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Technology in Agriculture


									Technology in Agriculture

            Ms. Carter
     Agriculture Foundations
Progress in Agriculture
 Little progress in agriculture for
 thousands of years!
 Early 1800s – use of iron spurred
 inventions that revolutionized agriculture
 in U.S., British Isles, & northern Europe
 Progress much slower in rest of the
 Today, farmers use computers, satellite
 technology, & genetically modified
 plants & livestock to maintain food
Advances in Agriculture
 Cotton Gin (1793) – Eli Whitney
 Cast-Iron Plow (1797) - Thomas
 Reaper (1834) – Cyrus McCormick
 Steel Plow (1837) – John Deere &
 Leonard Andrus
 Chemical Fertilizers (1849)
 Corn Picker (1850) – Edmund W.
 Transcontinental Railroad (1869)
The Cyrus McCormick Reaper
Advances in Agriculture (cont.)

 Barbed Wire (1874) – Joseph Glidden
 Milking Machine (1878) – Anna
 Pasteurization (mid-1880s) – Louis
 Tractor (1904) – Benjamin Holt
 First successful light tractor (1926)
Formation of Machinery Companies
 Early inventors worked alone or with
 one or two partners
 Early 1900s – inventors & others
 formed companies to produce
 agricultural machinery or process
 agricultural products
 Improved earlier inventions &
 developed new equipment & supplies
 Mechanization of American
 agriculture moved at breath-taking
 pace since end of WW II
Defined – the management or
manipulation of living organisms for the
benefit of people
Genetic Engineering – form of
biotechnology that allows scientists to
alter the physical characteristics of plants
& animals by transferring genes
  Ex – Carrots are high in Vitamin A.
  Transplant the gene that controls that
  characteristic of carrots into another plant low
  in vitamin A, & the vitamin A content of the
  second plant can be increased
Biotechnology (cont.)

 Plant Characteristics
   Pest resistance
   Drought resistance
   Ability to tolerate salty water or soil
   Enhanced vitamin & mineral content
 Animal Characteristics
   Increased number of offspring
   Selection for desired traits
     Ex – cows with high milk production
Agriscience Research
   Vegetable Oil
   Lubricants, paper, chalk, paint, printing ink,
 Potatoes in the Northeast
   Katahdin, 1930s
 Common Aerosol
   Death from malaria-carrying mosquitoes
Agriscience Research (cont. 1)
 Turkey for the Small Family
   Original turkeys = 30 lbs.
   Families became smaller, needed 8-
   12 lb. turkey
   Beltsville Small White turkey
 The Green Revolution
   Helped many countries become self-
   sufficient in food production in the
   New, higher-yielding, disease- &
   insect- resistant varieties of small
Agriscience Research (cont. 2)
 Cultivated Blueberries
   Wild blueberries were small, high labor
   Developed high-quality, large-fruited
   blueberries from the wild
 Nutritional Values
   Detergent chemical methods developed for
   determining the nutritional value of feedstuff
 Biological Attractants
   Lab production of chemicals insects
   produce & give off to attract their mates
   Mass trapping of insects to survey for IPM
Agriscience & the Future

 Mid 1990s – American farmer said to
 produce enough food & fiber for 128
 As world population increases, a
 more sophisticated agriscience
 industry will be required to provide:
   Food, clothing, building materials,
   ornamental plants, recreation areas, &
   open-space needs
USDA Agricultural Research
Service strategic plan:
 Manage & conserve the nation’s soil &
 water resources for a stable & productive
 Maintain & increase the productivity &
 quality of crop plants
 Increase the productivity of animals & the
 quality of animal products
 Improve the delivery system & conversion
 of raw agricultural commodities into food &
 useful products for domestic consumption
 & export
USDA Agricultural Research
Service strategic plan (cont.):
  Promote optimum human health &
  performance through improved
  Integrate scientific knowledge on
  agricultural production & processing
  into systems that optimize resource
  management & facilitate the transfer
  of technology to end-users

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