               structure and function

                                                                                                                            http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/newsrel/science/SmallFish.asp




                                                         http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/about/communications/backgro
                                                         unders/images20030615/whale-shark-cc4-200306-480.jpg




VME 4103 2009                                                                                                                                                                             1
Petty, Introduction to Fishes




                          Shape                                                                                                                                    Fish Fins
                                                                                                        http://www.naturalsciences.org/education/deepse

                               Streamlined cruisers                                                     a/images/flounder.jpg

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Dorsal

                               Shaped for camouflage on ocean floor




                                                                                                                                                                      Pectoral                                           Caudal
                                                                                                                                                                              Pelvic                            Anal


         http://www.lib.noaa.gov/docaqua/presentations/hubbsseaworld_files/   http://www.stanford.edu/~bhackett/nautilus-2005-
         images/Image34.png                                                   08/pages/flounder.html




                          Catfishes, Characins, others

                                                                                                            Dorsal

                                                                                                                        Adipose

                                                                                                                                                                                       http://fishbase.com/images/species/Hyani_u1.jpg




                               Pectoral                                                                            Caudal
                                            Pelvic                                                  Anal


                                                                                                                                                          http://fishbase.com/images/species/Icfur_u0.jpg




                                                                                                                                                                   Other Fishes




                                                                                                                                                                 http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/gallery/Descript/LargemouthBass/lbass.JPG




VME 4103 2009                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2
Petty, Introduction to Fishes




                          Why are Fins Important?

            Assist in locating
            coelom
                   Look for the anal fin;
                   the anus is located just
                                                                                                                                                         http://www.aquahobby.com/gallery/img/Apteronotus_al
                   in front                                                                                                                              bifrons_4.jpg




                                                                        http://fishbase.com/images/species/Heacu_u2.jpg

                                                                                                                            http://fishbase.com/images/species/Atspa_u1.jpg




                          Reproduction

                                No other class of vertebrates has as
                                many strategies of repro as fish
                                Mouthbrooders
                                Cave spawners
                                Substrate spawners
                                Bubblenest builders
                                Egg scatterers




                                                                                                                                      Fertilization: External &
                                                                                                                                      Internal
                                                                                                                                         External fertilization more common
                                                                                                                                         Internal fertilization occurs in
                                                                                                                                             Sharks, rays, skates
                                                                      http://www.scotcat.com/articles/syno03.jpg
                                                                                                                                             Poeciliids (mollies, guppies, platys)
         http://www.csus.edu/indiv/c/colemanr/gifs/Hilber_Sam_im
         ages/Convicts_Spawning.jpg
                                                                                                                                              • Anal fin of male is modified into a gonopodium
                                                                                                                                             Anableps
                                                                                                                                             Some others




          http://tribbles-place.asarian-                           http://www.aslo.org/photopost/data/508/151tagged_bass-
          intl.org/Graphics/fish/bubble-nest.png                   med.jpg




VME 4103 2009                                                                                                                                                                                                  3
Petty, Introduction to Fishes




                      Mosquito fish Gambusia, a
                                                                                                                                   Respiration
                      Poeciliid
                                                                                                                                        Which came first, lungs or gas
         Male                                                                                                                           bladder?
         Female




                      http://fishbase.com/images/thumbnails/jpg/tn_Gahol_f0.jpg




                      Respiration, Primitive and
                      Not So Primitive Fishes
                           Lungfish
                           Bichirs                                                                                                                                     http://fishbase.org/images/species/Clbat_u2.jpg


                           Gar, bowfin                                                                               http://www.geocities.com/chappleby/index.html

                           Snakehead
                           Air breathing
                           catfishes

                                                                                                                     http://fishbase.org/images/species/Poorn_u2.gif
                                                                                                                                                                       http://fishbase.org/images/species/Chasi_u1.jpg




                      Respiration, Advanced
                      Fishes
                Gills
                Special modifications



                                                                       http://www.scientific-
                                                                       art.com/GIF%20files/Veterinary/fishgill.jpg




           http://www.oup.co.uk/images/oxed/children/yoes/natu
           re/fishgills.jpg




VME 4103 2009                                                                                                                                                                                                            4
Petty, Introduction to Fishes




                          Respiration, Modifications                                                                        Respiration in Larval Fish
                               Labyrinth
                                                                                                                             Skin is more important than the gills
                               organ in the                                                                 Betta
                                                                                                                             (cutaneous respiration)
                               anabantids


                                                                http://pbskids.org/backyardjungle/files.php/206563_discov
                                                                ery_f.jpg




                                                                                                         Gourami

               http://www.geocities.com/dchiayee/labyrinth.jp
               g
                                                                http://fishbase.org/images/species/Trtri_u2.jpg




                        Physostomous Teleost
                        Gar, Bowfin


                        Erythrinus (characiformes)


                        Neoceratodus (Australian
                        lungfish)


                        Polypterus, Erpetoichthys
                        (bichirs)
                        Protopterus, Lepidosiren
                        (African and South
                        American lungfishes
                        Tetrapods


       From: Graham, Air-Breathing Fishes




                          Gas Bladder (AKA swim
                          bladder, air bladder)
                    Physostomous




                    Physoclistous



       From: Bond’s Biology of Fishes, 3rd. Ed.




VME 4103 2009                                                                                                                                                        5
Petty, Introduction to Fishes




                          Gas Bladders - Presence                                          Gas Bladders - Absence




             http://fishbase.org/images/species/Stcas_u0.jpg




                          Circulation and the Heart                                        Circulation in a Bony Fish




       From: Bond’s Biology of Fishes, 3rd. Ed.                            From: Bond’s Biology of Fishes, 3rd. Ed.




                          Gastrointestinal Tract                                           Why Is My Fish Thin?

                               Stomach                                                         Water quality
                                     Not present in cyprinids (danios,                         Infectious disease
                                     barbs, rasboras, goldfish, koi)                           Foreign body
                               Pyloric cecae
                                     Present in centrarchids, salmonids,
                                     tetras, marine angels, perch
                               Intestine
                                     Varies in length depending on diet
                                     (carnivores vs. herbivores)




VME 4103 2009                                                                                                           6
Petty, Introduction to Fishes




              Kidneys
               Fish are only vertebrates with kidneys able
               to produce urine by glomerular and
               aglomerular means
                 Glomerulus – intertwined group of
                 capillaries, filters out waste products
               Anterior vs. posterior kidney
                 Posterior kidney has primary renal function
                 Anterior kidney - primary hematopoiesis
                 occurs here
               In some fishes, two kidneys are fused
                 Hematopoiesis occurs in anterior portion




VME 4103 2009                                                  7
Petty, Introduction to Fishes




                       Nephron                                                                       A Little Fish Physiology

                     Renal corpuscle =                                                                   Osmoregulation
                     glomerulus                                                                               Maintain electrolytes, etc. while living
                                                                                                              in a hypotonic or hypertonic
                                                                                                              environment
                                                                                                         Freshwater fishes
                                                                                                              Hyperosmotic to their environment
                                                                                                         Marine fishes
                                                                                                              Hypo-osmotic to their environment

       From: Bond’s Biology of Fishes, 3rd. Ed.




                       Freshwater Fish                                                               Marine Fish




       From: Bond’s Biology of Fishes, 3rd. Ed.                                      From: Bond’s Biology of Fishes, 3rd. Ed.




                       Are fish cold blooded?                                                        Exceptions:
                         Warm-blooded vs. cold-blooded: solely based on body
                         temperature (some cold-blooded animals have blood that is                       Albacore tuna can maintain body temp
                         warmer than their environment
                                                                                                         12oC higher than ambient temp.
                         Homeotherm vs. poikilotherm:
                                                                                                           Countercurrent circulation
                           Divides animals based on whether body temp is
                           constant or variable (changing with                                           Marlins and billfish have a modified
                           environmental temperature)                                                    eye muscle that generates heat
                           Some poikilotherms maintain constant body
                           temp
                                                                                                         Some fishes have modified fin
                         Endotherm vs. ectotherm
                                                                                                         muscles that generate heat
                           Endotherm: internal source of heat
                           Ectotherm: external source of heat




VME 4103 2009                                                                                                                                            8
Petty, Introduction to Fishes




              Questions?




VME 4103 2009                   9

				
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