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World War I 1914-1918

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					World War I
1914-1918

  It was "The War
 To End All Wars,"
    - a senseless
 slaughter that set
  the stage for the
 bloodiest century
 in human history.
The Great War
I. Setting the Stage
           An Uneasy Peace
 At the turn of the 20th Century, the nations
  of Europe had been at peace with one
  another for nearly 30 years.
 However, below the surface, several forces
  were at work that would help propel Europe
  into war.
      Long-Term Causes of WWI
 1. Nationalism, or a deep
  devotion to one’s nation.
 Nationalism can serve as
  a unifying force within a
  country. However, it can
  also cause intense
  competition between
  nations, with each
  seeking to overpower the
  other.
 What kinds of things can
  nations compete over?
Long-Term Causes of WWI
            2. Imperialism, or
             larger nations
             controlling weaker
             nations and territories.
            The nations of Europe
             competed fiercely for
             colonies in Asia and
             Africa which
             sometimes pushed
             them to the brink of
             war.
     Long-Term Causes of WWI
 3. Militarism, the the development of armed forces
  and their use as a tool for diplomacy.
 The nations of Europe believed that to be truly
  great, they needed to have a powerful military.
Long-Term Causes of WWI
             4. Alliance System,
              treaties of countries to
              support one another in
              case of attack.
             The Triple Alliance
              joined Germany, Italy and
              Austria-Hungary.
             In turn, Britain, France,
              and Russia join the Triple
              Entente.
             A dispute between two
              rival powers could draw
              the entire continent into
              war.
An Assassination Leads to War
                Nowhere was that dispute
                 more likely to occur than
                 on the Balkan Peninsula.
                This mountain peninsula
                 in the southeastern corner
                 of Europe was home to an
                 assortment of ethnic
                 groups.
                With a long history of
                 nationalist uprisings and
                 ethnic clashes, the
                 Balkans were known as
                 the “powder keg” of
                 Europe.
 An Assassination Leads to War
 On June 28, 1914, the heir to the Austrian
  throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was
  assassinated by a Serbian rebel.
 Austria-Hungary declared what it expected
  to be a “bright, brisk little war” against
  Serbia.
An Assassination Leads to War
              A war between Austria and
               Serbia meant a war between
               Austria and Russia, Serbia's
               traditional ally.
              That meant war between
               Russia and Germany.
              And that meant war between
               Germany and France.
              And that meant war between
               Germany and Great Britain.
              In a flash, the whole continent
               was at war.
II. War Consumes
     Europe
The Schlieffen Plan
         Germany quickly put its
          military plan into effect.
         Under the Schlieffen Plan, a
          large part of the German army
          would race west, to defeat
          France, and then fight Russia in
          the east.
         The German army would avoid
          France’s line fortifications by
          sweeping west through neutral
          Belgium and then turning in a
          huge arc south into France. The
          French army would be
          destroyed defending Paris.
       Europeans Take Sides
 By mid-August 1914, the battle lines were
  clearly drawn.
 Central Powers – Germany, Austria-
  Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman
  Empire
 Allies – Great Britain, France, Russia,
  Japan, and Italy.
Europeans Take Sides
      Europeans Take Sides
 In the late summer of 1914, millions of
  soldiers marched happily off to battle,
  convinced that the war would be short.
A Bloody Stalemate
        German plans for the Western
         Front soon began unraveling.
        As the German right flank
         drove deeper, it separated from
         the rest of the invading force.
        Recognizing their vulnerability,
         the Germans pulled up twenty-
         five miles short of Paris.
        Now, it was France’s chance to
         attack.
        What followed was the Battle
         of the Marne where the
         German advance was stopped.
       A Bloody Stalemate
 As a result of the Battle of Marne,
  Germany’s lightning-quick strike instead
  turned into a long and bloody stalemate
  along the battlefields of France.
 The deadlocked region in northern France
  became known as the Western Front.
 A quick victory in the west no longer
  seemed possible for Germany.
 They were going to have to fight a long
  war on two fronts.
War in the Trenches
           When the German
            advance was stopped, two
            lines of deep trenches
            zigzagged from the
            English Channel to
            Switzerland.
           Trenches were rat-
            infested, muddy, and
            filled with shell craters
            and barbed-wire.
           Armies traded huge losses
            for pitifully small land
            gains.
War in the Trenches
           The space between the
            opposing trenches won
            the grim name of, “no
            man’s land.”
           When officers ordered an
            attack, the men went
            “over the top” of their
            trenches.
           They were usually met
            with murderous rounds of
            machine gun fire.
           Artillery fire and poison
            gas brought death right
            into the trenches.
          New Weapons of War
 Machine Guns
 Firepower increased
  from several rounds
  per minute to 600
  rounds per minute.
 Because the gun could
  wipe out waves of
  attackers and make it
  difficult for forces to
  advance, it helped
  create a stalemate.
New Weapons of War
          Tanks
          First developed by the
           British were used to
           clear a path through
           barbed wire for the
           infantry.
          The first tanks were
           slow and clumsy. The
           tank’s top speed was
           4 mph.
New Weapons of War
          Poison Gas
          Introduced by the
           Germans, the
           greenish-yellow fog
           of chlorine blinded
           and caused death by
           choking.
          Soldiers wore gas
           masks to protect
           themselves.
          New Weapons of War
 Airplanes
 Originally, planes
  were used for taking
  photographs of enemy
  lines.
 Soon, both sides used
  them to drop bombs.
 Guns soon were
  attached to the planes,
  and pilots fought each
  other in the air.
New Weapons of War
          Submarines
          German submarines,
           known as U-boats,
           eventually waged
           unrestricted warfare
           on Allied ships.
          The U-boat’s primary
           weapon was the
           torpedo, a self-
           propelled underwater
           missile.
       New Weapons of War
 New tools of war had not delivered the fast-
  moving war many had expected.
 All this new technology did was kill huge
  numbers of people more effectively.
 In February 1916, the Germans launched a
  massive attack against the French near Verdun.
  Each side lost more than 300,000 men.
 In July of 1916, the British army attached the
  Germans in Verdun. On the first day more than
  20,000 British soldiers were killed.
 By the time the battle ended, each side had
  suffered over half a million casualties.
The Eastern Front
          Even as the war on the
           Western Front claimed
           thousands of lives, both
           sides were sending
           millions more men to
           fight on the Eastern Front,
           along the German and
           Russian border.
          Without modern
           technology, the Russian
           army was barely able to
           hang on.
The Eastern Front
           By 1916, Russia’s war
            effort was near collapse.
           They had yet to become
            industrialized, so they
            were continually short on
            food, guns, ammunition,
            clothes, boots, and
            blankets.
           The Russian army did
            have one asset – its
            numbers. Throughout the
            war, Russia suffered
            enormous battlefield
            losses.
III. War Affects the
      World
          The World at
              War
 By early 1915, it was apparent to all the warring
  nations that swift victory had eluded them.
 As war on both European fronts promised to be a
  grim, drawn-out affair, all the Great Powers
  looked for new allies to tip the balance.
 They also sought new war fronts on which to
  achieve victory.
The World at War
                 The U. S. Role
 At first, the U.S. was
  neutral, selling goods to
  both the Allies and the
  Central Powers.
 Then, on May 7, 1915,
  the British liner,
  Lusitania is sunk by a
  German U-boat, killing
  1,198 people, including
  128 Americans.
The U. S. Role
    By 1917, failed crops and a British
     naval blockade, caused severe
     food shortages in Germany
    They were desperate to strike
     back.
    The Germans announced that their
     submarines would sink without
     warning any ship in the waters
     around Britain, a policy called
     unrestricted submarine warfare.
    Ignoring warnings by U.S.
     President Woodrow Wilson,
     German U-boats sank three
     American ships.
The U. S. Role
      In February 1917, a German
       telegram, known as the
       Zimmerman note, was
       intercepted which suggested
       an alliance between Germany
       and Mexico.
      It said if war with the U.S.
       broke out, Germany would
       support Mexico in recovering
       its “lost territory in Texas,
       New Mexico, and Arizona.”
      On April 2, 1917 President
       Woodrow Wilson asked
       Congress to declare war.
The U. S. Role
       Only about 200,000
        men were in service at
        that time.
       American officers had
        little combat experience.
       Almost all of the army’s
        weapons were outdated.
       The Selective Service
        Act passed in May 1917
        drafted 3 million men
        chosen by lottery.
    War Affects the Home Front
 World War I soon became a total war, the
  countries devoted all their resources to the
  war effort.
 In Great Britain, Germany, Austria, Russia,
  and France, the entire force of government
  was dedicated to winning the conflict.
War Affects the Home Front
              In each country, the
               wartime government
               took control of the
               economy.
              Governments told
               factories what to
               produce and how
               much.
              Nearly every able-
               bodied civilian was put
               to work.
War Affects the Home Front
              So many goods were
               in short-supply that
               governments turned to
               rationing.
              Rationing is a system
               where people can only
               buy small amounts of
               goods, such as butter
               and shoes.
    War Affects the Home Front
 Governments also
  censored news about
  the war.
 Many leaders feared
  that honest reporting
  of the war would turn
  people against it.
 Governments also
  used propaganda – one
  sided information
  designed to persuade
  support for the war.
The War’s Impact on Women
              Thousands of women
               replaced men in
               factories, offices, and
               shops.
              Women built tanks and
               munitions, plowed fields,
               paved streets, and ran
               hospitals.
              Although most women
               left the work force when
               the war ended, they
               changed many people’s
               views of what women
               were capable of doing.
IV. A Flawed Peace
The War Ends
      Although there were no
       Allied forces on
       German soil or no
       decisive battle that had
       been fought, the
       German war machine
       and economy were too
       exhausted to continue.
      So on Nov. 11, 1918,
       the two sides signed an
       armistice, an agreement
       to stop fighting.
The War Ends
        The Treaty of Versailles
 On January 18,
  1919, a conference
  to establish the
  terms of peace
  began at the Palace
  of Versailles,
  outside Paris.
 Delegates from 32
  countries attended
  the talks.
The Treaty of Versailles
             U.S. Pres. Wilson
              presented a plan for
              peace known as the
              Fourteen Points.
             The plan called for
              liberty and self-
              determination for all.
             The Allies rejected his
              plan.
       The Treaty of Versailles
 Britain and France
  were more
  concerned with
  national security.
 They wanted to strip
  Germany of its war-
  making power.
 They also wanted
  Germany to pay for
  the suffering the war
  had caused.
The Treaty of Versailles
             The Treaty of
              Versailles, signed on
              June 28, 1919, called
              for the following:
             A League of Nations
              whose goal would be
              to keep peace among
              nations.
       The Treaty of Versailles
 The establishment of
  new nations
  including
  Czechoslovakia,
  Poland, and
  Yugoslavia.
 New territories for
  Britain and France
  in the Middle East.
The Treaty of Versailles
             Limited Germany’s
              military and forced
              them to pay reparations
              in the amount of $33
              billion.
             Forced Germany to
              acknowledge that it
              alone was responsible
              for the war.
   Results of the Treaty of Versailles
 In the end, the Treaty of
  Versailles did little to
  build a lasting peace.
 The U.S., considered
  after the war to be the
  dominant nation in the
  world, rejected the
  treaty.
 Sowed seeds that led to
  the 2nd World War.
Results of the Treaty of Versailles
               The treaty humiliated
                Germany.
               Other nations were no less
                responsible for the start of
                the war.
               A severe economic
                depression made it
                impossible for Germany to
                pay the reparations.
               The German mark became
                practically worthless.
  Results of the Treaty of Versailles
 Russia felt ignored.
 They fought with the
  allies for three years
  and suffered higher
  casualties than any
  other nation.
 The new government,
  the U.S.S.R. became
  determined to regain
  the territory it lost.
                 The Legacy
 Both sides paid a tremendous price in terms of
  human life.
 8.5 million dead
 21 million wounded
 An entire generation of Europeans were wiped out
  became known as the Lost Generation.
 In addition, over $300 billion dollars were spent
  fighting the war, a staggering amount for that
  time.
 The Great War shook European society to its
  foundations

				
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