It’s really, really great.
The flag of Turkey
• Area: 780,580 Kilometers
• Slightly larger than Texas
• Capital is Ankara
• Texas has never come close to winning
the World Cup
• Turkey: 01
• Texas: 00
Real Turkey isn’t cooked,
it establishes its
The move to become an independent
state was made by a man named
“Father of Turkey”
His success at leading the movement towards
becoming an independent state in addition to
making many social reforms as the first
authoritarian leader of the country led him to
receive the title of “the father of Turkey”.
• Turkey is home of Mt. Ararat which is
rumored to be the home of the Ark’s final
• Texas has never been rumored to have
• Turkey: 02
• Texas: 01
Cyprus (Which is located 47 miles south of Turkey in the Mediterranean
Population Growth Rate: 1.09%
Birth Rate: 16.83/1,000 population
Death Rate: 5.96/1,000 population
Total Fertility Rate: 1.94 children
The Religion of Turkey
• Turkey is a secular country
– Every person has the right to practice whatever
religion they believe
• However, if you want to fit in, Muslim is the
way to go.
– Muslim: 99.8% (That’s 100% for those of you who round numbers)
• 80% of Muslims are Sunni Muslims
– Christians & Jews: 00.2% of the population
Secularism in Turkey
• Secularism, which gives a country’s people the
right to practice whatever religion they choose,
was officially amended to the country’s
constitution in 1937 with law #3115
• During the Ottoman Empire, the economy was run
on the belief that the government should be
strictly in charge of controlling all aspects of the
economy in order to insure the well being of all its
• This belief has somewhat been inherited in the
attitudes of republicans in modern day turkey and
is one of the reasons why the state plays such a
large role in many sectors of the economy
including basic industry, banking, transport, and
• The economy in general is made up of both
modern industries along with a large
agriculture sector that still makes up over
34% of Turkeys labor force of 24.7
• Some of the many agriculture products
exported include tobacco, cotton, grain,
olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus and
“What the heck is pulse?”
Pulse is an edible seed
• In recent years automotives and
electronics have been rising in the number
of products exported.
• However textiles and clothing is still the
largest sector in the economy taking up
over 1/3 of all employment. So far in the
21st Century there has been an increase in
investor interest in new markets due to
recent economic gains.
It is legend that Turkey was created by
the cosmic collision of…
Freshly baked cookies
And all things soft
But since there are no
facts to back this up
(other than Özgur’s smile)
Here are some facts
about how Turkey
The Ottoman Empire
Began in 1299, founded by Ottoman elite
Bey Osman I is known as the founder of
the empire even though it existed well
The empire grew incredibly large but
slowly collapsed over the ages. When the
Central Powers lost in WWI, time was up
for the Ottoman Empire
20th & 21st Century
After WWI, the Sikes-Picot agreement
was signed between the UK and France.
The agreement broke up the Ottoman
empire and divided it amongst the British,
French, Russians, Italians, and Greece.
The territory of Ankara, the modern day
capitol, is all that was left for the Turks
20th & 21st Century
The state of Turkey is established in
1921 upon the creation of the Turkish
The Treaty of Lausanne was signed,
setting up the modern day boundaries of
Mustafa Kemal became the president of
Remember how the Soviets had nuclear
missiles in Cuba pointed at us?
We had nuclear missiles pointed at the
Soviets from Turkey.
No missiles were fired, as you should
The Coups of Turkey
The military took over the government on May
27th of 1960
The military believed that the government had
grown too close to Islam and was loosing its
A new constitution was drafted, reinforcing the
separation of church and state
The Government was then returned to civil rule
The Coups of Turkey
The military took control of Turkey again
in 1971 due to the anarchy resulting from
Capitalist and Communist clashes.
The military did not take over the
government but its influence was heavy.
The Coups of Turkey
September 12, 1980: The military takes
over again and the people love it. The
government had strayed from the beliefs
of civil order, national unity, and the
secular state again and Turkey was
beginning to stagnate. After the military
stepped in, things were back on track
You can’t spell trouble
From 1984-1999 the PKK imposed
relentless attacks on Turkey. After the
capture of PKK leader of Ocalan, there
was a ceasefire
In 2004 the PKK became a major
problem again, ignoring its leader’s
In 2004: The European Union began
negotiating with Turkey about its future
2005 & Today: Turkey is still arguing with
the EU about its right for membership
Elected by the Grand National Assembly
Must receive at least 2/3 of the vote, if not
the elections are held again.
Serve for seven years.
President appoints the Prime Minister and
those under the him.
He is the leader of the military.
He can veto draft laws.
Ahmet Necdet Sezer was elected in 2000.
Started as a judge in Ankara and was
never a member of the Grand National
He is a secularist and supporter of
freedom of expression.
The current Prime Minister is Recep Tayyip
In 1997 he recited an Islamic poem at a
public meeting and was convicted of
inciting religious hatred and sentenced to
ten months in prison.
Needless to say, this made his road to
becoming Prime Minister unique
But how do I become the Prime
Minister of Turkey?
To be appointed Prime Minister, one has
to be a member of the National Assembly
You must also not have any convictions on
Then how did
There are 2 reasons
Abdullah Gul, a strong supporter of
Erdogan, was appointed Prime Minister
and pushed a constitutional amendment
allowing Erdogan to win a seat in the
Abdullah then stepped down and Erdogan
was appointed Prime Minister.
More info? Just check the Recep
Recep Tayyip Erdogan is a member
of the Justice and Development Party
or AK party
– The AK party is a conservative and
Islamic based party.
How does the government work?
► The Judicial branch of the government can
easily be broken into several different
The Constitutional Court
Sounds fancy, what do they do?
► Constitutional Court functions just like our
Supreme Court in the sense that they
decide if laws are constitutional or not.
► Administrative, military, and civil courts are
separated and each has their own courts for
► There is another court for jurisdictional
disputes where crimes that don’t fit in the
other courts are tried.
Turkey’s Domestic Concerns
Kurdistan Workers Party or PKK
An ethnic secessionist terrorist organization with Marxist
influences made up of Kurds living in the south eastern
part of Turkey as well as Iran, Iraq and Syria.
Kurds make up about 20% making them
the largest minority group in the country
Their goal is secession from the Turkish
Government and a homeland of their own.
– They are one of the few ethnicities to not
have their own state.
The PKK was formed by the Kurd, Abdullah
Ocalan in 1978.
Since that time, the Turkish Government
has been shaken by extortion, kidnapping,
drug trafficking, bombings, and guerilla war
80% of all heroin used in Britain has come from
PKK Today: Kongra-Gel
Ocalan was arrested in
1999 and has since
rnounced the violent arm
of the party.
A cease-fire was
announced upon his
arrest, but the cease-fire
ended in 2004.
Today the PKK ignores
the orders of its leader
who has declared his own
dislike for the band of what
he today calls “murderers”
July 2005: Turkey celebrates its’ 82nd
anniversary of the signing of the Lausanne
– One of the founding documents of the Turkish
– Recognized Turkey as a state and guaranteed
– Shows that Turkey is in pursuit of a policy of
“Peace at Home and Peace Abroad.”
North Atlantic Trade Organization
Organization for Security and Cooperation in
World Trade Organization
Organization of the Islamic Conference
Is currently seeking admittance to the EU.
• While it is a Muslim nation, it is the only
pluralist secular democracy in the Middle
• For the past 42 years Turkey has tried to
join the EU.
Dates to Remember!
• 1963-Ankara Agreement signed bringing
Turkey and EEC closer in economic and
• 1970-An additional protocol signed which
abolished tariffs and quotas on goods
circulating between Turkey and the EEC.
• 1995-Customs Union, or free trade with a
common external tariff, was established
between the two.
• 1999-Helsinki European Council recognizes the
reforms made by Turkey and it is seen as a
candidate state for the EU.
• 2004-At the Brussels European Council Turkey
agrees to sign protocol of the adaptation of
– But they will not recognize Greek Cypriot
• 2005-Turkey begins accession negotiations, led
by Ali Babacan as Chief Negotiator
Has a Greek Cypriot majority (77%) and
a Turkish Cypriot minority (18%)
It became a member of the EU in 2004.
North Cyprus, also known as the “Turkish
Republic of Northern Cyprus” is not a
The “Annan Plan” was formed, calling for
the reunification of the island as the
United Cyprus Republic.
Greek Cypriots rejected this plan, while
Turkish Cypriots accepted it.
In 2005 a new Turkish leader was
elected, Mehmet Ali Talat, and he is in
favor of reunification.
Turkey on Weapons
Not that kind
Turkey serves as a link between the East and
It is surrounded by areas posing high risk
proliferation of nuclear weapons.
They are a part of the Treaty of Non-Proliferation
of Nuclear Weapons, the Comprehensive Test
Ban Treaty and was a founding member the
It agrees with the UN Security Council
Resolution 1540, focusing on the prevention of
proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological
Prime Minister on Iraq
Erdogan has no
objection to the
peaceful use of
nuclear power in Iran
But he believes that
the entire region
should be free of
weapons of mass
Relations to Palestine and Israel
Prime Minister Erdogan believes that the new
Hamas government should be respected by all.
The elections are an indication of democracy.
Hopes that Fatah and Hamas will be able to work
Looks forward to the day that Israel and Palestine
recognize one another as states.
They are working on building an industrial zone
with Israel and Palestine which will provide jobs
“The Valley of the Wolves-Iraq”
Most expensive film made in Turkey’s history.
Focuses on the war on Iraq and the brutality of
Received well by the Turkish people.
Incorporates the “bag incidence”
U.S. troops arrested 11 Turkish officers in northern
Iraq, they had to walk back to headquarters with
bags over their heads.
This was seen as an act of betrayal by an ally.
Turkish people are not anti-American from the
film, but supposedly some are anti-Bush
Now it’s your turn to talk
What are possible solutions to the
Do you think the film will have any
effect on Turkish Sentiments
regarding the USA?
Does the Secular Government of
Turkey prevent freedom of
Do you think that Turkey will
eventually get in the EU?