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What is Southeast Asia

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					  Annamari Antikainen-Kokko
          Åbo Akademi
Centrum för Sydostasiatiska Studier


    Kaakkois-Aasian
   poliittishallinnolliset
        järjestelmät
             21.3.2000
                Contents
• What is Southeast Asia?
• Pre-colonial Southeast Asia, political
  tradition
• Colonial influence, emergence of the new
  state
• Present day Southeast Asia, legitimacy of
  the state
       What is Southeast Asia?
•   Geographic description
•   Cultural, linguistic, religious diversity
•   World War II definition
•   Cold War division
•   ASEAN-10
    I. Pre-colonial Southeast Asia
•   Buddhist Kings
•   Vietnamese Emperors
•   Malay Sultans
•   Javanese Kings
•   Barangay societies in the Philippines
  State-sangha relations
                  KING

                                    legitimates
                         protects
legitimates
              protects



                  legitimates

 SANGHA                                     ARMY
                     protects
         II. Colonial influence
•   Spanish Philippines
•   French Vietnam
•   Dutch East Indies
•   British Malaya
•   Siam during colonial period
    New elite under colonial rule
•   careerists, job-hunters
•   associationists, bridge-builders
•   constitutionalists, emerging bourgeoisie
•   revolutionaries, masses and their demands
          Spanish Philippines
•   Crown and the Cross
•   Propaganda movement, Katipunan
•   Federalista Party
•   Nacionalista Party
•   Hukbalapah
             French Vietnam
•   Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina
•   Parti Constitutionaliste, 1917
•   Viet Nam Quo Dan Dang
•   Dong Duong Cong San Dang, 1929
•   Viet Minh, 1941
•   Lao Dong, 1954
•   Can Dao Nhan Vi Cach Manh Dang
•   Front National De Liberation, FNL
            British Malaya
• Federated Malay States (FMS), Unfederated
  Malay States (UMS)
• Kesatuan Melayu Muda
• Malay Association,1938
• United Malays National Organisation
  (UMNO)
• Malayan Communis Party, MCP, 1930
            Dutch East Indies
•   Regents; Lurah; Batavia
•   santri, abangan, priyayi
•   Sarekat Islam
•   Perserikatan Kommunis Indonesia, PKI
•   Perserikatan Nasional Indonesia; PNI
•   Partai Rakyat Indonesia
            Colonial Siam
• Economic concessions, administrative
  reform
• 1932 Constitutional monarchy
     III. Legitimacy of the state
•   State philosophy
•   Constitution
•   Political Leaders
•   Parliament
•   Political parties
•   Political processes
•   Army
 State philosophy in Southeast
              Asia
• Brunei: National Philosophy of Melayu
  Islam Beraja (Malay Islamic Monarchy
  dating from 100 AD)
• Cambodia: "pluralist liberal democracy"
• Indonesia: National Philosophy of "Panca
  Sila" (five principles), "Unity in Diversity”
• Laos: "multi-sector" market economy
• Malaysia: National Philosophy of
  Rukunegara
     Pancasila (1945)

• Belief in the one and only God
• Just and civilised humanity
• Unity of Indonesia
• Democracy guided by the inner
  wisdom in the unanimity arising out of
  deliberations amongst the
  representatives
• Social justice for the whole of the
  people of Indonesia
   Rukunegara (1969)

Our Nation, Malaysia is dedicated
To achieving a greater unity for all her
peoples;
To maintaining a democratic way of life;
To creating a just society in which the
wealth of the nation shall be equitably
distributed;
To ensuring a liberal approach to her rich
and diverse cultural traditions;
To building a progressive society which
shall be orientated to modern science and
technology.
We, her peoples, pledge our
united efforts to attain these
ends guided by these principles:
1) Belief in God
2) Loyalty to the King and
 Country
3) The Supremacy of the
 Constitution
4) The Rule of Law
5) Mutual Respect and Good
Social Behaviour
         Present constitutions in
             Southeast Asia
•   Brunei: 1959 Constitution
•   Cambodia: 1993 Constitution
•   Indonesia: 1945
•   Laos: 1991 Constitution
•   Malaysia: 1957 Constitution
•   Myanmar: 1974
•   Philippines: 1987 Constitution
•   Singapore: 1959 Constitution
•   Thailand: 1997 Constitution
•   Vietnam: 1992 Constitution
Constitutional Governments in
        Southeast Asia
• Kingdoms: Cambodia, Thailand
• Republics: Indonesia, Philippines,
  Singapore
• Socialist: Socialist Republic of Vietnam,
  Lao People's Democratic Republic
• Without definition: Brunei, Malaysia,
  Myanmar
Head of State and Government

• Kingdoms: King and Prime Minister
• Republics: President (and Prime Minister)
• Socialist: President, Prime Minister and
  Communist Party
• Brunei and Malaysia: Yang di Pertuan
  (and Sultan/Prime Minister)
• Myanmar: : Chairman of State, Peace and
  Development Council and Prime Minister
Legislatures in Southeast Asia
•   Cambodia: National Assembly
•   Indonesia: House of Representatives
•   Laos: National Assembly
•   Malaysia: House of Representatives
•   Philippines: House of Representatives
•   Singapore: Parliament
•   Thailand: National Assembly
•   Vietnam: National Assembly
•   Brunei and Myanmar: none
        Parties/Political Organisations
               in Southeast Asia
• None: Myanmar
• One party: Brunei, Brunei National Solidarity Party;
  Vietnam: Communist Party of Vietnam (Dang Cong San
  VietNam
• several: Laos: with a special role provided in Constitution
  for the Lao People's Revolutionary Party; Malaysia: the
  ruling coalition Barisan National (BN) under the leadership
  of UMNO (Baru) since 1974; Singapore: People's Action
  Party (PAP) ruling since 1959
• Many: Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand

				
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