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					      Turkey
It’s really, really great.
The flag of Turkey
                Geography
• Area: 780,580 Kilometers
• Slightly larger than Texas
• Capital is Ankara
                 But…
• Texas has never come close to winning
  the World Cup
OLAY!

• Turkey: 01
• Texas: 00
Real Turkey isn’t cooked,
it establishes its
independence
   The move to become an independent
    state was made by a man named
    Mustafa Kemal.
~~~Mustafa Kemal~~~
“Father of Turkey”
   His success at leading the movement towards
    becoming an independent state in addition to
    making many social reforms as the first
    authoritarian leader of the country led him to
    receive the title of “the father of Turkey”.
                Mt.Ararat
• Turkey is home of Mt. Ararat which is
  rumored to be the home of the Ark’s final
  resting place.
              Mt.Ararat
• Texas has never been rumored to have
  Noah’s Ark.
OLAY!

• Turkey: 02
• Texas: 01
Surrounding Countries
   Greece
   Bulgaria
   Georgia
   Armenia
   Azerbaijan
   Iran
   Iraq
   Syria
   Cyprus (Which is located 47 miles south of Turkey in the Mediterranean
    Sea)
          Demographics
Population: 69,660,559
Population Growth Rate: 1.09%
Birth Rate: 16.83/1,000 population
Death Rate: 5.96/1,000 population
Total Fertility Rate: 1.94 children
born/woman
              Demographics
Languages
   Turkish
   Kurdish
   Arabic
   Armenian
   Greek
Ethnicities
   80% Turkish
   20% Kurdish
         The Religion of Turkey
• Turkey is a secular country
  – Every person has the right to practice whatever
    religion they believe
• However, if you want to fit in, Muslim is the
  way to go.
  – Muslim: 99.8% (That’s 100% for those of you who round numbers)
      • 80% of Muslims are Sunni Muslims
  – Christians & Jews: 00.2% of the population
         Secularism in Turkey
• Secularism, which gives a country’s people the
  right to practice whatever religion they choose,
  was officially amended to the country’s
  constitution in 1937 with law #3115
                Economy
• During the Ottoman Empire, the economy was run
  on the belief that the government should be
  strictly in charge of controlling all aspects of the
  economy in order to insure the well being of all its
  citizens
• This belief has somewhat been inherited in the
  attitudes of republicans in modern day turkey and
  is one of the reasons why the state plays such a
  large role in many sectors of the economy
  including basic industry, banking, transport, and
  communication.
             Economy
• The economy in general is made up of both
  modern industries along with a large
  agriculture sector that still makes up over
  34% of Turkeys labor force of 24.7
  million.
• Some of the many agriculture products
  exported include tobacco, cotton, grain,
  olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus and
  livestock.
“What the heck is pulse?”
   Pulse is an edible seed
             Economy
• In recent years automotives and
  electronics have been rising in the number
  of products exported.
• However textiles and clothing is still the
  largest sector in the economy taking up
  over 1/3 of all employment. So far in the
  21st Century there has been an increase in
  investor interest in new markets due to
  recent economic gains.
History

  It is legend that Turkey was created by
   the cosmic collision of…
PUPPIES
KITTENS
Grandma’s
Freshly baked cookies
And all things soft
But since there are no
 facts to back this up
 (other than Özgur’s smile)
 Here are some facts
 about how Turkey
 began…
The Ottoman Empire

  Began in 1299, founded by Ottoman elite
  Bey Osman I is known as the founder of
   the empire even though it existed well
   before him.
  The empire grew incredibly large but
   slowly collapsed over the ages. When the
   Central Powers lost in WWI, time was up
   for the Ottoman Empire
20th & 21st Century

  After WWI, the Sikes-Picot agreement
   was signed between the UK and France.
  The agreement broke up the Ottoman
   empire and divided it amongst the British,
   French, Russians, Italians, and Greece.
  The territory of Ankara, the modern day
   capitol, is all that was left for the Turks
20th & 21st Century

  The state of Turkey is established in
   1921 upon the creation of the Turkish
   Constitution
  The Treaty of Lausanne was signed,
   setting up the modern day boundaries of
   Turkey
  Mustafa Kemal became the president of
   Turkey
Cold War

  Remember how the Soviets had nuclear
   missiles in Cuba pointed at us?
  We had nuclear missiles pointed at the
   Soviets from Turkey.
  No missiles were fired, as you should
   know.
The Coups of Turkey

  The military took over the government on May
   27th of 1960
  The military believed that the government had
   grown too close to Islam and was loosing its
   Secular foundation.
  A new constitution was drafted, reinforcing the
   separation of church and state
  The Government was then returned to civil rule
The Coups of Turkey

  The military took control of Turkey again
   in 1971 due to the anarchy resulting from
   Capitalist and Communist clashes.
    The military did not take over the
     government but its influence was heavy.
The Coups of Turkey

  September 12, 1980: The military takes
   over again and the people love it. The
   government had strayed from the beliefs
   of civil order, national unity, and the
   secular state again and Turkey was
   beginning to stagnate. After the military
   stepped in, things were back on track
You can’t spell trouble
without PKK
  From 1984-1999 the PKK imposed
   relentless attacks on Turkey. After the
   capture of PKK leader of Ocalan, there
   was a ceasefire
  In 2004 the PKK became a major
   problem again, ignoring its leader’s
   wishes
EU

 In 2004: The European Union began
  negotiating with Turkey about its future
  membership
 2005 & Today: Turkey is still arguing with
  the EU about its right for membership
                 President
   Elected by the Grand National Assembly
   Must receive at least 2/3 of the vote, if not
    the elections are held again.
   Serve for seven years.
   President appoints the Prime Minister and
    those under the him.
   He is the leader of the military.
   He can veto draft laws.
                 President
   Ahmet Necdet Sezer was elected in 2000.
   Started as a judge in Ankara and was
    never a member of the Grand National
    Assembly.
   He is a secularist and supporter of
    freedom of expression.
              Prime Minister
   The current Prime Minister is Recep Tayyip
    Erdogan.
   In 1997 he recited an Islamic poem at a
    public meeting and was convicted of
    inciting religious hatred and sentenced to
    ten months in prison.
   Needless to say, this made his road to
    becoming Prime Minister unique
    But how do I become the Prime
          Minister of Turkey?
   To be appointed Prime Minister, one has
    to be a member of the National Assembly
   You must also not have any convictions on
    your record.
  Then how did
Erdogan become
 Prime Minister?
Good question!
There are 2 reasons
               Reason #1
   Abdullah Gul, a strong supporter of
    Erdogan, was appointed Prime Minister
    and pushed a constitutional amendment
    allowing Erdogan to win a seat in the
    assembly.
               Reason #2
   Abdullah then stepped down and Erdogan
    was appointed Prime Minister.
Booyah!
More info? Just check the Recep
Recep Tayyip Erdogan is a member
of the Justice and Development Party
or AK party
– The AK party is a conservative and
  Islamic based party.
How does the government work?
► The Judicial branch of the government can
 easily be broken into several different
 sections
     The Constitutional Court
     Administrative Court
     Military Court
     Civil Courts
 Sounds fancy, what do they do?
► Constitutional Court functions just like our
  Supreme Court in the sense that they
  decide if laws are constitutional or not.
► Administrative, military, and civil courts are
  separated and each has their own courts for
  appeals.
► There is another court for jurisdictional
  disputes where crimes that don’t fit in the
  other courts are tried.
        Turkey’s Domestic Concerns




   Kurdistan Workers Party or PKK
       An ethnic secessionist terrorist organization with Marxist
        influences made up of Kurds living in the south eastern
        part of Turkey as well as Iran, Iraq and Syria.
                 The Minority
 Kurds make up about 20% making them
  the largest minority group in the country
 Their goal is secession from the Turkish
  Government and a homeland of their own.
    – They are one of the few ethnicities to not
      have their own state.
PKK
   The PKK was formed by the Kurd, Abdullah
    Ocalan in 1978.
   Since that time, the Turkish Government
    has been shaken by extortion, kidnapping,
    drug trafficking, bombings, and guerilla war
    fare.
       80% of all heroin used in Britain has come from
        Turkey
PKK Today: Kongra-Gel
   Ocalan was arrested in
    1999 and has since
    rnounced the violent arm
    of the party.
   A cease-fire was
    announced upon his
    arrest, but the cease-fire
    ended in 2004.
   Today the PKK ignores
    the orders of its leader
    who has declared his own
    dislike for the band of what
    he today calls “murderers”
        International Conflict
 July 2005: Turkey celebrates its’ 82nd
  anniversary of the signing of the Lausanne
  Peace Treaty.
  – One of the founding documents of the Turkish
    Republic.
  – Recognized Turkey as a state and guaranteed
    its’ independence.
  – Shows that Turkey is in pursuit of a policy of
    “Peace at Home and Peace Abroad.”
  International Organizations
 North Atlantic Trade Organization
 Organization for Security and Cooperation in
  Europe (OSCE)
 World Trade Organization
 Organization of the Islamic Conference
 Is currently seeking admittance to the EU.
 And others
          European Union
• While it is a Muslim nation, it is the only
  pluralist secular democracy in the Middle
  East.
• For the past 42 years Turkey has tried to
  join the EU.
       Dates to Remember!
• 1963-Ankara Agreement signed bringing
  Turkey and EEC closer in economic and
  trade matters.
• 1970-An additional protocol signed which
  abolished tariffs and quotas on goods
  circulating between Turkey and the EEC.
• 1995-Customs Union, or free trade with a
  common external tariff, was established
  between the two.
                  DATES!!
• 1999-Helsinki European Council recognizes the
  reforms made by Turkey and it is seen as a
  candidate state for the EU.
• 2004-At the Brussels European Council Turkey
  agrees to sign protocol of the adaptation of
  Ankara Agreement.
  – But they will not recognize Greek Cypriot
    Administration.
• 2005-Turkey begins accession negotiations, led
  by Ali Babacan as Chief Negotiator
Cyprus

  Has a Greek Cypriot majority (77%) and
   a Turkish Cypriot minority (18%)
  It became a member of the EU in 2004.
    North Cyprus, also known as the “Turkish
     Republic of Northern Cyprus” is not a
     member.
CYPRUS

 The “Annan Plan” was formed, calling for
  the reunification of the island as the
  United Cyprus Republic.
 Greek Cypriots rejected this plan, while
  Turkish Cypriots accepted it.
 In 2005 a new Turkish leader was
  elected, Mehmet Ali Talat, and he is in
  favor of reunification.
Turkey on Weapons
Not that kind
 of turkey!
                Weapons
Turkey serves as a link between the East and
the West.
It is surrounded by areas posing high risk
proliferation of nuclear weapons.
They are a part of the Treaty of Non-Proliferation
of Nuclear Weapons, the Comprehensive Test
Ban Treaty and was a founding member the
Wassenaar Arrangement.
It agrees with the UN Security Council
Resolution 1540, focusing on the prevention of
proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological
weapons.
        Prime Minister on Iraq
Prime Minister
Erdogan has no
objection to the
peaceful use of
nuclear power in Iran
and Iraq.
   But he believes that
    the entire region
    should be free of
    weapons of mass
    destruction.
Relations to Palestine and Israel
   Prime Minister Erdogan believes that the new
    Hamas government should be respected by all.
       The elections are an indication of democracy.
       Hopes that Fatah and Hamas will be able to work
        together.
       Looks forward to the day that Israel and Palestine
        recognize one another as states.
   They are working on building an industrial zone
    with Israel and Palestine which will provide jobs
    for Palestinians.
    “The Valley of the Wolves-Iraq”
 Most expensive film made in Turkey’s history.
 Focuses on the war on Iraq and the brutality of
  American soldiers.
 Received well by the Turkish people.
 Incorporates the “bag incidence”
       U.S. troops arrested 11 Turkish officers in northern
        Iraq, they had to walk back to headquarters with
        bags over their heads.
       This was seen as an act of betrayal by an ally.
   Turkish people are not anti-American from the
    film, but supposedly some are anti-Bush
    administration.
Now it’s your turn to talk

   What are possible solutions to the
    Cyprus Conflict?
   Do you think the film will have any
    effect on Turkish Sentiments
    regarding the USA?
   Does the Secular Government of
    Turkey prevent freedom of
    expression?
   Do you think that Turkey will
    eventually get in the EU?

				
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posted:7/24/2012
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