Private Pilot Flight Training

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					Student:_____________________                          Date Completed:________________
                                             Private Pilot Flight Training


                         Basic Instrument Maneuvers
Objective:
To develop the students ability to maneuver the airplane solely by reference to instruments
Elements:
 1. Instrument cross-check, instrument interpretation, and aircraft control.
 2. How instruments are used to maintain altitude, heading, and airspeed.
 3. Trim technique.
 4. Conditions and situations that may result in unusual flight attitudes.
 5. The two basic unusual flight attitudes - nose-high (climbing turn) and nose-low (diving spiral).
       a. Control sequence for recovery from a nose-high attitude and the reasons for that sequence.
       b. Control sequence for recovery from a nose-low attitude and the reasons for that sequence.
 6. How unusual flight attitudes are recognized.
 7. Reasons why the controls should be coordinated during unusual flight attitude recoveries.
 8. View limited flight procedures:
       a. Straight & Level -
       b. Constant airspeed climb -
       c. Constant airspeed descent -
       d. Turns to headings -
       e. Unusual Attitudes -
Schedule:
Preflight Discussion                                                                                 0:15
Lesson 1: Demonstration and Student Practice                                                         1:00
Lesson 2: Student Practice                                                                           1:00
Lesson 3: Student Practice                                                                           1:00
Postflight Discussion after each lesson                                                              0:15
                                      All Times Dependent on Pilot's Ability
Equipment:
Aircraft            Drawing Surface and Marking Utensil
Instructor's Actions:                                      Student's Actions:
                                                                 PREFLIGHT:
 PREFLIGHT:
                                                                   Discuss lesson objective.
  Discuss lesson objective
                                                                   Listens and takes notes.
  Discuss common student errors
                                                                   Resolves Questions.
  Discuss the FAA's emphasis on safety including collision
                                                                 INFLIGHT:
     avoidance and division of attention.
                                                                   Reviews maneuvers.
INFLIGHT:
                                                                   Pays attention and asks questions.
     Demonstrate the maneuver.
                                                                   Practices maneuver as directed.
     Coach student practice.
                                                                   Answers questions posed by instructor.
     Evaluate student understanding of maneuver.
                                                                 POSTFLIGHT:
POSTFLIGHT:
                                                                   Ask pertinent questions.
  Critique student performance.
                                                                   Answers questions posed by instructor.
  Answer student questions.
                                                                   Critiques own performance.
  Assign homework for next lesson.
                                                                   Completes assigned homework.
                                               Private Pilot Flight Training

 Completion Standards: FAA–S-8081-14AS (Private PTS IX., E., 1-2)
 1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to attitude instrument flying during unusual attitudes.
 2. Recognizes unusual flight attitudes solely by reference to instruments; recovers promptly to a stabilized
     level flight attitude using proper instrument cross-check and interpretation and smooth, coordinated
     control application in the correct sequence.
 3. Transitions to the pitch attitude and power setting using proper instrument cross-check and
     interpretation, and coordinated control application to achieve desired result.
 4. Demonstrates straight-and-level flight; straight, constant airspeed climbs; straight, constant airspeed
     descents; and turns to headings solely by reference to instruments; levels off and maintains altitude,
     ±200 feet; maintains a standard rate turn and rolls out on the assigned heading, ±20°; maintains
     airspeed, ±10 knots.
Common Errors:
 1. "Fixation," "omission," and "emphasis" errors during instrument cross-check.
 2. Improper instrument interpretation.
 3. Improper control applications.
 4. Failure to establish proper pitch, bank, and power adjustments during altitude, bank, and airspeed
     corrections.
 5. Improper entry or rollout technique.
 6. Faulty trim technique.
 7. Failure to recognize an unusual flight attitude.
 8. Consequences of attempting to recover from an unusual flight attitude by "feel" rather than by
     instrument indications.
 9. Inappropriate control applications during recovery.
 10. Failure to recognize from instrument indications when the airplane is passing through a level flight
     attitude.
References:
FAA-S-8081-14a (Private PTS, IX. , E., 1-2)                                      NTSB Reports
                                                                                 Personal Stories
Things to Remember:
Be aware of inadvertent control wheel pressure.
Perform a 180 degree turn.
This is an emergency.
Maintain control of the airplane
Worry about consequences later.
ATC can offer navigation assistance
Use the autopilot if equipped and tested normal on the ground
                                                  Private Pilot Flight Training
Flight by sole reference of the flight instruments (Technique):
INFLIGHT MANEUVERS:
CFI - remember to divide attention!!

Straight-and-Level Flight
 1. Establish attitude with AI,
 2. Trim
 3. Confirm straight flight with HI & TC
 4. Confirm level flight with ALT, VSI

Constant Airspeed Climbs
 1. Pitch up to climb attitude with AI (practice without hood to determine cruise to climb attitude?)
 2. Add climb power
 3. Trim
 4. Confirm straight flight with HI & TC
 5. Confirm climb airspeed with ASI, observe VSI

Constant Airspeed Descents
 1. Reduce to descent power
 2. Pitch down to descent attitude with AI,
 3. Trim
 4. Confirm straight flight with HI & TC
 5. Confirm descent airspeed with ASI, observe VSI

Turns to Headings
 1. Establish bank attitude with AI (approximate bank angle = KTAS/10 + 7)
 2. Check TC for std rate, change bank accordingly
 3. Trim, keep well coordinated
 4. Add power to maintain airspeed (only if needed - under-powered aircraft)
 5. Begin roll out of turn at approximately half the bank angle

Recovery from Unusual Flight Attitudes
 1. Determine attitude (see examples). If the attitude is:
 2. Nose High
 3. Apply forward pressure (to break or prevent stall)
 4. Full Power
 5. Level wings with coordinated use of aileron & rudder
 6. Nose Low
 7. Reduce Power to idle
 8. Level wings with coordinated use of aileron & rudder
 9. Apply back pressure to raise nose to level attitude
 10. In both cases, recovery to straight & level flight

POSTFLIGHT
  Conduct a critique and review procedures and techniques.
Instructor notes
and visual aids
 Flight by sole reference of the instruments (narrative)

INTRODUCTION
    In an emergency situation, or inadvertent flight into IMC or marginal VMC, the ability to control maneuver
      the airplane solely by reference to flight instruments could save the pilot’s life.
    Unless a pilot moves on to instrument training, this typically does not get practiced after practical exam.

MOTIVATION
In the event that you accidentally find yourself in a cloud (because of an emergency, or because you accidentally
flew into one that you don't see at night, you will be able to stay calm, and know what to do.

DEVELOPMENT
  Explain that none of the following is intended to scare the student, but rather to prepare and show
   importance of preflight planning
  Accident stats: weather cited more frequently than any other in GA accidents
  Weather involved accidents are more likely to result in fatal injuries
  Low ceilings, rain & fog head list in weather related GA accidents
  Pilot’s involvement is usually
  Inadequate preflight preparation / planning (often no WX briefing)
  Continued VFR flight into IMC
  Attempted operation beyond pilot’s experience / ability
  Logical to assume that if an adequate preflight briefing & planning had occurred, the rate of WX
  related accidents would decrease
  Be conservative in judging your capabilities
  If inadvertently caught in poor weather, the VFR pilot should
  Maintain control of the plane
  Contact FAA facility by radio, and follow their instructions
  Remain calm, and comply
  180 may be best action
  Senses during Instrument Flight
  Only way to control a plane in low-visibility is by using & trusting the instruments
  Orientation senses not designed to cope w/obscured visual reference (clouds, fog, haze), unless visual
  reference is transferred to flight instruments
  No problem w/attitude ctrl with visual sense w/ref points (ground, horizon). Visual sense overrides other
   senses.
  When visual refs obscured, trouble develops for pilots who lack training, experience, proficiency in
   instrument flight
  Vestibular sense (motion sensing by inner ear) cannot detect slight attitude changes, or accurately sense
   attitude changes at uniform rate over time
  False sensations lead pilot to believe attitude has changed when it has not – Spatial Disorientation
  When disoriented pilot recovers from turn, bank, climb, descent, there is a very strong illusion that plane has
   entered a T,B,C,D in opposite direction -> Graveyard Spiral
  All pilots must be aware of these illusions - we will experience these sensations under controlled cond
  Attitude Control by reference to all instruments, but AI is primary (It’s your World)
  Relax Grip - learn to control with eyes & brain (takes considerable conscious effort)
  When aware of tenseness - Control pressure should be released. When trimmed, plane is inherently stable
   and will maintain S&L flight if left alone (except in turb)
  No attitude change unless instruments show need. Then immediate small corrections.
   Explain Instrument crosscheck (scan), instrument interpretation, and aircraft control.
   Keep up the scan - avoid fixation, omission & emphasis
   Hub & spoke - AI is center of scan -
   AI is window to horizon through clouds. Put the plane in the AI where you want it w/r to horizon
   Interpret the what the instrument say.
   Make immediate small corrections
   Break tasks (tuning radios) into small parts to maintain scan

				
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