Energy Data dd by jennyyingdi

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 79

									             Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia
                                                           1990 - 2010

                                              John Nyboer and Maximilian Kniewasser
                                Canadian Industrial Energy End-use Data and Analysis Centre (CIEEDAC)
                                                       Simon Fraser University

                                                                  June 2012




Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers’ Association,
                     Canadian Construction Association, Canadian Foundry Association, Canadian Gas Association, Canadian Petroleum Products
                     Institute, Canadian Steel Producers Association, Cement Association of Canada, Forest Products Association of Canada, Mining
                     Association of Canada, Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions.
The Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions gratefully
acknowledges the generous endowment provided
by the Province of British Columbia through the
Ministry of Environment in 2008. This funding is
enabling ongoing independent research aimed at
developing innovative climate change solutions,
opportunities for adaptation, and steps toward
achieving a vibrant low-carbon economy.




Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions
University of Victoria
PO Box 1700 STN CSC
Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2

Phone 250-853-3595
Fax 250-853-3597
E-mail pics@uvic.ca
Web pics.uvic.ca
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      	
     Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Executive	
  Summary	
  
The	
  Canadian	
  Industrial	
  Energy	
  End-­‐use	
  Data	
  and	
  Analysis	
  Centre	
  (CIEEDAC)	
  prepared	
  
this	
  report	
  on	
  energy	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia	
  for	
  the	
  Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  
(PICS).	
  The	
  report	
  is	
  divided	
  into	
  three	
  sections.	
  
The	
  first	
  section	
  provides	
  an	
  overview	
  of	
  information	
  relating	
  to	
  energy	
  supply	
  and	
  use,	
  
greenhouse	
  gas	
  emissions	
  and	
  energy	
  efficiency	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  It	
  includes	
  total	
  
energy	
  use	
  and	
  emissions	
  data	
  for	
  all	
  sectors	
  and	
  some	
  industries	
  from	
  1990	
  to	
  2010,	
  as	
  
well	
  as	
  energy	
  intensity	
  indicators	
  based	
  on	
  population	
  and	
  monetary	
  production	
  (Gross	
  
Domestic	
  Product,	
  GDP).	
  Appendix	
  A	
  contains	
  detailed	
  data	
  tables	
  disaggregated	
  by	
  
economic	
  sectors,	
  including	
  Total	
  Industrial	
  (and	
  its	
  major	
  sub-­‐sectors),	
  Residential,	
  
Commercial/Institutional	
  and	
  others.	
  
The	
  Statistics	
  Canada	
  (STC)	
  publication	
  Report	
  on	
  Energy	
  Supply	
  and	
  Demand	
  (RESD)	
  is	
  
the	
  primary	
  data	
  source	
  for	
  energy	
  used	
  in	
  this	
  report.	
  It	
  disaggregates	
  data	
  by	
  province	
  
to	
  the	
  3-­‐digit	
  level	
  of	
  the	
  North	
  American	
  Industry	
  Classification	
  System	
  (NAICS)	
  for	
  a	
  
limited	
  number	
  of	
  industries.	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  data	
  were	
  obtained	
  from	
  Environment	
  
Canada’s	
  annual	
  National	
  Inventory	
  Report	
  (EC	
  2011).	
  	
  This	
  report	
  provided	
  both	
  the	
  
coefficients	
  to	
  calculate	
  the	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  generated	
  in	
  the	
  various	
  BC	
  sectors	
  and	
  an	
  
absolute	
  value	
  of	
  emissions	
  against	
  which	
  the	
  calculated	
  data	
  could	
  be	
  compared.	
  
Production	
  and	
  population	
  data	
  were	
  both	
  retrieved	
  from	
  the	
  Canadian	
  Socio-­‐economic	
  
Information	
  Management	
  (CANSIM)	
  system,	
  an	
  STC	
  online	
  database.	
  
Between	
  1990	
  and	
  2010,	
  total	
  energy	
  use	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia	
  rose	
  15%.	
  In	
  2010,	
  total	
  
use	
  was	
  1,070	
  PJ.	
  Over	
  this	
  time,	
  population	
  grew	
  by	
  38%	
  and	
  GDP	
  by	
  82%.	
  	
  Given	
  the	
  
greater	
  growth	
  rates	
  in	
  population	
  and	
  GDP	
  compared	
  with	
  energy	
  use,	
  energy	
  intensity	
  
declined	
  by	
  16%	
  per	
  person	
  and	
  37%	
  per	
  dollar	
  from	
  1990.	
  
Natural	
  gas,	
  electricity	
  and	
  refined	
  petroleum	
  products	
  (RPPs)	
  are	
  the	
  major	
  fuels	
  of	
  the	
  
BC	
  economy.	
  Use	
  of	
  natural	
  gas	
  in	
  2010	
  was	
  3%	
  lower	
  than	
  it	
  was	
  in	
  1990	
  while	
  
electricity	
  use	
  increased	
  12%	
  and	
  RPP	
  use	
  24%.	
  Coal	
  demand,	
  although	
  representing	
  a	
  
small	
  portion	
  of	
  total	
  energy	
  use,	
  increased	
  the	
  most,	
  about	
  232%.1	
  	
  Hydroelectricity	
  
continued	
  to	
  dominate	
  electricity	
  production	
  but	
  lost	
  ground	
  to	
  thermal	
  generation,	
  
which	
  was	
  at	
  its	
  highest	
  point	
  since	
  1990	
  (16%).	
  	
  Electrical	
  generation	
  using	
  heavy	
  fuel	
  
oil	
  (HFO)	
  and	
  diesel/light	
  fuel	
  oil	
  (LFO)	
  lost	
  ground	
  to	
  “other”	
  (a	
  mix	
  of	
  fuels	
  not	
  defined	
  
in	
  RESD).	
  Natural	
  gas’s	
  share	
  of	
  generation	
  decreased	
  as	
  well,	
  but	
  total	
  generation	
  from	
  
natural	
  gas	
  plants	
  more	
  than	
  doubled.	
  
Total	
  Industrial	
  energy	
  use	
  decreased	
  by	
  1%	
  and	
  use	
  in	
  Total	
  Manufacturing	
  decreased	
  
8%.	
  Energy	
  use	
  in	
  Transportation	
  increased	
  43%	
  while	
  Agriculture	
  increased	
  78%	
  due	
  to	
  
a	
  greater	
  use	
  of	
  natural	
  gas.	
  Energy	
  use	
  in	
  the	
  Commercial/Institutional	
  sector	
  stayed	
  
level	
  compared	
  to	
  1990	
  and	
  in	
  the	
  Residential	
  sector	
  energy	
  use	
  rose	
  13%.	
  

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
1
 	
  These	
  data	
  are	
  under	
  review	
  and	
  may	
  change.	
  	
  Some	
  provincial	
  agencies	
  indicate	
  that	
  coal	
  data	
  from	
  STC	
  
do	
  not	
  currently	
  correspond	
  to	
  what	
  has	
  been	
  noted	
  by	
  these	
  agencies.	
  


	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ii	
                                                           	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           	
      Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


GHG	
  emissions	
  fluctuated	
  over	
  the	
  study	
  period,	
  peaking	
  in	
  2004	
  and	
  finishing	
  the	
  
period	
  21%	
  above	
  1990.	
  	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  intensity	
  per	
  capita	
  decreased	
  by	
  12%	
  since	
  
1990	
  and	
  GHG	
  intensity	
  based	
  on	
  GDP	
  decreased	
  25%	
  over	
  that	
  period.	
  From	
  2009	
  to	
  
2010,	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  per	
  capita	
  decreased	
  to	
  9.79	
  tonnes	
  CO2e	
  from	
  11.12	
  tonnes	
  CO2e.	
  	
  
An	
  analysis	
  of	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  by	
  sector	
  reveals	
  that	
  emissions	
  in	
  the	
  following	
  sectors	
  
increased	
  significantly:	
  Electricity	
  (24%),	
  Transportation	
  (44%)	
  and	
  Agriculture	
  (63%).	
  
GHG	
  emissions	
  decreased	
  noticeably	
  in	
  the	
  following	
  sectors:	
  Residential	
  (15%),	
  
Commercial/Institutional	
  (27%)	
  and	
  Total	
  Industrial	
  (30%).	
  	
  
GHG	
  emissions	
  resulting	
  from	
  the	
  production	
  of	
  electricity	
  fluctuated	
  greatly	
  over	
  the	
  
study	
  period,	
  mainly	
  due	
  to	
  variations	
  in	
  the	
  generation	
  of	
  electricity	
  in	
  the	
  non-­‐utility	
  
sub-­‐sector.	
  
The	
  second	
  section	
  of	
  this	
  report	
  summarizes	
  the	
  latest	
  version	
  of	
  CIEEDAC’s	
  
cogeneration	
  database	
  as	
  of	
  March	
  2012.2	
  It	
  identifies	
  the	
  size	
  (electrical	
  capacity,	
  kWe3)	
  
and	
  system	
  operator/thermal	
  host	
  of	
  industrial,	
  commercial/institutional	
  and	
  district	
  
energy	
  cogeneration	
  facilities	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  It	
  also	
  includes	
  performance	
  
characteristics	
  of	
  cogeneration	
  systems	
  operating	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  
In	
  the	
  past,	
  CIEEDAC	
  relied	
  on	
  secondhand	
  data	
  sources	
  such	
  as	
  Statistics	
  Canada,	
  
corporate	
  websites,	
  private	
  consultants	
  and	
  electric	
  utilities	
  to	
  identify	
  cogeneration	
  
facilities	
  and	
  compile	
  data	
  on	
  their	
  characteristics.	
  For	
  the	
  last	
  four	
  years,	
  CIEEDAC	
  has	
  
gathered	
  data	
  on	
  cogeneration	
  systems	
  directly	
  from	
  the	
  system	
  operators.	
  A	
  
questionnaire	
  goes	
  out	
  to	
  each	
  facility,	
  seeking	
  verification	
  of	
  existing	
  data	
  and	
  
requesting	
  new	
  information	
  about	
  each	
  site.	
  The	
  resulting	
  database	
  is	
  increasingly	
  
reliable	
  and	
  contains	
  data	
  that	
  enhances	
  understanding	
  of	
  the	
  opportunities	
  for	
  and	
  
limitations	
  of	
  cogeneration	
  in	
  Canada	
  and	
  its	
  provinces.	
  
The	
  CIEEDAC	
  database	
  currently	
  contains	
  information	
  on	
  6.6	
  GWe	
  of	
  cogeneration	
  
capacity	
  in	
  Canada,	
  with	
  British	
  Columbia	
  contributing	
  1.02	
  GWe,	
  or	
  16%	
  of	
  total	
  national	
  
capacity.	
  The	
  Pulp	
  and	
  Paper	
  sector	
  accounts	
  for	
  54%	
  of	
  total	
  operational	
  capacity	
  in	
  
British	
  Columbia	
  and	
  has	
  a	
  cogeneration	
  level	
  of	
  0.55	
  GWe.	
  
The	
  third	
  section	
  of	
  this	
  report	
  presents	
  information	
  on	
  renewable	
  energy	
  in	
  British	
  
Columbia.	
  A	
  database	
  of	
  facilities	
  was	
  established	
  in	
  2002,	
  using	
  data	
  from	
  Statistics	
  
Canada	
  and	
  other	
  sources.	
  The	
  results	
  are	
  presented	
  from	
  the	
  most	
  recent	
  data	
  survey	
  
of	
  two	
  years	
  ago,	
  including	
  data	
  on	
  the	
  mix	
  of	
  renewable	
  energy	
  by	
  resource/technology	
  
type,	
  scale	
  (capacity	
  and	
  annual	
  generation),	
  owner/operator,	
  green	
  certification	
  status	
  
and	
  vintage.	
  	
  
Renewable	
  energy	
  provided	
  between	
  19%	
  and	
  21%	
  of	
  the	
  energy	
  produced	
  in	
  BC	
  in	
  
2009	
  (based	
  on	
  extrapolations	
  of	
  data	
  from	
  survey	
  respondents).	
  The	
  installed	
  
renewable	
  electricity	
  facilities	
  represented	
  almost	
  88%	
  of	
  the	
  provincial	
  total	
  electricity	
  
capacity	
  in	
  that	
  year.	
  The	
  installed	
  renewable	
  electrical	
  capacity	
  of	
  12.8	
  GW	
  is	
  

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
2
       	
  Refer	
  to	
  www.cieedac.sfu.ca	
  for	
  more	
  information	
  on	
  cogeneration	
  data.	
  
3
       	
  1,000	
  W	
  of	
  electric	
  capacity	
  


	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         iii	
                                                           	
  
	
                                                                    	
         Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


dominated	
  by	
  hydroelectricity	
  at	
  96.6%	
  and	
  cogeneration	
  from	
  biomass	
  wood	
  residue	
  at	
  
3.3%	
  of	
  the	
  total,	
  with	
  biogas	
  and	
  solar	
  photovoltaic	
  sources	
  accounting	
  for	
  only	
  about	
  
0.1%	
  of	
  BC’s	
  installed	
  capacity.	
  
Based	
  on	
  data	
  from	
  STC’s	
  RESD	
  and	
  CANSIM	
  databases,	
  electricity	
  generation	
  in	
  BC	
  was	
  
the	
  source	
  of	
  about	
  1.45	
  Mt	
  of	
  greenhouse	
  gases	
  (CO2e)	
  in	
  2009.	
  This	
  is	
  a	
  relatively	
  low	
  
value	
  compared	
  with	
  many	
  other	
  provinces	
  in	
  Canada	
  and	
  is	
  well	
  below	
  the	
  national	
  
average.	
  It	
  results	
  from	
  BC’s	
  high	
  percentage	
  of	
  renewable	
  sources	
  of	
  electricity.	
  If	
  these	
  
facilities	
  were	
  replaced	
  with	
  combined-­‐cycle	
  gas	
  turbines,	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  from	
  
electricity	
  generation	
  would	
  likely	
  be	
  as	
  high	
  as	
  29.3	
  Mt	
  CO2e.	
  
	
                                            	
  




	
                                                                  iv	
                                                                   	
  
	
                                                             	
        Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


                                             Acknowledgments	
  
CIEEDAC	
  wishes	
  to	
  thank	
  the	
  Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions,	
  Natural	
  Resources	
  
Canada	
  and	
  Environment	
  Canada	
  who	
  support	
  the	
  work	
  of	
  CIEEDAC	
  through	
  their	
  
sponsorship	
  and	
  financial	
  contributions,	
  part	
  of	
  which	
  funded	
  this	
  report.	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  

                             	
  
This	
  project	
  was	
  undertaken	
  with	
  the	
  financial	
  support	
  of	
  the	
  Government	
  of	
  Canada.	
  
Ce	
  projet	
  été	
  realisé	
  avec	
  l’appui	
  financier	
  du	
  Gouvernement	
  du	
  Canada.	
  
	
                                            	
  




	
                                                            v	
                                                              	
  
	
                                                                        	
         Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


                                                       Table	
  of	
  Contents	
  
                                                                                                                              ii
Executive	
  Summary	
  ......................................................................................................	
  

Acknowledgments	
   .......................................................................................................	
  v

Table	
  of	
  Contents	
  ........................................................................................................	
  vi

Introduction	
  ..............................................................................................................	
  viii

1        Energy	
  Use	
  and	
  GHG	
  Emissions	
  in	
  BC’s	
  Economic	
  Sectors,	
  1990	
  to	
  2010	
  ................	
   1
       1.1 Objectives	
  ...............................................................................................................	
  1
       1.2 Methodology	
  ..........................................................................................................	
  1
         1.2.1 Data	
  Sources	
  .....................................................................................................	
  1
         1.2.2 Sectors	
  and	
  Industries	
  Included	
  in	
  This	
  Section	
         ................................................	
  2
         1.2.3 Intensity	
  Indicators	
  ...........................................................................................	
  3
       1.3 Energy	
  Intensity,	
  1990–2010	
  ..................................................................................	
  3
       1.4 Energy	
  Use	
  by	
  Fuel	
  Type	
  .........................................................................................	
  5
       1.5 Energy	
  Use	
  by	
  Sector	
  ..............................................................................................	
  6
         1.5.1 Energy	
  Use	
  in	
  Industry	
  ......................................................................................	
  7
         1.5.2 Commercial	
  and	
  Residential	
  Sectors	
  ..............................................................	
           10
       1.6 Electricity	
  Production	
  ...........................................................................................	
    10
         1.6.1 Total	
  Primary	
  and	
  Secondary	
  Production	
  .......................................................	
           10
         1.6.2 Utility	
  and	
  Non-­‐utility	
  Production	
  ..................................................................	
     13
       1.7 Greenhouse	
  Gas	
  Emissions,	
  1990–2010	
  ...............................................................	
             14
         1.7.1 GHG	
  Emissions	
  by	
  Fuel	
  ...................................................................................	
   15
         1.7.2 GHG	
  Emissions	
  by	
  Sector	
  ................................................................................	
    17
         1.7.3 GHG	
  Emissions	
  from	
  Electricity	
  Generation	
  ...................................................	
            18
       1.8 Conclusion	
  and	
  Summary	
  .....................................................................................	
       18

2        Cogeneration	
  Facilities	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  2010	
                                                           20
                                                                                 ..................................................	
  
                                                                                                                                      20
       2.1 Objectives	
  .............................................................................................................	
  
       2.2 Methodology	
  ........................................................................................................	
  21
                                                                                                                                      21
         2.2.1 Data	
  Sources	
  ...................................................................................................	
  
       2.3 Cogeneration	
  Results,	
  2010	
  ..................................................................................	
   21
                                                                                                                                      22
         2.3.1 Sector	
  Results	
  .................................................................................................	
  
         2.3.2 Cogeneration	
  System	
  Performance	
  Characteristics	
  .......................................	
                  22
       2.4 Conclusion	
  and	
  Summary	
  .....................................................................................	
    23

3        Renewable	
  Energy	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia	
     ..................................................................	
  25
                                                                                                                                      25
       3.1 Objectives	
  .............................................................................................................	
  
       3.2 Background	
  on	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Technologies	
  .................................................	
             25

	
                                                                      vi	
                                                                       	
  
	
                                                                     	
         Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


         3.2.1 Hydroelectricity	
  ..............................................................................................	
   26
                                                                                                                                      26
         3.2.2 Wind	
  Power	
  ....................................................................................................	
  
                                                                                                                                      26
         3.2.3 Biomass	
  and	
  Biogas	
  ........................................................................................	
  
                                                                                                                                      27
         3.2.4 Solar	
  Photovoltaic	
  ...........................................................................................	
  
         3.2.5 Geothermal	
  and	
  Earth	
  Energy	
  ........................................................................	
     27
                                                                                                                                      27
         3.2.6 Others	
  .............................................................................................................	
  
       3.3 Methodology	
  ........................................................................................................	
  28
                                                                                                                                      28
         3.3.1 Data	
  Sources	
  ...................................................................................................	
  
       3.4 Renewable	
  Energy	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  1990–2009	
  .............................................	
          30
                                                                                                                                      30
         3.4.1 Capacity	
  ..........................................................................................................	
  
         3.4.2 Annual	
  Generation	
  of	
  Energy	
  .........................................................................	
    32
                                                                                                                                      33
         3.4.3 Capacity	
  Utilization	
  .........................................................................................	
  
         3.4.4 Characteristics	
  of	
  Electricity	
  Generators	
  ........................................................	
       34
         3.4.5 Characteristics	
  of	
  Thermal	
  Energy	
  Generators	
  ...............................................	
          35
                                                                                                                                      36
       3.5 Comparison	
  with	
  the	
  Rest	
  of	
  Canada	
  ...................................................................	
  
       3.6 Conclusion	
  and	
  Summary	
  .....................................................................................	
    36

4        Bibliography	
  .........................................................................................................	
  37

                                                                                                                                  39
List	
  of	
  Appendices	
  ......................................................................................................	
  

Appendix	
  A:	
  Energy	
  Use	
  Data	
  Tables	
  ..........................................................................	
  40

Appendix	
  B:	
  Cogeneration	
  Data	
  Tables,	
  2010	
  .............................................................	
  58

Appendix	
  C:	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Data,	
  2009	
  ................................................................	
  59
	
                                 	
  




	
                                                                   vii	
                                                                   	
  
	
                                                                  	
         Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


                                                      Introduction	
  
The	
  Canadian	
  Industrial	
  Energy	
  End-­‐use	
  Data	
  and	
  Analysis	
  Centre	
  (CIEEDAC)	
  prepared	
  
this	
  report	
  for	
  the	
  Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  (PICS).	
  While	
  CIEEDAC’s	
  annual	
  
reports	
  on	
  energy	
  efficiency,	
  cogeneration	
  and	
  renewable	
  energy	
  contain	
  some	
  of	
  the	
  
information	
  presented	
  here,	
  this	
  report	
  provides	
  information	
  specific	
  to	
  British	
  
Columbia.	
  
Both	
  Canadian	
  industry	
  and	
  regional	
  Canadian	
  governments	
  increasingly	
  see	
  the	
  need	
  
for	
  accurate	
  data	
  on	
  historic	
  energy	
  use	
  and	
  greenhouse	
  gas	
  (GHG)	
  emissions.	
  These	
  
data	
  are	
  used	
  to:	
  
       1) determine	
  trends	
  in	
  energy	
  supply,	
  energy	
  use	
  and	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  within	
  Canada	
  
          as	
  a	
  method	
  of	
  determining	
  the	
  impacts	
  of	
  changes	
  in	
  technology,	
  processes	
  and	
  
          attitudes	
  about	
  energy;	
  
       2) compare	
  Canadian	
  industrial,	
  residential,	
  commercial,	
  transportation,	
  
          agricultural	
  and	
  utility	
  performance	
  to	
  that	
  of	
  other	
  regions	
  and	
  countries;	
  and	
  
       3) monitor	
  the	
  environmental	
  impacts	
  of	
  energy	
  use,	
  such	
  as	
  levels	
  of	
  GHG	
  
          emissions.	
  
To	
  draw	
  proper	
  conclusions	
  from	
  the	
  data,	
  industry	
  and	
  governments	
  need	
  to	
  know	
  that	
  
the	
  values	
  reflect	
  reality	
  as	
  closely	
  as	
  possible.	
  This	
  report	
  assesses	
  the	
  data	
  and	
  
interprets	
  it	
  in	
  a	
  useful	
  and	
  accessible	
  format	
  in	
  three	
  overview	
  sections:	
  energy	
  use	
  and	
  
emissions	
  in	
  BC’s	
  economic	
  sectors,	
  cogeneration	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia	
  and	
  renewable	
  
energy	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  	
  
The	
  first	
  section	
  draws	
  on	
  Statistics	
  Canada	
  data	
  to	
  track	
  energy	
  supply	
  and	
  use,	
  energy	
  
intensity	
  and	
  greenhouse	
  gas	
  emissions	
  from	
  1990	
  to	
  2010.	
  This	
  section	
  deals	
  with	
  fossil	
  
fuels	
  and	
  electricity	
  generation	
  for	
  all	
  sectors,	
  with	
  additional	
  details	
  provided	
  for	
  
selected	
  industries.	
  The	
  second	
  section	
  uses	
  CIEEDAC’s	
  cogeneration	
  database	
  to	
  
describe	
  cogeneration	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia	
  from	
  2000	
  to	
  2010.	
  The	
  database	
  draws	
  on	
  
information	
  from	
  operators	
  of	
  cogeneration	
  facilities,	
  industry	
  sources	
  and	
  Statistics	
  
Canada	
  data.	
  The	
  third	
  section	
  describes	
  the	
  different	
  types	
  of	
  renewable	
  energy	
  
sources	
  and	
  then	
  presents	
  an	
  overview	
  of	
  renewable	
  resources	
  and	
  technology	
  in	
  British	
  
Columbia.	
  The	
  information	
  is	
  drawn	
  from	
  a	
  survey	
  of	
  operators,	
  along	
  with	
  data	
  from	
  
Statistics	
  Canada	
  and	
  other	
  sources.	
  However,	
  owing	
  to	
  funding	
  limitations,	
  no	
  survey	
  
was	
  conducted	
  this	
  year.	
  The	
  most	
  recent	
  data	
  in	
  this	
  section	
  are	
  for	
  2009.	
  	
  
About	
  CIEEDAC	
  
CIEEDAC	
  focuses	
  on	
  energy	
  information	
  relevant	
  to	
  Canada’s	
  industrial	
  sector.	
  One	
  of	
  
CIEEDAC’s	
  primary	
  goals	
  is	
  to	
  expand	
  and	
  improve	
  the	
  existing	
  knowledge	
  on	
  energy	
  
supply	
  and	
  use,	
  greenhouse	
  gas	
  emissions,	
  cogeneration	
  and	
  renewable	
  energy	
  by	
  
establishing	
  or	
  enhancing	
  processes	
  for	
  the	
  regular	
  and	
  timely	
  collection	
  of	
  reliable	
  data.	
  
CIEEDAC	
  provides	
  a	
  range	
  of	
  services	
  to	
  industry	
  and	
  government.	
  It	
  performs	
  specific	
  
retrieval	
  and	
  analyses	
  from	
  its	
  databases	
  based	
  on	
  requests	
  from	
  interested	
  parties.	
  It	
  
also	
  produces	
  various	
  reports	
  each	
  year,	
  presenting	
  the	
  latest	
  data	
  on	
  energy	
  use	
  and	
  

	
                                                               viii	
                                                                	
  
	
                                                               	
        Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


related	
  information	
  for	
  the	
  Canadian	
  industrial	
  sector.	
  When	
  doing	
  provincial	
  reports,	
  
CIEEDAC	
  broadens	
  its	
  scope	
  to	
  include	
  reviews	
  of	
  other	
  sectors	
  in	
  addition	
  to	
  the	
  
industrial	
  sector.	
  These	
  include	
  the	
  commercial,	
  residential,	
  agricultural	
  and	
  
transportation	
  sectors.	
  
About	
  PICS	
  
PICS	
  partners	
  with	
  governments,	
  the	
  private	
  sector,	
  other	
  researchers	
  and	
  civil	
  society	
  
to	
  research,	
  monitor	
  and	
  assess	
  the	
  potential	
  impacts	
  of	
  climate	
  change	
  and	
  to	
  assess,	
  
develop	
  and	
  promote	
  viable	
  mitigation	
  and	
  adaptation	
  options	
  to	
  better	
  inform	
  climate	
  
change	
  policies	
  and	
  actions.	
  
PICS	
  is	
  hosted	
  and	
  led	
  by	
  the	
  University	
  of	
  Victoria	
  in	
  partnership	
  with	
  BC’s	
  other	
  
research-­‐intensive	
  universities	
  (Simon	
  Fraser	
  University,	
  the	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  
Columbia	
  and	
  the	
  University	
  of	
  Northern	
  British	
  Columbia).	
  Building	
  on	
  the	
  strengths	
  of	
  
its	
  partner	
  universities,	
  PICS	
  works	
  to	
  develop	
  innovative	
  climate	
  change	
  solutions,	
  seek	
  
new	
  opportunities	
  for	
  positive	
  adaptation	
  and	
  lead	
  the	
  way	
  to	
  a	
  vibrant	
  low-­‐carbon	
  
economy.	
  
	
  




	
                                                             ix	
                                                                 	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         	
             Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


1 Energy	
  Use	
  and	
  GHG	
  Emissions	
  in	
  BC’s	
  Economic	
  Sectors,	
  1990	
  to	
  2010	
  
This	
  first	
  section	
  of	
  the	
  report	
  presents	
  information	
  available	
  from	
  Statistics	
  Canada	
  (STC)	
  on	
  
energy	
  use	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia	
  and	
  various	
  sectors	
  of	
  the	
  BC	
  economy.	
  It	
  includes	
  a	
  time	
  series	
  
of	
  gross	
  energy	
  use	
  and	
  provides	
  energy	
  and	
  emissions	
  intensity	
  indicators	
  using	
  population	
  
and	
  economic	
  output	
  (Gross	
  Domestic	
  Product	
  [GDP])	
  as	
  denominators	
  in	
  the	
  intensity	
  ratios.	
  
Detailed	
  data	
  are	
  provided	
  in	
  Appendix	
  A.	
  
1.1 Objectives	
  
The	
  objectives	
  of	
  the	
  first	
  section	
  of	
  this	
  report	
  are	
  to:	
  
              •                          demonstrate	
  the	
  quantity	
  and	
  quality	
  of	
  data	
  available	
  for	
  all	
  sectors	
  and	
  industries	
  in	
  
                                         British	
  Columbia;	
  
              •                          identify	
  trends	
  in	
  energy	
  supply,	
  use	
  and	
  greenhouse	
  gas	
  (GHG)	
  emissions	
  within	
  
                                         aggregate	
  sectors	
  and	
  industries	
  in	
  the	
  region;	
  and	
  
               •                         identify	
  weaknesses	
  with	
  respect	
  to	
  data	
  collection	
  and	
  the	
  impact	
  they	
  have	
  on	
  
                                         portraying	
  a	
  consistent	
  picture	
  of	
  energy	
  supply,	
  use	
  and	
  GHG	
  emissions.	
  
1.2 Methodology	
  
1.2.1 Data Sources
Energy	
  Data	
  
STC	
  receives	
  its	
  energy	
  supply	
  and	
  use	
  data	
  from	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  surveys.	
  	
  Each	
  supplier	
  of	
  energy	
  
(oil	
  products,	
  natural	
  gas,	
  coal,	
  electricity,	
  etc.)	
  provides	
  data	
  on	
  energy	
  used	
  to	
  prepare	
  its	
  
product	
  for	
  sale.	
  It	
  also	
  provides	
  distribution	
  data	
  on	
  who	
  receives	
  the	
  energy	
  product	
  after	
  
processing.	
  	
  These	
  data	
  are	
  collectively	
  aligned	
  in	
  an	
  energy-­‐balanced	
  Report	
  on	
  Energy	
  Supply	
  
and	
  Demand	
  (RESD).	
  	
  Because	
  of	
  the	
  significant	
  use	
  of	
  energy	
  in	
  the	
  industrial	
  sector,	
  STC	
  
obtains	
  data	
  from	
  the	
  Industrial	
  Consumption	
  of	
  Energy	
  (ICE)	
  survey.	
  Released	
  in	
  the	
  summer	
  of	
  
every	
  year	
  for	
  the	
  previous	
  year,	
  ICE	
  data	
  provides	
  specific	
  details	
  on	
  energy	
  use	
  in	
  physical	
  
units.	
  
Recently,	
  STC	
  has	
  worked	
  to	
  harmonize	
  the	
  RESD	
  and	
  ICE	
  data	
  more	
  completely.	
  	
  This	
  has	
  
significantly	
  affected	
  the	
  historic	
  data	
  as	
  STC	
  is	
  updating	
  data	
  back	
  to	
  1995	
  in	
  the	
  harmonization	
  
process.	
  This	
  report	
  highlights	
  some	
  of	
  the	
  changes	
  that	
  have	
  already	
  occurred	
  as	
  a	
  result	
  of	
  
STC’s	
  effort.	
  
The	
  RESD	
  data	
  are	
  disaggregated	
  by	
  province,	
  but	
  industry	
  disaggregations	
  are	
  not	
  nearly	
  as	
  
detailed	
  as	
  the	
  North	
  American	
  Industry	
  Classification	
  System	
  (NAICS)	
  allows	
  or	
  as	
  ICE	
  
provides.4	
  RESD	
  data	
  are	
  used	
  in	
  this	
  report	
  because	
  they	
  form	
  a	
  balanced	
  energy	
  database.	
  
RESD	
  attributes	
  all	
  energy	
  produced	
  and	
  used	
  to	
  the	
  various	
  sectors	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia	
  and	
  the	
  
other	
  provinces.	
  


	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
4
       	
  ICE	
  data	
  are	
  never	
  released	
  by	
  province	
  or	
  any	
  other	
  region,	
  only	
  nationally.	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         	
             Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


GHG	
  Emissions	
  Data	
  
Environment	
  Canada	
  (EC)	
  publishes	
  its	
  National	
  Inventory	
  Report	
  (EC	
  2011)	
  annually,	
  17	
  months	
  
after	
  the	
  end	
  of	
  the	
  year.	
  	
  This	
  publication	
  provides	
  data	
  on	
  process	
  emissions	
  of	
  GHGs,	
  as	
  well	
  
as	
  coefficients	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  to	
  determine	
  CO2,	
  CH4	
  and	
  N2O	
  emissions	
  based	
  on	
  fuels	
  used.	
  	
  
The	
  coefficients	
  are	
  defined	
  in	
  units	
  of	
  emissions	
  per	
  physical	
  unit	
  of	
  energy.	
  In	
  the	
  analysis	
  
used	
  in	
  this	
  report,	
  physical	
  units	
  of	
  energy	
  are	
  multiplied	
  by	
  these	
  coefficients	
  to	
  determine	
  
the	
  emissions	
  generated	
  in	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  the	
  fuel.	
  
There	
  are	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  issues	
  related	
  to	
  the	
  analysis	
  of	
  GHG	
  emissions.	
  	
  These	
  include	
  the	
  
definition/handling	
  of	
  process	
  versus	
  fuel-­‐based	
  GHG	
  emissions;	
  the	
  degree	
  to	
  which	
  the	
  
energy	
  (and	
  thus	
  estimated	
  GHG)	
  data	
  are	
  considered	
  confidential;	
  the	
  calculation	
  of	
  indirect	
  
emissions	
  from	
  the	
  purchase	
  of	
  steam	
  or	
  electricity;5	
  the	
  role	
  of	
  electricity	
  production	
  in	
  the	
  
industry;	
  and	
  the	
  difference	
  in	
  levels	
  of	
  energy	
  use.	
  	
  Some	
  of	
  these	
  are	
  addressed	
  throughout	
  
the	
  section.	
  
Economic	
  Output	
  Data	
  
The	
  Canadian	
  Socio-­‐economic	
  Information	
  Management	
  (CANSIM)	
  system	
  is	
  a	
  computerized	
  
database	
  and	
  information	
  retrieval	
  system	
  updated	
  weekly	
  by	
  STC.	
  The	
  database	
  contains	
  
nearly	
  600,000	
  time	
  series	
  of	
  data	
  covering	
  a	
  wide	
  variety	
  of	
  social	
  and	
  economic	
  aspects	
  of	
  
Canadian	
  life	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  viewed	
  in	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  different	
  dimensions	
  including	
  geographical	
  
regions.	
  CANSIM	
  Table	
  379-­‐0025	
  contains	
  GDP	
  in	
  2002	
  constant	
  dollars,	
  disaggregated	
  by	
  
province,	
  and	
  organized	
  according	
  to	
  the	
  NAICS	
  system.	
  Data	
  that	
  populate	
  this	
  database	
  come	
  
from	
  a	
  survey	
  circulated	
  annually	
  by	
  STC.	
  Constant	
  dollar	
  data	
  is	
  derived	
  by	
  multiplying	
  current-­‐
period	
  quantities	
  of	
  production	
  by	
  their	
  prices	
  in	
  the	
  base	
  year.	
  
This	
  report	
  includes	
  information	
  on	
  industry	
  output	
  in	
  monetary	
  units,	
  which	
  represents	
  
industry’s	
  contribution	
  to	
  GDP	
  and	
  was	
  used	
  to	
  calculate	
  intensity	
  ratios.	
  CIEEDAC	
  did	
  not	
  
review	
  or	
  critique	
  these	
  data,	
  unlike	
  the	
  energy	
  and	
  emissions	
  data	
  used	
  in	
  the	
  report.	
  
1.2.2 Sectors and Industries Included in This Section
Table	
  1.1	
  lists	
  the	
  BC	
  sectors	
  and	
  industries	
  that	
  are	
  included	
  in	
  this	
  section	
  of	
  the	
  report.	
  
Energy	
  use	
  data	
  are	
  available	
  for	
  these	
  sectors	
  and	
  industries	
  and	
  were	
  used	
  to	
  calculate	
  GHG	
  
emissions.	
  




	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
5
 	
  While	
  data	
  are	
  available	
  to	
  calculate	
  emissions	
  per	
  unit	
  of	
  electricity	
  generated,	
  determining	
  the	
  carbon	
  content	
  
of	
  imported	
  energy	
  and	
  its	
  role	
  in	
  the	
  total	
  energy	
  picture	
  increases	
  the	
  complexity	
  of	
  the	
  calculation.	
  	
  Further,	
  
credit	
  for	
  exported	
  electricity,	
  if	
  that	
  is	
  allowed	
  to	
  form	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  calculation,	
  complicates	
  the	
  estimation	
  even	
  
more.	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         	
               Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Table	
  1.1.	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Sectors	
  and	
  Industries	
  Included	
  in	
  This	
  Report	
  
       Sector/Industry	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sector/Industry	
  
       Primary	
  and	
  Secondary	
  Production	
  of	
  Electricity	
                                                                                                                                                                   	
  
       Total	
  Industrial	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Total	
  Manufacturing,	
  cont.	
  
         Total	
  Mining,	
  Oil	
  and	
  Gas	
  Extraction	
                                                                                                                                                                                    Other	
  Manufacturing	
  
                     Total	
  Manufacturing	
                                                                                                                                                                                               Forestry	
  
                        Pulp	
  and	
  Paper	
                                                                                                                                                                                              Construction	
  
                        Smelting	
  and	
  Refining,	
  Non-­‐ferrous	
                                                                                                                                                                   Transportation	
  
                                       Cement	
                                                                                                                                                                                           Agriculture	
  
                                       Petroleum	
  Refining	
                                                                                                                                                                            Residential	
  
                                       Chemicals	
                                                                                                                                                                                        Commercial,	
  Institutional	
  and	
  Public	
  Administration	
  

1.2.3 Intensity Indicators
Intensity	
  ratios	
  (energy	
  over	
  output,	
  population	
  over	
  output)	
  are	
  useful	
  for	
  illustrating	
  general	
  
trends	
  over	
  time.	
  Indicators	
  based	
  on	
  physical	
  rather	
  than	
  monetary	
  units	
  tend	
  to	
  be	
  a	
  better	
  
proxy	
  for	
  technological	
  or	
  process	
  innovations	
  because	
  monetary	
  units	
  are	
  affected	
  by	
  many	
  
factors	
  not	
  associated	
  with	
  energy,	
  such	
  as	
  costs	
  of	
  labour	
  or	
  selling	
  price	
  of	
  the	
  final	
  product.6	
  
However,	
  monetary	
  data	
  are	
  generally	
  more	
  available	
  and	
  provide	
  a	
  generic	
  unit	
  for	
  estimating	
  
intensity	
  of	
  a	
  combination	
  of	
  industries	
  that	
  have	
  different	
  physical	
  units	
  (e.g.,	
  tonnes	
  of	
  
cement	
  compared	
  to	
  numbers	
  of	
  cars).	
  Although	
  physical	
  production	
  values	
  are	
  available	
  for	
  
some	
  sectors,	
  further	
  research	
  is	
  required	
  before	
  these	
  data	
  can	
  be	
  used.	
  Measures	
  of	
  energy	
  
intensity	
  provided	
  in	
  this	
  report	
  should	
  be	
  viewed	
  with	
  caution	
  as	
  they	
  are	
  based	
  on	
  monetary	
  
measures	
  of	
  output.	
  
1.3 Energy	
  Intensity,	
  1990–2010	
  
This	
  section	
  reports	
  on	
  changes	
  in	
  total	
  energy	
  use	
  and	
  GDP	
  for	
  BC	
  industries	
  from	
  1990	
  to	
  
2010.	
  It	
  also	
  includes	
  a	
  brief	
  discussion	
  of	
  population	
  growth	
  in	
  relation	
  to	
  these	
  changes.	
  
Appendix	
  A	
  contains	
  detailed	
  tables	
  of	
  the	
  data	
  used.	
  
Figure	
  1.1	
  presents	
  BC’s	
  energy	
  use	
  (PJ),	
  population	
  growth	
  (millions)	
  and	
  GDP	
  (in	
  2002	
  
$billions)	
  for	
  1990	
  to	
  2010.	
  Total	
  energy	
  use	
  includes	
  confidential	
  consumption,	
  biomass	
  used	
  
in	
  the	
  Pulp	
  and	
  Paper	
  sector,	
  and	
  energy	
  used	
  to	
  make	
  secondary	
  electricity.	
  




	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
6
 See	
  An	
  Assessment	
  of	
  Data	
  on	
  Output	
  for	
  Industrial	
  Sub-­‐Sectors	
  (CIEEDAC,	
  1993)	
  for	
  more	
  information	
  on	
  the	
  
issues	
  of	
  physical	
  versus	
  monetary	
  units	
  for	
  calculating	
  intensity	
  indicators	
  and	
  on	
  CIEEDAC's	
  recommendations	
  of	
  
appropriate	
  units.	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3	
                                                  	
  
	
                                                                                	
             Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Figure	
  1.1.	
  Energy	
  Use,	
  Population	
  and	
  GDP	
  for	
  BC,	
  1990–2010	
  




Sources:	
  STC	
  RESD;	
  CANSIM	
  Table	
  379-­‐0025	
  and	
  Table	
  051-­‐0001	
  

Total	
  energy	
  use	
  increased	
  steadily	
  until	
  2000	
  and	
  then	
  appears	
  to	
  have	
  levelled	
  off	
  somewhat	
  
from	
  2002	
  until	
  2007.	
  Energy	
  use	
  decreased	
  after	
  2007	
  when	
  the	
  economy	
  (GDP)	
  flattened	
  and	
  
dropped.	
  Energy	
  use	
  finished	
  the	
  period	
  15%	
  above	
  1990	
  levels	
  and	
  2.6%	
  above	
  2009.	
  
Both	
  population	
  and	
  GDP	
  grew	
  consistently	
  over	
  the	
  study	
  period.	
  Population	
  increased	
  with	
  an	
  
average	
  annual	
  growth	
  rate	
  of	
  just	
  over	
  1.5%,	
  ending	
  the	
  period	
  at	
  37.6%	
  above	
  1990.	
  GDP	
  had	
  
an	
  average	
  annual	
  growth	
  rate	
  of	
  just	
  over	
  2.9%	
  and	
  ended	
  the	
  period	
  at	
  82.4%	
  above	
  its	
  1990	
  
level.	
  The	
  population	
  grew	
  1.6%	
  during	
  2010,	
  while	
  GDP	
  rose	
  by	
  3.2%	
  (8%	
  in	
  industrial	
  sectors).	
  
CIEEDAC	
  used	
  GDP	
  and	
  population	
  data	
  to	
  calculate	
  the	
  energy	
  intensity	
  indicators	
  plotted	
  in	
  
Figure	
  1.2.	
  These	
  values	
  are	
  ratios	
  of	
  energy	
  use	
  per	
  unit	
  of	
  GDP	
  or	
  population.	
  Intensities	
  are	
  
presented	
  as	
  indices,	
  normalized	
  to	
  1990,	
  which	
  helps	
  demonstrate	
  changes	
  from	
  the	
  base	
  line.	
  
The	
  indices	
  show	
  different	
  rates	
  of	
  change,	
  although	
  both	
  are	
  trending	
  downward	
  (becoming	
  
less	
  intense).	
  Between	
  1990	
  and	
  2010,	
  energy	
  intensity	
  based	
  on	
  population	
  decreased	
  16%,	
  
while	
  the	
  intensity	
  based	
  on	
  GDP	
  decreased	
  37%.	
  From	
  2009	
  to	
  2010,	
  energy	
  intensity	
  based	
  on	
  
population	
  increased	
  marginally	
  (1%),	
  while	
  intensity	
  based	
  on	
  GDP	
  decreased	
  marginally	
  
(<1%).	
  These	
  indicators	
  suggest	
  that,	
  since	
  1990,	
  energy	
  use	
  per	
  person	
  and	
  per	
  dollar	
  
produced	
  both	
  decreased	
  but	
  at	
  different	
  rates.	
  This	
  may,	
  in	
  fact,	
  be	
  true,	
  but	
  other	
  factors	
  may	
  
also	
  have	
  caused	
  the	
  change	
  (e.g.,	
  changes	
  in	
  industry	
  structure,	
  changes	
  in	
  service	
  economy	
  
versus	
  manufacturing	
  economy,	
  changes	
  to	
  value-­‐added	
  that	
  do	
  not	
  affect	
  energy).	
  




                                                                                         4	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                                     	
             Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Figure	
  1.2.	
  Energy	
  Intensity	
  Indicators	
  for	
  BC,	
  1990–2010	
  




Sources:	
  Calculated	
  from	
  STC	
  RESD;	
  CANSIM	
  Table	
  379-­‐0025	
  and	
  Table	
  051-­‐0001	
  

1.4 Energy	
  Use	
  by	
  Fuel	
  Type	
  
Figure	
  1.3	
  presents	
  energy	
  use	
  by	
  fuel	
  type.	
  Refined	
  petroleum	
  product	
  (RPP)	
  use	
  declined	
  
marginally	
  during	
  the	
  2008	
  downturn	
  but	
  increased	
  in	
  2010	
  and	
  is	
  now	
  24%	
  above	
  1990	
  levels.	
  	
  
Of	
  all	
  energy	
  sources,	
  this	
  one	
  appears	
  to	
  have	
  been	
  the	
  least	
  affected	
  by	
  the	
  economic	
  
changes	
  in	
  2008	
  and	
  2009.	
  	
  That	
  said,	
  most	
  RPPs	
  dropped	
  in	
  2008	
  but	
  diesel	
  and	
  jet	
  fuel	
  were	
  
up,	
  while	
  in	
  2009	
  most	
  RPPs	
  were	
  up	
  while	
  diesel	
  and	
  jet	
  fuel	
  dropped.	
  Natural	
  gas	
  use	
  in	
  2010	
  
was	
  3%	
  lower	
  than	
  it	
  was	
  in	
  1990,	
  down	
  nearly	
  5%	
  from	
  2009.	
  Electricity	
  use	
  increased	
  steadily	
  
from	
  1990	
  to	
  2007,	
  a	
  peak	
  year,	
  and	
  declined	
  10%	
  in	
  2008,	
  remaining	
  relatively	
  flat	
  since	
  then	
  
at	
  a	
  level	
  12%	
  higher	
  than	
  1990.	
  	
  
Figure	
  1.3.	
  Energy	
  Use	
  by	
  Fuel	
  Type	
  in	
  BC,	
  1990–2010	
  




Note:	
  “Petroleum	
  Products”	
  (=	
  RPPs)	
  includes	
  still	
  gas,	
  gasoline,	
  kerosene,	
  diesel,	
  light	
  and	
  heavy	
  fuel	
  oil,	
  petroleum	
  
coke,	
  aviation	
  gasoline	
  and	
  aviation	
  turbo	
  fuel;	
  “Other”	
  includes	
  coal,	
  coke,	
  gas	
  plant	
  natural	
  gas	
  liquids	
  (NGLs),	
  steam,	
  
wood	
  waste	
  (hog	
  fuel)	
  and	
  spent	
  pulping	
  liquor.	
  
Source:	
  STC	
  RESD	
  




                                                                                              5	
                                                            	
  
	
                                                                                                 	
               Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Not	
  visible	
  in	
  Figure	
  1.3	
  as	
  a	
  separate	
  category,	
  coal	
  use	
  increased	
  dramatically	
  between	
  1990	
  
and	
  2010.	
  Although	
  proportionally	
  smaller	
  than	
  RPPs	
  and	
  natural	
  gas,	
  it	
  had	
  the	
  greatest	
  
increase	
  (232%)	
  over	
  the	
  period	
  but	
  declined	
  nearly	
  35%	
  from	
  its	
  peak	
  in	
  2006.7	
  	
  While	
  RESD	
  
provides	
  no	
  indication	
  of	
  which	
  industry	
  uses	
  this	
  fuel	
  type	
  (due	
  to	
  confidentiality),	
  it	
  is	
  likely	
  
the	
  cement	
  industry,	
  which	
  began	
  using	
  coal	
  instead	
  of	
  natural	
  gas	
  at	
  the	
  beginning	
  of	
  the	
  
millennium.	
  Appendix	
  A	
  contains	
  a	
  table	
  of	
  energy	
  use	
  by	
  fuel	
  type.	
  
1.5 Energy	
  Use	
  by	
  Sector	
  
Figure	
  1.4	
  presents	
  a	
  comparison	
  of	
  energy	
  use	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia’s	
  major	
  economic	
  sectors.	
  
All	
  sectors	
  display	
  some	
  variation	
  in	
  use	
  between	
  1990	
  and	
  2010.	
  	
  The	
  impact	
  of	
  the	
  economic	
  
downturn	
  of	
  2008–2009	
  is	
  most	
  obvious	
  in	
  the	
  Total	
  Industrial	
  and	
  Commercial/Institutional	
  
sectors.	
  
Figure	
  1.4.	
  Energy	
  Use	
  in	
  the	
  Major	
  Economic	
  Sectors	
  of	
  BC,	
  1990–2010	
  




Source:	
  STC	
  RESD	
  

The	
  Total	
  Industrial	
  sector’s	
  variable	
  but	
  generally	
  rising	
  trend	
  in	
  energy	
  use	
  fell	
  dramatically	
  
from	
  2007	
  to	
  2008.	
  	
  It	
  showed	
  signs	
  of	
  increase	
  again	
  in	
  2010	
  to	
  a	
  point	
  1%	
  lower	
  than	
  1990.	
  
The	
  sector	
  is	
  an	
  aggregation	
  of	
  Construction,	
  Forestry,	
  Total	
  Manufacturing,	
  and	
  Mining/Oil	
  and	
  
Gas	
  Extraction.	
  It	
  increased	
  energy	
  use	
  marginally	
  in	
  2009	
  and	
  2010	
  but	
  was	
  still	
  18%	
  below	
  
peak	
  levels	
  in	
  2000.	
  	
  The	
  Commercial/Institutional	
  sector	
  also	
  increased	
  until	
  the	
  economic	
  
downturn	
  where,	
  like	
  the	
  Total	
  Industrial	
  sector,	
  consumption	
  fell	
  to	
  a	
  point	
  about	
  the	
  same	
  as	
  
1990.	
  Sectors	
  that	
  showed	
  relatively	
  significant	
  increases	
  over	
  the	
  period	
  were:	
  Residential	
  at	
  
13%,	
  Transportation	
  at	
  43%,	
  Electricity	
  generation	
  at	
  70%	
  and	
  Agriculture	
  at	
  78%.	
  The	
  data	
  for	
  
the	
  Agriculture	
  sector	
  showed	
  a	
  significant	
  increase	
  in	
  2010	
  due	
  to	
  a	
  10-­‐fold	
  increase	
  in	
  the	
  use	
  
of	
  natural	
  gas.	
  Because	
  of	
  changes	
  in	
  STC’s	
  methodology,	
  these	
  data	
  should	
  be	
  treated	
  with	
  
caution.	
  Since	
  2000,	
  energy	
  use	
  in	
  the	
  Agriculture	
  sector	
  has	
  been	
  quite	
  flat.	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
7
       	
  We	
  see	
  various	
  views	
  on	
  the	
  increase	
  in	
  coal	
  amongst	
  reviewers	
  of	
  this	
  report.	
  	
  These	
  data	
  will	
  be	
  reviewed.	
  



                                                                                                          6	
                                                                     	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         	
             Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Energy	
  use	
  for	
  secondary	
  electricity	
  generation	
  fluctuated	
  significantly,	
  increasing	
  by	
  64%	
  over	
  
the	
  report	
  period	
  and	
  by	
  5%	
  in	
  2010.8	
  In	
  2010,	
  16%	
  of	
  BC’s	
  electricity	
  came	
  through	
  thermal	
  
generation,	
  representing	
  a	
  total	
  increase	
  in	
  thermal-­‐sourced	
  electricity	
  production	
  of	
  168%	
  
over	
  the	
  study	
  period.	
  
1.5.1 Energy Use in Industry
Figure	
  1.5	
  presents	
  the	
  contributions	
  of	
  BC’s	
  industrial	
  sectors	
  to	
  Total	
  Industrial	
  energy	
  use.	
  
Total	
  Industrial	
  use	
  was	
  1.2%	
  below	
  1990	
  levels	
  at	
  the	
  end	
  of	
  2010	
  but	
  had	
  increased	
  6.6%	
  from	
  
2009.	
  Energy	
  use	
  by	
  Total	
  Manufacturing,	
  which	
  includes	
  Pulp	
  and	
  Paper,	
  by	
  far	
  its	
  largest	
  
component,	
  was	
  7.7%	
  lower	
  than	
  1990	
  levels,	
  but	
  increased	
  4%	
  over	
  2009.	
  
Figure	
  1.5.	
  Energy	
  Use	
  by	
  Industry	
  in	
  BC,	
  1990–2010	
  




Source:	
  STC	
  RESD	
  

The	
  non-­‐manufacturing	
  industries	
  are	
  relatively	
  tiny	
  in	
  comparison.	
  They	
  experienced	
  changes	
  
in	
  consumption	
  over	
  the	
  period,	
  but	
  these	
  are	
  not	
  obvious	
  in	
  Figure	
  1.5	
  because	
  of	
  the	
  graph’s	
  
scale.	
  For	
  example,	
  he	
  Forestry	
  and	
  logging	
  and	
  support	
  activities	
  for	
  forestry	
  9(hereafter	
  
“Forestry”)	
  energy	
  use	
  increased	
  fairly	
  consistently	
  until	
  2000	
  when	
  a	
  significant	
  jump	
  of	
  42%	
  
occurred	
  in	
  2001.	
  After	
  that,	
  it	
  was	
  relatively	
  flat	
  until	
  2008,	
  when	
  it	
  dropped	
  again	
  to	
  2000	
  
levels	
  and	
  then	
  nearly	
  doubled	
  that	
  level	
  in	
  2010.	
  It	
  finished	
  the	
  period	
  243%	
  higher	
  than	
  1990.	
  
Most	
  of	
  the	
  expansion	
  occurred	
  in	
  diesel	
  fuel.	
  The	
  shifts	
  seem	
  to	
  have	
  coincided	
  with	
  changes	
  
in	
  STC	
  data	
  as	
  mentioned	
  earlier	
  (reconciliation	
  of	
  ICE	
  and	
  RESD).	
  

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
8
  	
  Secondary	
  electricity	
  production	
  is	
  mainly	
  from	
  burning	
  fuels	
  (natural	
  gas,	
  oil,	
  diesel,	
  coal	
  or	
  other	
  fuels)	
  to	
  create	
  
steam	
  in	
  a	
  thermal	
  generation	
  process.	
  For	
  Figure	
  1.4,	
  we	
  also	
  included	
  the	
  electricity	
  used	
  by	
  the	
  industry	
  during	
  
its	
  production	
  and	
  distribution.	
  
9
  	
  The	
  industry	
  designated	
  Forestry	
  and	
  logging	
  and	
  support	
  activities	
  for	
  forestry	
  covers	
  only	
  the	
  extraction	
  of	
  
forest	
  products	
  and	
  does	
  not	
  include	
  any	
  processing	
  that	
  would	
  otherwise	
  be	
  defined	
  as	
  Wood	
  Products	
  
(dimension	
  lumber,	
  panel	
  board,	
  plywood,	
  shakes,	
  and	
  the	
  like)	
  or	
  Pulp	
  and	
  Paper.	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         	
             Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Energy	
  use	
  in	
  the	
  Mining/Oil	
  and	
  Gas	
  Extraction	
  industry	
  increased	
  dramatically	
  in	
  recent	
  years,	
  
finishing	
  the	
  period	
  92%	
  above	
  1990	
  levels.	
  The	
  rapid	
  expansion	
  of	
  the	
  gas	
  extraction	
  industry	
  
in	
  BC	
  may	
  be	
  in	
  part	
  responsible	
  for	
  this	
  increase.10	
  
Energy	
  use	
  in	
  the	
  Construction	
  industry	
  rose	
  nearly	
  17%	
  in	
  2010	
  from	
  2009	
  (a	
  very	
  low	
  year	
  due	
  
to	
  the	
  economic	
  decline	
  of	
  2008–2009).	
  Despite	
  this	
  rise,	
  the	
  Construction	
  industry	
  used	
  23%	
  
less	
  energy	
  than	
  it	
  did	
  in	
  1990.	
  
Figure	
  1.6	
  disaggregates	
  use	
  in	
  Total	
  Manufacturing	
  by	
  each	
  manufacturing	
  industry.	
  Note	
  that	
  
all	
  or	
  most	
  of	
  the	
  data	
  for	
  Cement,	
  Petroleum	
  Refining	
  (since	
  1999),	
  Chemical	
  Production	
  and	
  
Metal	
  Smelting	
  are	
  not	
  available.	
  These	
  industries	
  contain	
  too	
  few	
  firms	
  to	
  allow	
  for	
  the	
  release	
  
of	
  the	
  data.	
  	
  The	
  aggregate	
  of	
  these	
  in	
  Total	
  Manufacturing	
  showed	
  use	
  levels	
  8%	
  lower	
  than	
  
1990.	
  
Figure	
  1.6.	
  Energy	
  Use	
  in	
  Manufacturing	
  in	
  BC,	
  1990–2010	
  




Source:	
  STC	
  RESD	
  

Pulp	
  and	
  Paper,	
  the	
  largest	
  manufacturing	
  industry	
  by	
  far,	
  consumes	
  significant	
  amounts	
  of	
  
biomass	
  energy	
  (spent	
  pulping	
  liquor	
  and	
  solid	
  wood	
  waste).11	
  Over	
  the	
  study	
  period,	
  Pulp	
  and	
  
Paper	
  showed	
  cyclical	
  energy	
  use	
  patterns	
  until	
  2008,	
  when	
  the	
  drop	
  was	
  considerable.	
  Data	
  
for	
  the	
  last	
  two	
  years	
  of	
  the	
  period	
  seem	
  to	
  indicate	
  some	
  recovery.	
  At	
  the	
  end	
  of	
  2010,	
  energy	
  
use	
  in	
  the	
  Pulp	
  and	
  Paper	
  industry	
  was	
  7%	
  below	
  1990	
  levels.	
  

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
10
   	
  Data	
  from	
  the	
  Annual	
  Census	
  of	
  Mines,	
  which	
  looks	
  at	
  the	
  extraction	
  of	
  metal	
  ores,	
  non-­‐metallic	
  ores,	
  and	
  sand	
  
and	
  gravel	
  pits/quarries,	
  does	
  not	
  show	
  any	
  significant	
  change	
  in	
  energy	
  consumption	
  in	
  BC.	
  While	
  the	
  data	
  source	
  
is	
  different	
  than	
  that	
  used	
  in	
  the	
  RESD,	
  it	
  is	
  collected	
  by	
  STC	
  on	
  behalf	
  of	
  Natural	
  Resources	
  Canada	
  and	
  can	
  be	
  
used	
  to	
  indicate	
  trends.	
  
11
   	
  There	
  are	
  some	
  uncertainties	
  regarding	
  data	
  for	
  spent	
  pulping	
  liquor	
  and	
  solid	
  wood	
  waste	
  for	
  1990	
  and	
  1991.	
  
Because	
  of	
  the	
  impact	
  on	
  energy	
  consumption	
  levels,	
  these	
  data	
  were	
  extrapolated	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  present	
  a	
  more	
  
complete	
  picture	
  of	
  energy	
  consumption	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         	
             Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


With	
  the	
  most	
  recent	
  update	
  of	
  STC	
  RESD	
  data,	
  natural	
  gas	
  use	
  in	
  the	
  Other	
  Manufacturing	
  
group	
  (Food	
  Processing,	
  Textiles,	
  Clothing,	
  Printing,	
  Furniture,	
  Electronics,	
  etc.)	
  declined	
  
significantly.	
  	
  Electricity	
  and	
  RPP	
  use	
  rose.	
  	
  As	
  this	
  is	
  the	
  first	
  assessment	
  of	
  the	
  reconciliation	
  of	
  
ICE	
  and	
  RESD	
  data,	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  uncertainties	
  arise.	
  	
  Currently,	
  it	
  appears	
  that	
  Other	
  
Manufacturing	
  increased	
  use	
  by	
  14%	
  over	
  1990	
  levels,	
  rose	
  6%	
  from	
  2009	
  but,	
  at	
  the	
  end	
  of	
  
2010,	
  was	
  still	
  58%	
  below	
  the	
  peak	
  year	
  of	
  2001.	
  	
  Data	
  show	
  that	
  natural	
  gas	
  use	
  in	
  this	
  sub-­‐
sector	
  dropped	
  by	
  66%	
  in	
  2006	
  from	
  2007	
  while	
  other	
  fuels	
  remained	
  roughly	
  at	
  the	
  same	
  level.	
  
Figure	
  1.7	
  presents	
  indicators	
  of	
  energy	
  intensity	
  by	
  sector	
  based	
  on	
  GDP,	
  indexed	
  to	
  1990.	
  
Between	
  1990	
  and	
  2010,	
  energy	
  intensity	
  in	
  the	
  Total	
  Industrial	
  sector	
  decreased	
  by	
  28.5%.	
  
Within	
  the	
  sector,	
  Total	
  Manufacturing	
  decreased	
  by	
  24%,	
  and	
  Construction	
  decreased	
  by	
  54%.	
  
The	
  energy	
  intensities	
  for	
  Forestry	
  and	
  Mining/Oil	
  and	
  Gas	
  Extraction	
  increased.	
  The	
  rapid	
  
increase	
  in	
  the	
  energy	
  intensity	
  in	
  Forestry	
  was	
  due	
  to	
  very	
  large	
  changes	
  in	
  diesel	
  fuel	
  use	
  
without	
  any	
  commensurate	
  change	
  in	
  GDP.	
  	
  Forestry’s	
  energy	
  intensity	
  climbed	
  dramatically	
  
between	
  1995	
  and	
  2001	
  and	
  again	
  from	
  2009	
  onwards,	
  finishing	
  the	
  period	
  313%	
  above	
  1990	
  
levels. 12	
  
Figure	
  1.7.	
  Industrial	
  Energy	
  Intensity	
  Based	
  on	
  GDP	
  in	
  BC,	
  1990–2010	
  




Sources:	
  STC	
  RESD;	
  CANSIM	
  Table	
  379-­‐0025	
  —	
  Gross	
  Domestic	
  Product	
  (GDP)	
  at	
  basic	
  prices,	
  by	
  NAICS	
  

As	
  noted	
  in	
  the	
  methodology	
  section	
  1.2,	
  the	
  intensity	
  indicators	
  provided	
  here	
  should	
  be	
  
treated	
  with	
  caution	
  because	
  they	
  are	
  based	
  on	
  monetary	
  measures	
  of	
  output.	
  	
  As	
  such,	
  any	
  
decreases	
  in	
  intensity	
  may	
  not	
  be	
  a	
  consequence	
  of	
  efficiency	
  improvement	
  but,	
  for	
  example,	
  
may	
  be	
  due	
  to	
  shifts	
  in	
  industry	
  structure.	
  



	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
12
 	
  The	
  rather	
  significant	
  rise	
  in	
  intensity	
  is	
  not	
  well	
  understood.	
  	
  Further	
  review	
  with	
  industry	
  specialists	
  is	
  
warranted.	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


1.5.2 Commercial and Residential Sectors
To	
  calculate	
  energy	
  intensity	
  indicators,	
  measures	
  of	
  production	
  are	
  necessary.	
  However,	
  no	
  
STC	
  or	
  Natural	
  Resources	
  Canada	
  (NRCan)	
  series	
  (i.e.,	
  1990	
  to	
  present)	
  data	
  on	
  production,	
  
could	
  be	
  found	
  for	
  BC’s	
  commercial	
  and	
  residential	
  sectors.13	
  There	
  are	
  GDP	
  data	
  associated	
  
with	
  commercial	
  and	
  residential	
  activities	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  as	
  a	
  surrogate.	
  The	
  former	
  BC	
  
Ministry	
  of	
  Energy,	
  Mines	
  and	
  Petroleum	
  Resources	
  provided	
  information	
  from	
  BC	
  Hydro	
  billing	
  
statistics	
  as	
  a	
  single	
  point	
  estimation	
  of	
  intensity	
  based	
  on	
  floor	
  space	
  for	
  the	
  commercial	
  
sector	
  and	
  number	
  of	
  housing	
  units	
  for	
  the	
  residential	
  sector.	
  In	
  2001,	
  the	
  energy	
  intensity	
  
levels	
  for	
  the	
  commercial	
  sector,	
  based	
  on	
  51.94	
  million	
  m2	
  of	
  commercial	
  floor	
  space	
  and	
  
134	
  PJ	
  consumed,	
  was	
  2.58	
  GJ/m2.	
  
The	
  first	
  Commercial	
  and	
  Institutional	
  Building	
  Energy	
  Use	
  Survey	
  (CIBEUS)	
  of	
  2001,	
  providing	
  
2000	
  data,	
  showed	
  much	
  less	
  floor	
  space	
  in	
  the	
  commercial	
  sector	
  (about	
  27	
  million	
  m2)	
  and	
  
lower	
  energy	
  use	
  (45	
  PJ),	
  resulting	
  in	
  a	
  significantly	
  lower	
  energy	
  intensity.	
  	
  CIEEDAC	
  is	
  
investigating	
  the	
  definition	
  of	
  both	
  floor	
  space	
  and	
  energy	
  use	
  in	
  this	
  sector.	
  	
  
For	
  the	
  residential	
  sector,	
  energy	
  intensity	
  in	
  2001	
  based	
  on	
  1.47	
  million	
  residential	
  units	
  and	
  
141	
  PJ	
  consumed	
  was	
  95.86	
  GJ/unit.	
  
Energy	
  use	
  levels	
  in	
  these	
  two	
  sectors	
  are	
  shown	
  in	
  Figure	
  1.4	
  above.	
  	
  
1.6 Electricity	
  Production	
  
1.6.1 Total Primary and Secondary Production
Electricity	
  production	
  is	
  classified	
  as	
  primary	
  or	
  secondary.	
  Primary	
  electricity	
  production	
  is	
  
from	
  natural	
  sources,	
  such	
  as	
  hydro,	
  wind	
  and	
  solar	
  power.	
  Secondary	
  electricity	
  production	
  is	
  
mainly	
  from	
  burning	
  fuels	
  (natural	
  gas,	
  oil,	
  diesel,	
  coal,	
  biomass	
  or	
  other	
  fuels)	
  often	
  to	
  create	
  
steam	
  in	
  a	
  thermal	
  generation	
  process.	
  
Figure	
  1.8	
  shows	
  that	
  hydro	
  electricity	
  dominates	
  BC’s	
  generation	
  system.	
  Total	
  electricity	
  
production	
  fluctuated	
  over	
  time	
  and,	
  in	
  2010,	
  reached	
  a	
  level	
  4.3%	
  higher	
  than	
  in	
  1990.	
  
Between	
  2009	
  and	
  2010,	
  primary	
  electricity	
  production	
  decreased	
  by	
  4.9%,	
  and	
  secondary	
  
production	
  increased	
  by	
  16%.	
  




	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
13
 	
  STC	
  does	
  have	
  data	
  on	
  number	
  of	
  mortgages	
  approved	
  by	
  month	
  by	
  region	
  on	
  existing	
  and	
  new	
  homes	
  but	
  there	
  
are	
  no	
  readily	
  available	
  data	
  on	
  house	
  numbers	
  or	
  area,	
  commercial	
  area	
  or	
  the	
  like.	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                 	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Figure	
  1.8.	
  Primary	
  and	
  Secondary	
  Electricity	
  Production	
  in	
  BC,	
  1990–2010	
  




Source:	
  STC	
  RESD	
  

Figure	
  1.9	
  compares	
  the	
  mix	
  of	
  fossil	
  and	
  biomass	
  fuels	
  used	
  to	
  generate	
  secondary	
  electricity	
  
in	
  BC	
  between	
  1990	
  and	
  2010.	
  Over	
  that	
  period,	
  the	
  major	
  changes	
  were	
  the	
  increased	
  use	
  of	
  
“Other”	
  fuels	
  and	
  the	
  decreased	
  use	
  of	
  the	
  remaining	
  fuels	
  for	
  thermal	
  generation.	
  “Other”	
  
includes	
  manufactured	
  gases,	
  other	
  petroleum	
  products	
  including	
  refinery	
  fuel	
  gas,	
  and	
  other	
  
fuels	
  not	
  defined	
  by	
  STC.	
  The	
  figure	
  indicates	
  that	
  natural	
  gas	
  share	
  decreased	
  considerably.	
  	
  In	
  
spite	
  of	
  the	
  reduced	
  share,	
  total	
  generation	
  from	
  natural	
  gas	
  still	
  doubled	
  to	
  3,400	
  GWh	
  in	
  
2010,	
  rising	
  marginally	
  from	
  2009.	
  The	
  market	
  share	
  of	
  wood-­‐	
  and	
  spent	
  pulping	
  liquor-­‐fired	
  
electricity	
  plants	
  decreased	
  from	
  42%	
  in	
  1990	
  to	
  28%	
  in	
  2010.	
  Even	
  so,	
  total	
  electricity	
  from	
  
wood	
  and	
  spent	
  pulping	
  liquor	
  (SPL)	
  increased	
  28%	
  from	
  2009	
  (indicating	
  increased	
  activity	
  in	
  
the	
  industry)	
  and	
  79%	
  from	
  1990.	
  The	
  market	
  share	
  of	
  heavy	
  and	
  light	
  fuel	
  oil-­‐fired	
  (HFO,	
  LFO)	
  
plants	
  decreased	
  significantly.	
  The	
  market	
  share	
  of	
  HFO-­‐fired	
  plants	
  was	
  less	
  than	
  0.5%	
  and	
  that	
  
of	
  diesel/LFO-­‐fired	
  plants	
  was	
  only	
  1%	
  of	
  thermal	
  generation	
  in	
  2010.	
  




                                                                          11	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                                             	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Figure	
  1.9.	
  Electricity	
  Generation	
  Mix	
  by	
  Fossil	
  and	
  Biomass	
  Fuels	
  in	
  BC,	
  1990	
  and	
  2010	
  




Note:	
  HFO:	
  heavy	
  fuel	
  oil;	
  LFO:	
  light	
  fuel	
  oil;	
  NG:	
  natural	
  gas;	
  SPL:	
  spent	
  pulping	
  liquor	
  
Source:	
  STC	
  RESD,	
  supplemented	
  by	
  STC	
  Electricity	
  Power	
  Statistics	
  

Figure	
  1.10	
  shows	
  annual	
  production	
  of	
  electricity	
  from	
  these	
  secondary	
  sources	
  by	
  utilities	
  and	
  
by	
  industry.	
  Generation	
  of	
  this	
  type	
  has	
  been	
  increasing	
  over	
  time	
  in	
  both	
  sectors.	
  
Figure	
  1.10.	
  Generation	
  of	
  Secondary	
  Electricity	
  from	
  Fossil	
  and	
  Biomass	
  Fuels	
  in	
  BC,	
  1990	
  and	
  2010	
  




                                                                                                                                                                         	
  
Note:	
  Data	
  for	
  1997	
  were	
  not	
  published	
  by	
  STC.	
  
Source:	
  STC	
  RESD,	
  supplemented	
  by	
  STC	
  Electricity	
  Power	
  Statistics	
  




                                                                                                      12	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


1.6.2 Utility and Non-utility Production
Figure	
  1.11	
  shows	
  annual	
  production	
  of	
  electricity	
  by	
  utilities	
  from	
  1990	
  to	
  2010.	
  During	
  this	
  
period,	
  utility	
  production	
  ranged	
  from	
  74%	
  to	
  82%	
  of	
  total	
  grid-­‐connected	
  electricity	
  generation	
  
in	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  Fluctuations	
  in	
  utility	
  production	
  reached	
  a	
  peak	
  in	
  200714	
  and	
  then	
  
decreased	
  in	
  2010	
  to	
  a	
  point	
  7%	
  above	
  1990.	
  Hydroelectric	
  generation	
  dominated	
  BC’s	
  utility	
  
generation	
  mix;	
  its	
  share	
  fluctuated	
  between	
  87%	
  and	
  98%	
  during	
  the	
  study	
  period.	
  Total	
  utility	
  
generation	
  decreased	
  1.2%	
  from	
  2009,	
  and	
  total	
  hydro	
  generation	
  decreased	
  by	
  4%.	
  	
  
Wind	
  generation	
  and	
  independent	
  power	
  producers	
  (IPPs)	
  have	
  increasingly	
  contributed	
  to	
  the	
  
province’s	
  electricity	
  generation,	
  first	
  appearing	
  in	
  2009.	
  IPPs	
  generated	
  5%	
  of	
  total	
  electricity	
  
produced	
  in	
  the	
  province	
  in	
  2010.	
  STC	
  considers	
  them	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  utility	
  classification.	
  
Figure	
  1.11.	
  Utility	
  Electricity	
  Production	
  in	
  BC,	
  1990–2010	
  




Note:	
  Comb	
  Turbine:	
  combustion	
  turbine,	
  ICE:	
  internal	
  combustion	
  engine.	
  
Source:	
  STC	
  CANSIM	
  Table	
  127-­‐0007,	
  Electric	
  power	
  generation,	
  by	
  class	
  of	
  electricity	
  producer,	
  annual	
  (megawatt	
  hour)	
  	
  

Figure	
  1.12	
  shows	
  that	
  non-­‐utility	
  production	
  fluctuated	
  over	
  the	
  study	
  period	
  and	
  reached	
  its	
  
lowest	
  level	
  in	
  2001.	
  In	
  2010,	
  total	
  non-­‐utility	
  production	
  was	
  4%	
  lower	
  than	
  1990.	
  	
  Between	
  
2009	
  and	
  2010,	
  total	
  non-­‐utility	
  generation	
  decreased	
  6%.	
  The	
  dominance	
  of	
  hydroelectricity	
  in	
  
non-­‐utility	
  generation	
  diminished	
  over	
  time,	
  from	
  84%	
  in	
  1990	
  to	
  74%	
  in	
  2010.	
  Conventional	
  
steam	
  plants,	
  however,	
  increased	
  in	
  share	
  over	
  the	
  study	
  period	
  and	
  by	
  2010	
  provided	
  26%	
  of	
  
total	
  electricity.	
  




	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
14
         	
  Figure	
  1.8	
  and	
  Figure	
  1.10	
  are	
  based	
  on	
  different	
  STC	
  publication	
  series;	
  data	
  discrepancies	
  may	
  exist.	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Figure	
  1.12.	
  Non-­‐utility	
  Electricity	
  Production	
  in	
  BC,	
  1990–2010	
  




Note:	
  Comb	
  Turbine:	
  combustion	
  turbine,	
  ICE:	
  internal	
  combustion	
  engine.	
  
Source:	
  STC	
  CANSIM	
  Table	
  127-­‐0007,	
  Electric	
  power	
  generation,	
  by	
  class	
  of	
  electricity	
  producer,	
  annual	
  (megawatt	
  hour)	
  	
  

According	
  to	
  STC’s	
  RESD,	
  BC’s	
  non-­‐utility	
  electricity	
  generation	
  by	
  fossil	
  fuels	
  and	
  wood	
  fuel	
  in	
  
2010	
  was	
  6,090	
  GWh.	
  Most	
  of	
  this	
  electricity	
  was	
  cogenerated	
  at	
  industrial	
  plants	
  (e.g.,	
  pulp	
  
production	
  plants)	
  and	
  roughly	
  corresponds	
  to	
  the	
  CIEEDAC	
  database	
  on	
  cogeneration.	
  
1.7 Greenhouse	
  Gas	
  Emissions,	
  1990–2010	
  
This	
  section	
  reports	
  on	
  changes	
  in	
  fuel-­‐sourced	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  and	
  GDP	
  for	
  BC	
  economic	
  
sectors	
  from	
  1990	
  to	
  2010.	
  It	
  also	
  includes	
  a	
  brief	
  discussion	
  of	
  population	
  growth	
  in	
  relation	
  to	
  
these	
  changes.	
  Appendix	
  A	
  contains	
  detailed	
  tables	
  of	
  the	
  data	
  used.	
  	
  
CIEEDAC	
  compared	
  data	
  calculated	
  using	
  RESD	
  values	
  and	
  the	
  values	
  provided	
  by	
  Environment	
  
Canada	
  in	
  their	
  National	
  Inventory	
  Report	
  (EC	
  2011).	
  	
  The	
  values	
  differed	
  by	
  an	
  average	
  of	
  
about	
  2.7%	
  with	
  a	
  range	
  of	
  0	
  to	
  9%.	
  
Figure	
  1.13	
  compares	
  BC’s	
  population	
  growth	
  (millions),	
  GDP	
  (2002	
  $billions)	
  and	
  GHG	
  
emissions	
  (Mt)	
  for	
  the	
  period	
  1990	
  to	
  2010.	
  Total	
  energy	
  use	
  from	
  which	
  the	
  emissions	
  are	
  
calculated	
  includes	
  estimates	
  of	
  confidential	
  consumption,	
  biomass	
  used	
  in	
  the	
  Pulp	
  and	
  Paper	
  
sector15	
  and	
  energy	
  used	
  to	
  generate	
  secondary	
  electricity.	
  
As	
  noted	
  earlier,	
  population	
  and	
  GDP	
  grew	
  consistently	
  over	
  the	
  study	
  period.	
  Population	
  
increased	
  by	
  38%,	
  growing	
  annually	
  at	
  a	
  rate	
  of	
  1.5%,	
  while	
  GDP	
  increased	
  by	
  82%,	
  with	
  an	
  
annual	
  growth	
  rate	
  of	
  2.9%.	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  fluctuated	
  over	
  time,	
  peaking	
  in	
  2004	
  and	
  finishing	
  
the	
  period	
  21%	
  above	
  1990	
  levels. Emissions	
  in	
  2010	
  were	
  13%	
  higher	
  than	
  in	
  2009.	
  



	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
15
 	
  Biomass	
  data	
  are	
  used	
  to	
  calculate	
  non-­‐CO2	
  GHG	
  emissions.	
  	
  CO2	
  emissions	
  from	
  biomass	
  are	
  not	
  included	
  
because	
  they	
  are	
  considered	
  neutral	
  by	
  convention.	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                                  	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Figure	
  1.13.	
  Population,	
  GDP	
  and	
  GHG	
  Emissions	
  for	
  BC,	
  1990–2010	
  




Sources:	
  STC	
  RESD	
  energy	
  data	
  converted	
  to	
  GHGs	
  with	
  EC	
  coefficients.	
  (EC	
  2011);	
  CANSIM	
  Table	
  379-­‐0025	
  and	
  
Table	
  051-­‐0001	
  

CIEEDAC	
  used	
  GDP	
  and	
  population	
  data	
  to	
  calculate	
  the	
  GHG	
  emission	
  intensity	
  indicators	
  
plotted	
  as	
  an	
  index	
  in	
  Figure	
  1.14.	
  These	
  values	
  are	
  an	
  index	
  of	
  the	
  ratios	
  of	
  emissions	
  
generated	
  per	
  capita	
  or	
  unit	
  of	
  GDP	
  and	
  help	
  to	
  demonstrate	
  changes	
  from	
  the	
  base	
  year.	
  The	
  
indices	
  show	
  different	
  rates	
  of	
  change.	
  Between	
  1990	
  and	
  2010,	
  the	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  intensity	
  
indicator	
  based	
  on	
  population	
  decreased	
  12%	
  and	
  the	
  indicator	
  based	
  on	
  GDP	
  decreased	
  25%.	
  
These	
  data	
  suggest	
  that,	
  while	
  considerably	
  less	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  were	
  generated	
  per	
  unit	
  of	
  
value	
  added,	
  emissions	
  per	
  person	
  did	
  not	
  change	
  as	
  much.	
  	
  It	
  is	
  difficult	
  to	
  speculate	
  on	
  the	
  
reasons	
  for	
  these	
  changes	
  as	
  the	
  link	
  between	
  energy	
  and	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  is	
  not	
  always	
  
straightforward.	
  As	
  noted	
  earlier,	
  issues	
  related	
  to	
  the	
  analysis	
  of	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  include	
  the	
  
definition	
  of	
  process	
  versus	
  fuel-­‐based	
  GHG	
  emissions,	
  confidentiality	
  of	
  energy	
  and	
  estimated	
  
GHG	
  data,	
  and	
  the	
  estimation	
  of	
  indirect	
  emissions	
  from	
  steam	
  or	
  electricity	
  purchases.	
  
Figure	
  1.14.	
  GHG	
  Intensity	
  Indices	
  for	
  BC,	
  1990–2010	
  




Sources:	
  STC	
  RESD;	
  CANSIM	
  Table	
  379-­‐0025	
  and	
  Table	
  051-­‐0001	
  

1.7.1 GHG Emissions by Fuel
Figure	
  1.15	
  presents	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  by	
  fuel	
  type	
  between	
  1990	
  and	
  2010.	
  	
  Coal	
  emissions,	
  
although	
  proportionally	
  smaller	
  than	
  those	
  from	
  RPPs	
  and	
  natural	
  gas,	
  showed	
  the	
  greatest	
  



                                                                                           15	
                                                        	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


increase	
  (596%).	
  	
  Coal-­‐based	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  stand	
  out	
  in	
  that	
  they	
  appear	
  to	
  be	
  negative.	
  This	
  
is	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  method	
  used	
  to	
  determine	
  net	
  supply	
  for	
  coal,	
  which	
  takes	
  into	
  account	
  exports	
  
and	
  imports	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  use.	
  In	
  years	
  when	
  exports	
  exceed	
  availability	
  (e.g.,	
  shipment	
  of	
  previous	
  
year’s	
  stock),	
  the	
  value	
  becomes	
  negative.16	
  	
  Natural	
  gas	
  emissions	
  increased	
  3%	
  in	
  that	
  period	
  
but	
  were	
  4%	
  below	
  2009.	
  RPP	
  emissions	
  increased	
  15%,	
  with	
  a	
  5%	
  increase	
  from	
  2009	
  to	
  2010.	
  
Figure	
  1.15.	
  GHG	
  Emissions	
  by	
  Type	
  of	
  Energy	
  in	
  BC,	
  1990–2010	
  
	
  




Source:	
  STC	
  RESD	
  energy	
  data	
  converted	
  to	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  using	
  EC	
  coefficients	
  (EC,	
  2011)	
  

Figure	
  1.16	
  shows	
  the	
  contributions	
  of	
  the	
  different	
  types	
  of	
  fuels	
  to	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  in	
  2010,	
  
highlighting	
  the	
  contributions	
  of	
  RPPs.	
  




	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
16
         	
  CIEEDAC	
  is	
  still	
  reviewing	
  these	
  negative	
  values	
  with	
  STC.	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                                         	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Figure	
  1.16.	
  Fuel	
  Types	
  Contributing	
  to	
  GHG	
  Emissions	
  in	
  BC,	
  2010	
  




Note:	
  HFO:	
  heavy	
  fuel	
  oil;	
  LFO:	
  light	
  fuel	
  oil;	
  Pet	
  coke:	
  petroleum	
  coke;	
  Ref	
  LPG:	
  refined	
  liquid	
  petroleum	
  gas	
  
Source:	
  STC	
  RESD	
  

1.7.2 GHG Emissions by Sector
Figure	
  1.17	
  compares	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  in	
  BC’s	
  major	
  economic	
  sectors.	
  Most	
  sectors	
  displayed	
  
noticeable	
  changes	
  in	
  energy	
  use	
  and	
  thus	
  in	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  between	
  1990	
  and	
  2010.	
  The	
  
following	
  sectors	
  showed	
  relatively	
  significant	
  increases	
  in	
  GHG	
  emissions:	
  Electricity	
  (24%),	
  
Transportation	
  (44%)	
  and	
  Agriculture	
  (63%).	
  	
  Sectors	
  that	
  showed	
  appreciable	
  decreases	
  
included	
  Residential	
  (15%),	
  Commercial/Institutional	
  (28%),	
  and	
  Total	
  Industrial	
  (30%).	
  
Figure	
  1.17.	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  in	
  Major	
  Sectors	
  of	
  BC,	
  1990–2010	
  
	
  




Source:	
  STC	
  RESD	
  energy	
  data	
  converted	
  to	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  using	
  EC	
  coefficients	
  (EC,	
  2011)	
  




                                                                                                  17	
                                                              	
  
	
                                                                                	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


1.7.3 GHG Emissions from Electricity Generation
All	
  RESD	
  data	
  on	
  energy	
  used	
  by	
  utility	
  and	
  non-­‐utility	
  electricity	
  generators	
  have	
  not	
  yet	
  been	
  
updated	
  or	
  are	
  under	
  review	
  by	
  STC.	
  While	
  some	
  data	
  have	
  been	
  extrapolated	
  for	
  overall	
  
generation,	
  the	
  data	
  for	
  2010	
  (and	
  some	
  other	
  years)	
  are	
  suspect.	
  Because	
  of	
  the	
  level	
  of	
  
uncertainty	
  and	
  the	
  current	
  restructuring	
  of	
  the	
  ICE	
  and	
  RESD	
  data	
  sets,	
  CIEEDAC	
  advises	
  
caution	
  in	
  using	
  these	
  data.	
  
Figure	
  1.18	
  shows	
  that	
  CO2	
  emissions	
  resulting	
  from	
  the	
  production	
  of	
  electricity	
  have	
  
fluctuated	
  greatly	
  over	
  the	
  study	
  period.	
  This	
  was	
  primarily	
  because	
  of	
  changes	
  in	
  fossil	
  fuel	
  use	
  
by	
  electricity	
  utilities.	
  	
  Emissions	
  show	
  peaks	
  in	
  various	
  years,	
  the	
  highest	
  in	
  2001.	
  	
  Since	
  2002,	
  
levels	
  have	
  been	
  fairly	
  consistent,	
  roughly	
  equivalent	
  to	
  1990	
  values.	
  In	
  2009,	
  emissions	
  levels	
  
dropped	
  appreciably	
  but	
  rose	
  again	
  in	
  2010	
  to	
  a	
  point	
  24%	
  higher	
  than	
  1990	
  levels.	
  	
  Although	
  
there	
  was	
  a	
  12%	
  decrease	
  in	
  intensity	
  of	
  CO2	
  emissions	
  per	
  unit	
  of	
  electricity	
  generated	
  
between	
  2008	
  to	
  2010,	
  the	
  intensity	
  was	
  18%	
  higher	
  in	
  2010	
  than	
  it	
  was	
  in	
  1990.	
  
Figure	
  1.18.	
  CO2	
  Emissions	
  from	
  Electricity	
  Generation	
  in	
  BC,	
  1990–2010	
  




Source:	
  STC	
  CANSIM	
  Table	
  127-­‐0007,	
  Electric	
  power	
  generation,	
  by	
  class	
  of	
  electricity	
  producer,	
  annual	
  (megawatt	
  
hour);	
  RESD,	
  energy	
  consumed	
  by	
  fuel	
  type	
  converted	
  to	
  CO2e	
  using	
  EC	
  coefficients	
  (EC,	
  2011)	
  

1.8 Conclusion	
  and	
  Summary	
  
In	
  2010,	
  BC’s	
  total	
  energy	
  use	
  (including	
  energy	
  used	
  to	
  make	
  secondary	
  electricity)	
  reached	
  
1,070	
  PJ,	
  an	
  increase	
  of	
  15%	
  above	
  1990.	
  With	
  both	
  GDP	
  and	
  population	
  growing	
  faster	
  than	
  
energy	
  use,	
  intensity	
  indicators	
  based	
  on	
  these	
  two	
  measures	
  diminished	
  (GDP	
  by	
  37%	
  and	
  
population	
  by	
  16%).	
  
Use	
  of	
  most	
  fuels	
  in	
  2010	
  was	
  considerably	
  higher	
  than	
  in	
  1990.	
  	
  Electricity	
  and	
  RPPs	
  are	
  the	
  
major	
  fuels	
  of	
  the	
  BC	
  economy.	
  Use	
  of	
  electricity	
  was	
  up	
  by	
  12%,	
  and	
  use	
  of	
  RPPs	
  was	
  24%	
  
higher.	
  Coal	
  use	
  increased	
  the	
  most	
  but	
  was	
  an	
  extremely	
  small	
  portion	
  of	
  total	
  energy	
  use.	
  
Natural	
  gas,	
  with	
  a	
  drop	
  of	
  3%,	
  was	
  the	
  only	
  major	
  fuel	
  type	
  to	
  show	
  a	
  lower	
  consumption	
  in	
  
2010	
  than	
  in	
  1990.	
  




                                                                                         18	
                                                      	
  
	
                                                                      	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Hydroelectricity	
  continued	
  to	
  dominate	
  electricity	
  production,	
  although	
  generation	
  of	
  thermal	
  
secondary	
  electricity	
  increased	
  significantly.	
  In	
  2010,	
  secondary	
  generation	
  provided	
  16%	
  of	
  
electricity,	
  a	
  greater	
  share	
  than	
  in	
  any	
  other	
  year	
  since	
  1990.	
  In	
  thermal	
  electricity	
  generation,	
  
the	
  market	
  shares	
  of	
  HFO-­‐	
  and	
  diesel/LFO-­‐fired	
  sources	
  declined	
  significantly	
  over	
  the	
  study	
  
period	
  and	
  the	
  share	
  of	
  natural	
  gas-­‐fired	
  plants	
  also	
  decreased.	
  	
  “Other”	
  fuel	
  (manufactured	
  
gases,	
  other	
  petroleum	
  products	
  and	
  other	
  fuels	
  not	
  defined	
  in	
  the	
  data	
  source)	
  grew	
  
significantly.	
  
Total	
  Industrial	
  energy	
  use	
  decreased	
  1.2%	
  since	
  1990	
  but	
  increased	
  7%	
  from	
  2009.	
  Energy	
  use	
  
in	
  Total	
  Manufacturing	
  was	
  down	
  8%	
  from	
  1990	
  but	
  increased	
  5%	
  from	
  2009.	
  Relatively	
  
significant	
  consumption	
  increases	
  occurred	
  in	
  the	
  Residential	
  (13%),	
  Transportation	
  (43%)	
  and	
  
Agriculture	
  (78%)	
  sectors	
  between	
  1990	
  and	
  2010.	
  
Total	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  increased	
  steadily	
  before	
  2000	
  and	
  then	
  rose	
  and	
  fell	
  with	
  a	
  peak	
  in	
  2004	
  
at	
  46.8	
  Mt.	
  	
  In	
  2010,	
  emissions	
  rose	
  to	
  a	
  level	
  of	
  44.4	
  Mt,	
  21%	
  above	
  1990	
  but	
  down	
  from	
  the	
  
peak.	
  	
  
British	
  Columbia’s	
  major	
  economic	
  sectors	
  showed	
  different	
  energy	
  use	
  patterns	
  and	
  therefore	
  
GHG	
  emission	
  trends.	
  Transportation,	
  Electricity	
  and	
  Agriculture	
  had	
  increasing	
  levels	
  of	
  
emissions	
  compared	
  to	
  1990	
  levels,	
  while	
  the	
  Residential,	
  Commercial/Institutional	
  and	
  Total	
  
Industrial	
  sectors	
  showed	
  decreasing	
  GHG	
  emission	
  trends.	
  Coal	
  showed	
  the	
  greatest	
  increase	
  
in	
  emissions,	
  reflecting	
  its	
  growth	
  in	
  use	
  as	
  a	
  fuel.	
  	
  Even	
  though	
  the	
  increase	
  is	
  significant,	
  coal	
  
plays	
  a	
  minor	
  role	
  in	
  total	
  emissions	
  generation	
  because	
  its	
  consumption	
  is	
  such	
  a	
  small	
  part	
  of	
  
total	
  consumption	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  The	
  bulk	
  of	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  come	
  from	
  RPPs,	
  of	
  which	
  
gasoline	
  has	
  the	
  largest	
  share.	
  	
  Among	
  all	
  the	
  various	
  petroleum	
  products,	
  natural	
  gas,	
  and	
  coal,	
  
RPP	
  combustion	
  generates	
  the	
  greatest	
  amount	
  of	
  CO2	
  in	
  the	
  province,	
  about	
  64%.	
  
In	
  the	
  future,	
  CIEEDAC	
  will	
  continue	
  to	
  update	
  this	
  section	
  with	
  the	
  objective	
  of	
  improving	
  and	
  
refining	
  the	
  accuracy	
  of	
  the	
  data.	
  Thus	
  far,	
  our	
  analysis	
  has	
  only	
  concerned	
  itself	
  with	
  highly	
  
aggregated	
  economic	
  sectors	
  as	
  the	
  data	
  are	
  not	
  available	
  for	
  more	
  disaggregated	
  analyses.	
  
This	
  is	
  especially	
  true	
  of	
  industry,	
  where	
  it	
  is	
  clear	
  from	
  ICE	
  data	
  that	
  further	
  disaggregation	
  
might	
  be	
  possible.	
  As	
  with	
  all	
  reports	
  published	
  by	
  CIEEDAC,	
  we	
  encourage	
  and	
  appreciate	
  any	
  
feedback	
  from	
  our	
  readers.	
  
As	
  noted	
  at	
  the	
  beginning	
  of	
  this	
  report,	
  the	
  RESD	
  has	
  undergone	
  a	
  significant	
  update	
  to	
  allow	
  it	
  
to	
  reflect	
  more	
  closely	
  the	
  data	
  obtained	
  from	
  industry	
  using	
  the	
  ICE	
  survey.	
  	
  These	
  changes	
  
have	
  altered	
  historic	
  trends	
  in	
  BC’s	
  industrial	
  sector	
  and	
  have	
  affected	
  data	
  in	
  other	
  sectors	
  as	
  
well.	
  	
  Because	
  the	
  process	
  of	
  updating	
  the	
  RESD	
  is	
  ongoing,	
  the	
  values	
  as	
  represented	
  here	
  
should	
  be	
  used	
  with	
  caution.	
  
	
                                              	
  




                                                                               19	
                                               	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


2 Cogeneration	
  Facilities	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  2010	
  
CIEEDAC	
  defines	
  cogeneration	
  as	
  the	
  simultaneous	
  generation	
  of	
  electricity	
  and	
  useful	
  thermal	
  
energy	
  from	
  a	
  single	
  fuel.17	
  Cogeneration	
  is	
  also	
  referred	
  to	
  as	
  combined	
  heat	
  and	
  power	
  (CHP)	
  
generation.	
  By	
  making	
  use	
  of	
  the	
  waste	
  from	
  one	
  process	
  in	
  the	
  production	
  of	
  the	
  other,	
  
cogeneration	
  realizes	
  substantial	
  gains	
  in	
  energy	
  efficiency	
  compared	
  with	
  the	
  independent	
  
production	
  of	
  both	
  products.	
  The	
  efficiency	
  of	
  cogeneration	
  in	
  converting	
  primary	
  energy	
  into	
  
electrical	
  and	
  thermal	
  energy	
  places	
  the	
  technology	
  at	
  the	
  forefront	
  of	
  many	
  CO2	
  emission	
  
reduction	
  strategies.	
  National	
  and	
  international	
  commitments	
  to	
  reducing	
  CO2	
  emissions	
  have	
  
increased	
  interest	
  in	
  cogeneration.	
  
The	
  thermal	
  energy	
  from	
  cogeneration	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  in	
  heating	
  or	
  cooling	
  applications.	
  Heating	
  
applications	
  include	
  generation	
  of	
  steam	
  or	
  hot	
  water.	
  Cooling	
  applications	
  require	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  
absorption	
  chillers	
  that	
  convert	
  heat	
  to	
  cooling.	
  A	
  range	
  of	
  technologies	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  to	
  achieve	
  
cogeneration,	
  but	
  the	
  system	
  must	
  always	
  include	
  a	
  power	
  generator	
  (either	
  electric	
  power	
  or	
  
drive	
  power)	
  and	
  a	
  heat	
  recovery	
  system.	
  The	
  heat-­‐to-­‐power	
  ratio,	
  overall	
  efficiency	
  and	
  
characteristics	
  of	
  the	
  heat	
  output	
  are	
  key	
  attributes	
  of	
  cogeneration	
  systems.	
  
Cogeneration	
  systems	
  are	
  classified	
  by	
  the	
  type	
  of	
  prime	
  mover	
  used	
  to	
  drive	
  the	
  electrical	
  
generator.	
  The	
  five	
  main	
  types	
  currently	
  in	
  use	
  in	
  Canada	
  are	
  steam	
  turbines,	
  gas	
  turbines,	
  
reciprocating	
  engines,	
  microturbines	
  and	
  combined-­‐cycle	
  gas	
  turbines.	
  New	
  systems	
  currently	
  
under	
  development	
  include	
  fuel	
  cells	
  and	
  Stirling	
  engines.	
  
The	
  attributes	
  and	
  prime	
  movers	
  referred	
  to	
  here	
  and	
  the	
  information	
  in	
  the	
  following	
  sections	
  
(as	
  well	
  as	
  a	
  copy	
  of	
  the	
  survey)	
  are	
  described	
  in	
  more	
  detail	
  in	
  CIEEDAC’s	
  report,	
  A	
  Review	
  of	
  
Existing	
  Cogeneration	
  Facilities	
  in	
  Canada	
  (www.cieedac.sfu.ca).	
  
2.1 Objectives	
  
CIEEDAC’s	
  Canadian	
  Cogeneration	
  Database	
  aims	
  to	
  provide	
  a	
  comprehensive	
  list	
  of	
  
cogeneration	
  projects	
  in	
  Canada’s	
  provinces	
  and	
  present	
  unbiased	
  data	
  on	
  the	
  performance	
  of	
  
cogeneration	
  systems.	
  To	
  date,	
  no	
  other	
  comprehensive	
  list	
  of	
  Canadian	
  cogeneration	
  projects	
  
has	
  been	
  identified.	
  This	
  task	
  is	
  becoming	
  increasingly	
  challenging	
  as	
  cogeneration	
  capacity	
  
expands	
  rapidly	
  under	
  deregulation.	
  Future	
  updates	
  of	
  this	
  report	
  will	
  continue	
  to	
  refine	
  
existing	
  data	
  and	
  include	
  new	
  additions.	
  
This	
  report	
  contains	
  the	
  following	
  sections:	
  
                          •                          The	
  methodology	
  used	
  to	
  identify	
  cogeneration	
  projects	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia;	
  
                          •                          A	
  summary	
  of	
  cogeneration	
  facilities	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia	
  by	
  sector	
  and	
  system	
  average	
  
                                                     performance	
  characteristics;	
  and	
  
                          •                          Conclusions.	
  




	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
17
         	
  A	
  Review	
  of	
  Existing	
  Cogeneration	
  Facilities	
  in	
  Canada,	
  CIEEDAC,	
  2012	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                              	
               Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


2.2 Methodology	
  
Since	
  2004,	
  CIEEDAC	
  has	
  gathered	
  data	
  on	
  Canadian	
  cogeneration	
  systems	
  by	
  means	
  of	
  a	
  
survey	
  sent	
  to	
  all	
  facilities	
  listed	
  in	
  our	
  database. Through	
  this	
  process,	
  we	
  are	
  able	
  to	
  identify	
  
cogeneration	
  systems	
  across	
  the	
  country	
  that	
  are	
  no	
  longer	
  operational,	
  sites	
  that	
  were	
  never	
  
cogeneration	
  facilities	
  and	
  duplicate	
  listings.	
  We	
  also	
  gather	
  new	
  data	
  on	
  the	
  performance	
  
characteristics	
  of	
  cogeneration	
  systems	
  operating	
  in	
  Canada’s	
  provinces	
  and	
  territories.	
  The	
  
resulting	
  database	
  has	
  become	
  more	
  reliable	
  each	
  year.	
  In	
  addition,	
  we	
  identify	
  new	
  
cogeneration	
  systems	
  through	
  websites,	
  industry	
  contacts	
  and	
  utility	
  personnel.	
  Thus,	
  the	
  
database	
  contains	
  data	
  that	
  enhances	
  understanding	
  of	
  the	
  opportunities	
  for	
  and	
  limitations	
  of	
  
cogeneration	
  in	
  Canada	
  and,	
  for	
  this	
  report,	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  
2.2.1 Data Sources
The	
  key	
  sources	
  of	
  data	
  for	
  this	
  year’s	
  update	
  of	
  the	
  Canadian	
  Cogeneration	
  Database	
  are	
  the	
  
completed	
  questionnaires	
  received	
  from	
  cogeneration	
  facilities	
  across	
  Canada.	
  New	
  
cogeneration	
  systems	
  were	
  identified	
  through	
  websites	
  and	
  industry	
  contacts.	
  Historical	
  
sources	
  of	
  data	
  include:	
  the	
  Canadian	
  Gas	
  Association,	
  EC,	
  consultants,	
  independent	
  
associations,	
  electric	
  and	
  gas	
  utilities,	
  STC,	
  corporate	
  and	
  government	
  websites,	
  cogeneration	
  
equipment	
  manufacturers’	
  brochures	
  and	
  industry	
  journals.	
  
2.3 Cogeneration	
  Results,	
  2010	
  
This	
  section	
  summarizes	
  the	
  results	
  of	
  the	
  current	
  cogeneration	
  database	
  survey	
  for	
  British	
  
Columbia,	
  which	
  updates	
  data	
  to	
  2010.	
  Table	
  2.1	
  presents	
  BC’s	
  known	
  cogeneration	
  capacity	
  
from	
  2000	
  to	
  2010	
  and	
  compares	
  BC’s	
  share	
  in	
  Canada.	
  In	
  2010,	
  the	
  total	
  electrical	
  
cogeneration	
  capacity	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia	
  dropped	
  to	
  1,018	
  MWe,	
  16%	
  of	
  Canada	
  total.	
  This	
  
was	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  closing	
  of	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  paper	
  mills.	
  BC’s	
  thermal	
  capacity	
  was	
  4,848	
  MWt,	
  about	
  
24%	
  of	
  Canada’s	
  total.	
  Despite	
  the	
  drop	
  in	
  electrical	
  capacity,	
  BC	
  still	
  had	
  the	
  third	
  largest	
  
electrical	
  and	
  thermal	
  cogeneration	
  capacity	
  in	
  Canada,	
  after	
  Alberta	
  and	
  Ontario.	
  	
  
Note	
  that	
  not	
  all	
  survey	
  respondents	
  provided	
  all	
  information.	
  As	
  a	
  result,	
  thermal	
  capacities	
  
for	
  both	
  BC	
  and	
  Canada	
  are	
  deemed	
  to	
  be	
  underestimated.	
  
Table	
  2.1.	
  Cogeneration	
  Capacity	
  in	
  BC,	
  2000–2010	
  
       Region	
                     2000	
       2001	
        2002	
         2004	
            2005	
      2006	
        2007	
         2008	
         2009	
      2010	
  
       Electrical	
  Capacity	
  (MWe)	
  
       British	
  Columbia	
         1,373	
     1,408	
        1,408	
       1,408	
           1,408	
     1,468	
        1,468	
        1,468	
       1,468	
     1,018	
  
       Canada	
                      4,525	
     5,267	
        6,352	
       6,743	
           6,789	
     6,936	
        7,007	
        7,007	
       7,007	
     6,553	
  
       %	
  BC	
  of	
  Total	
       30.3	
      26.7	
         22.2	
        20.9	
            20.7	
      21.2	
         21.0	
         21.0	
        21.0	
      15.5	
  
       Thermal	
  Capacity	
  (MWt)	
  
       British	
  Columbia	
         4,156	
   4,433	
   4,433	
   4,433	
   4,433	
   4,433	
   4,433	
   4,433	
   4,433	
   4,848	
  
       Canada	
                     27,200	
   27,846	
   28,937	
   29,063	
   29,127	
   29,159	
   29,473	
   29,473	
   29,473	
   20,056	
  
       %	
  BC	
  of	
  Total	
       15.3	
     15.9	
     15.3	
     15.3	
     15.2	
     15.2	
     15.0	
     15.0	
     15.0	
     24.2	
  
Source:	
  Canadian	
  Cogeneration	
  Database,	
  CIEEDAC.	
  Current	
  values	
  for	
  all	
  components	
  are	
  still	
  under	
  review.	
  




                                                                                       21	
                                                     	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


2.3.1 Sector Results
In	
  Figure	
  2.1,	
  cogeneration	
  capacity	
  is	
  allocated	
  according	
  to	
  system	
  operator/thermal	
  host.	
  
The	
  facilities	
  are	
  coded	
  using	
  the	
  NAICS	
  system.	
  	
  At	
  least	
  one	
  facility	
  in	
  BC	
  provides	
  district	
  
energy	
  as	
  a	
  result	
  of	
  its	
  cogeneration	
  activity	
  —	
  Metro	
  Vancouver’s	
  water	
  treatment	
  facility	
  on	
  
Iona	
  Island	
  is	
  listed	
  as	
  providing	
  this	
  service.	
  
Figure	
  2.1.	
  Cogeneration	
  Capacity	
  by	
  System	
  Operator/Thermal	
  Host	
  in	
  BC,	
  2010	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     	
  
Source:	
  Canadian	
  Cogeneration	
  Database,	
  2010,	
  CIEEDAC	
  
	
  

2.3.2 Cogeneration System Performance Characteristics
The	
  data	
  presented	
  in	
  Table	
  2.2	
  are	
  from	
  the	
  most	
  recent	
  cogeneration	
  database	
  and	
  are	
  based	
  
on	
  data	
  from	
  22	
  sites.	
  We	
  have	
  data	
  on	
  average	
  annual	
  electricity	
  generation	
  from	
  16	
  sites,	
  
data	
  on	
  heat	
  rate18	
  from	
  9	
  sites	
  and	
  data	
  on	
  heat-­‐to-­‐power	
  ratio	
  from	
  15	
  sites.	
  	
  The	
  data	
  on	
  
heat	
  rate	
  were	
  not	
  found	
  to	
  be	
  reliable	
  and	
  are	
  under	
  review.	
  	
  Forthcoming	
  editions	
  of	
  this	
  
report	
  may	
  contain	
  more	
  data	
  on	
  heat	
  rate.	
  
Table	
  2.2	
  displays	
  the	
  average	
  performance	
  characteristics	
  of	
  cogeneration	
  systems	
  currently	
  in	
  
operation	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  The	
  average	
  amount	
  of	
  electricity	
  generated	
  per	
  kWe	
  of	
  installed	
  
capacity	
  is	
  5,098	
  kWh/kW/y.	
  The	
  highest	
  rate	
  of	
  electricity	
  production	
  occurs	
  in	
  the	
  Utilities	
  
sector.	
  These	
  levels	
  of	
  output	
  give	
  an	
  indication	
  of	
  capacity	
  utilization	
  of	
  cogeneration	
  systems	
  
in	
  the	
  various	
  sectors.	
  




	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
18
  	
  In	
  this	
  study,	
  heat	
  rate	
  is	
  defined	
  as	
  the	
  energy	
  content	
  of	
  fuel	
  used	
  in	
  kilojoules	
  (KJ),	
  divided	
  by	
  the	
  sum	
  of	
  the	
  
electricity	
  output	
  in	
  kWh	
  and	
  the	
  thermal	
  output	
  in	
  kWh.	
  	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  22	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                         	
                Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Table	
  2.2.	
  Cogeneration	
  System	
  Performance	
  Characteristics	
  in	
  BC,	
  2010	
  
       Sector	
                                                            Electricity	
  Generation	
          Average	
  Efficiency	
      Heat-­‐to-­‐Power	
  
                                                                            (kWh/kW	
  per	
  year)	
                                            Ratio	
  
       Oil	
  and	
  Gas	
  Extraction	
                                                 0	
                             0.0%	
                     0.0	
  
       Utilities	
                                                                  5,862	
                             48.1%	
                     0.3	
  
       Food	
  Manufacturing	
                                                      1,333	
                               n/a	
                     4.4	
  
       Wood	
  Products	
  Manufacturing	
                                          4,785	
                             51.2%	
                     5.4	
  
       Pulp	
  and	
  Paper	
  Manufacturing	
                                      5,681	
                             61.3%	
                     7.6	
  
       Waste	
  Management	
  and	
  Remediation	
  Services	
  	
                  3,210	
                               n/a	
                     1.0	
  
       Average	
                                                                    5,098	
                             57.4%	
                     6.0	
  
Source:	
  Canadian	
  Cogeneration	
  Database,	
  CIEEDAC	
  

The	
  average	
  heat-­‐to-­‐power	
  ratio	
  of	
  systems	
  operating	
  in	
  BC	
  is	
  6.0.	
  This	
  means	
  that	
  for	
  every	
  
kWh	
  of	
  electricity	
  that	
  could	
  be	
  produced	
  by	
  cogeneration	
  systems,	
  6	
  kWh	
  of	
  useful	
  thermal	
  
energy	
  would	
  be	
  produced	
  (i.e.,	
  these	
  are	
  not	
  based	
  on	
  actual	
  production	
  figures	
  but	
  on	
  system	
  
design).	
  Table	
  2.2	
  shows	
  that	
  the	
  Pulp	
  and	
  Paper	
  Manufacturing	
  sector	
  has	
  the	
  highest	
  average	
  
heat-­‐to-­‐power	
  ratio	
  of	
  all	
  sectors.	
  The	
  Wood	
  Products	
  Manufacturing	
  sector	
  has	
  the	
  second	
  
highest	
  ratio.	
  These	
  industries	
  demand	
  high	
  quality	
  thermal	
  energy,	
  leaving	
  less	
  energy	
  
available	
  to	
  produce	
  electricity.	
  The	
  Utilities	
  and	
  Food	
  Manufacturing	
  sectors	
  have	
  low	
  heat-­‐to-­‐
power	
  ratios.	
  Utilities	
  have	
  low	
  heat-­‐to-­‐power	
  ratios	
  because	
  their	
  systems	
  are	
  designed	
  to	
  
maximize	
  electrical	
  output.	
  
Table	
  2.3	
  presents	
  known	
  and	
  estimated	
  annual	
  cogenerated	
  electricity	
  generation	
  by	
  sector.	
  
The	
  values	
  shown	
  for	
  known	
  electricity	
  generation	
  include	
  only	
  those	
  data	
  reported	
  by	
  system	
  
operators.	
  Using	
  these	
  data,	
  CIEEDAC	
  derived	
  an	
  average	
  capacity	
  utilization	
  factor.	
  Applying	
  
this	
  factor,	
  we	
  estimated	
  the	
  electricity	
  generation	
  for	
  all	
  cogenerators.	
  Total	
  electricity	
  
generation	
  in	
  2010	
  in	
  BC	
  was	
  63,637	
  GWh,	
  of	
  which	
  12,429	
  GWh	
  was	
  non-­‐utility.	
  The	
  bulk	
  of	
  
this	
  (9,000	
  GWh)	
  was	
  from	
  hydro.	
  The	
  remainder,	
  roughly	
  3,500	
  GWh,	
  can	
  be	
  accounted	
  for	
  in	
  
cogeneration	
  by	
  the	
  industries	
  other	
  than	
  Utilities	
  in	
  Table	
  2.3.	
  
Table	
  2.3.	
  Cogenerated	
  Electricity	
  Generation	
  in	
  BC,	
  2010	
  
       Sector	
                                                                      Known	
  Electricity	
                 Estimated	
  Electricity	
  
                                                                                  Generation	
  (MWh/year)	
               Generation	
  (MWh/year)	
  
       Oil	
  and	
  Gas	
  Extraction	
                                                      0	
                                 601,565	
  
       Utilities	
                                                                      1,700,000	
                              1,745,882	
  
       Food	
  Manufacturing	
                                                             4,000	
                                  4,000	
  
       Wood	
  Products	
  Manufacturing	
                                               234,592	
                                234,592	
  
       Pulp	
  and	
  Paper	
  Manufacturing	
                                          2,608,388	
                              2,949,954	
  
       Waste	
  Management	
  and	
  Remediation	
  Services	
  	
                        13,000	
                                 53,274	
  
       British	
  Columbia	
                                                            4,559,980	
                              5,589,267	
  
Source:	
  Canadian	
  Cogeneration	
  Database,	
  2010,	
  CIEEDAC	
  

2.4 Conclusion	
  and	
  Summary	
  
CIEEDAC	
  defines	
  cogeneration	
  as	
  the	
  simultaneous	
  production	
  of	
  electrical	
  and	
  useful	
  thermal	
  
energy	
  from	
  a	
  single	
  fuel.	
  By	
  making	
  use	
  of	
  the	
  waste	
  from	
  one	
  process	
  in	
  the	
  production	
  of	
  the	
  
other,	
  substantial	
  gains	
  in	
  energy	
  efficiency	
  can	
  be	
  realized	
  compared	
  with	
  the	
  independent	
  
production	
  of	
  both	
  products.	
  The	
  thermal	
  energy	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  in	
  heating	
  or	
  cooling	
  applications.	
  	
  



                                                                                    23	
                                              	
  
	
                                                                 	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


A	
  range	
  of	
  technologies	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  to	
  achieve	
  cogeneration,	
  but	
  the	
  system	
  must	
  always	
  
include	
  a	
  power	
  generator	
  (either	
  electric	
  power	
  or	
  drive	
  power)	
  and	
  a	
  heat	
  recovery	
  system.	
  
CIEEDAC	
  has	
  completed	
  seven	
  annual	
  reviews	
  of	
  cogeneration	
  in	
  Canada.	
  The	
  database	
  
contains	
  information	
  on	
  6,553	
  MWe	
  of	
  cogeneration	
  capacity	
  in	
  Canada.	
  
Currently,	
  British	
  Columbia	
  has	
  the	
  third	
  largest	
  electrical	
  cogeneration	
  capacity,	
  1,018	
  MWe,	
  
after	
  Alberta	
  and	
  Ontario.	
  British	
  Columbia	
  accounts	
  for	
  16%	
  of	
  total	
  electrical	
  cogeneration	
  
capacity	
  in	
  Canada.	
  When	
  classified	
  by	
  system	
  operator,	
  the	
  Pulp	
  and	
  Paper	
  Manufacturing	
  
sector	
  has	
  the	
  most	
  cogeneration,	
  545	
  MWe,	
  or	
  almost	
  54%	
  of	
  total	
  operational	
  capacity	
  in	
  
British	
  Columbia.	
  The	
  Utilities	
  sector	
  has	
  the	
  next	
  highest	
  cogeneration	
  capacity	
  of	
  299	
  MWe,	
  
which	
  represents	
  about	
  29%	
  of	
  capacity.	
  
Because	
  not	
  all	
  survey	
  respondents	
  provided	
  information	
  on	
  thermal	
  capacity,	
  our	
  estimates	
  of	
  
thermal	
  capacity	
  for	
  both	
  BC	
  and	
  Canada	
  are	
  likely	
  too	
  low.	
  	
  According	
  to	
  the	
  data	
  collected,	
  
British	
  Columbia	
  has	
  at	
  least	
  4,848	
  MWt,	
  about	
  24%	
  of	
  Canada’s	
  total	
  of	
  20,000	
  MWt.	
  
CIEEDAC	
  will	
  continue	
  to	
  track	
  and	
  update	
  this	
  database	
  with	
  the	
  objective	
  of	
  improving	
  and	
  
refining	
  the	
  accuracy	
  of	
  the	
  data.	
  Given	
  sufficient	
  funding,	
  a	
  revised	
  report	
  will	
  be	
  released	
  
annually.	
  We	
  encourage	
  and	
  appreciate	
  any	
  feedback	
  from	
  our	
  readers.	
  
	
                                          	
  




                                                                          24	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


3 Renewable	
  Energy	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia	
  
CIEEDAC	
  normally	
  surveys	
  renewable	
  energy	
  facilities	
  for	
  their	
  data	
  but	
  was	
  able	
  to	
  complete	
  
this	
  task	
  for	
  2010	
  due	
  to	
  lack	
  of	
  funding.	
  Therefore	
  the	
  discussion	
  in	
  this	
  section	
  has	
  not	
  been	
  
updated	
  to	
  include	
  data	
  for	
  2010;	
  the	
  most	
  recent	
  data	
  are	
  for	
  2009.	
  
Renewable	
  energy	
  resources	
  are	
  derived	
  from	
  naturally	
  regenerating	
  energy	
  resources	
  such	
  as	
  
the	
  sun,	
  wind,	
  moving	
  water,	
  earth	
  energy	
  and	
  biomass	
  (i.e.,	
  hog	
  fuel,	
  wood	
  waste,	
  black	
  liquor,	
  
etc.).	
  The	
  majority	
  of	
  renewable	
  energy	
  forms	
  are	
  ultimately	
  derived	
  from	
  the	
  sun	
  with	
  the	
  
exception	
  of	
  geothermal	
  and	
  tidal	
  energy.19	
  
These	
  resources	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  for	
  electricity	
  generation,	
  heating	
  and	
  cooling	
  services,	
  and	
  other	
  
purposes.	
  Both	
  low	
  and	
  high	
  temperature	
  thermal	
  energy	
  can	
  be	
  produced,	
  depending	
  on	
  the	
  
resource.	
  Some	
  technologies	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  for	
  cogeneration.	
  In	
  addition,	
  renewable	
  power	
  can	
  
be	
  used	
  in	
  water	
  electrolysis	
  technologies	
  to	
  generate	
  hydrogen	
  that	
  would	
  be	
  used	
  as	
  a	
  mobile	
  
(i.e.,	
  transportation)	
  or	
  stationary	
  fuel	
  through	
  fuel	
  cells	
  or	
  direct	
  combustion.	
  Renewable	
  
energy	
  resources	
  can	
  also	
  be	
  used	
  to	
  produce	
  liquid	
  bio-­‐fuels	
  such	
  as	
  ethanol	
  or	
  biodiesel,	
  both	
  
of	
  which	
  can	
  serve	
  as	
  mobile	
  or	
  stationary	
  fuels.	
  
3.1 Objectives	
  
This	
  section	
  of	
  the	
  report	
  considers	
  renewable	
  resources	
  and	
  technologies	
  used	
  for	
  power	
  
generation	
  or	
  cogeneration,	
  heating	
  systems,	
  hydrogen	
  generation	
  and	
  transportation	
  fuels.	
  
The	
  purpose	
  of	
  this	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  report	
  is	
  to:	
  
•                         provide	
  a	
  comprehensive	
  database	
  of	
  renewable	
  energy	
  facilities	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  
•                         provide	
  summary	
  information	
  on	
  the	
  mix	
  of	
  renewables	
  by	
  resource/technology	
  type,	
  scale	
  
                          (capacity	
  and	
  annual	
  generation),	
  owner/operator,	
  green	
  certification	
  status	
  and	
  vintage.	
  
3.2 Background	
  on	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Technologies	
  
Renewable	
  energy	
  technologies	
  convert	
  naturally	
  regenerating	
  resources	
  into	
  useful	
  energy	
  
“currencies”	
  such	
  as	
  electricity,	
  thermal	
  energy,	
  hydrogen	
  or	
  bio-­‐fuels.	
  These	
  currencies	
  can	
  
then	
  be	
  used	
  to	
  produce	
  energy	
  services.	
  This	
  section	
  provides	
  an	
  overview	
  of	
  renewable	
  
power	
  generating	
  technologies.	
  
These	
  renewable	
  energy	
  technologies	
  are	
  found	
  at	
  a	
  variety	
  of	
  scales,	
  from	
  a	
  household	
  level	
  
for	
  supplying	
  a	
  proportion	
  of	
  a	
  household	
  load	
  to	
  power	
  plants	
  that	
  can	
  supply	
  a	
  large	
  
proportion	
  of	
  an	
  electrical	
  grid’s	
  power.	
  
Several	
  renewable	
  energy	
  technologies	
  are	
  technically	
  mature	
  and	
  have	
  been	
  extensively	
  
commercialized,	
  having	
  been	
  used	
  in	
  industrial	
  and	
  pre-­‐industrial	
  societies	
  for	
  hundreds	
  of	
  
years.	
  Many	
  Canadian	
  electricity	
  companies	
  started	
  with	
  hydroelectricity	
  plants	
  at	
  the	
  turn	
  of	
  
the	
  20th	
  century,	
  generating	
  electricity	
  from	
  moving	
  water	
  in	
  rivers.	
  Some	
  other	
  technologies,	
  


	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
19
  	
  Tides	
  are	
  somewhat	
  associated	
  with	
  the	
  sun	
  in	
  that	
  they	
  are	
  the	
  result	
  of	
  an	
  interaction	
  between	
  solar	
  and	
  lunar	
  
gravity.	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  25	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                      	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


such	
  as	
  those	
  capturing	
  tidal	
  or	
  wave	
  energy,	
  are	
  in	
  early	
  stages	
  of	
  commercialization	
  with	
  cost	
  
levels	
  being	
  higher	
  than	
  competing	
  sources	
  of	
  energy.	
  
3.2.1 Hydroelectricity
Hydroelectric	
  technologies	
  generate	
  electricity	
  from	
  moving	
  water	
  through	
  a	
  turbine	
  and	
  
generator	
  to	
  produce	
  power.	
  The	
  water	
  may	
  be	
  flowing	
  in	
  a	
  river	
  or	
  stream	
  or	
  may	
  be	
  
transferred	
  through	
  a	
  pipeline	
  from	
  a	
  lake	
  to	
  a	
  lower	
  elevation.	
  The	
  water	
  upstream	
  of	
  the	
  
project	
  could	
  be	
  free	
  flowing	
  (i.e.,	
  run-­‐of-­‐river	
  hydro)	
  or	
  stored	
  behind	
  a	
  dam	
  in	
  a	
  reservoir	
  (i.e.,	
  
storage	
  hydro)	
  to	
  permit	
  flexibility	
  to	
  meet	
  varying	
  electrical	
  loads.	
  Hydroelectricity	
  projects	
  are	
  
located	
  in	
  areas	
  where	
  large	
  volumes	
  of	
  water	
  are	
  available,	
  in	
  mountainous	
  areas	
  or	
  where	
  
there	
  is	
  abundant	
  rainfall.	
  Storage	
  hydroelectricity	
  facilities	
  are	
  fully	
  dispatchable,	
  meaning	
  that	
  
they	
  can	
  provide	
  power	
  consistently	
  for	
  8,760	
  hours	
  of	
  the	
  year,	
  following	
  loads	
  with	
  great	
  
precision	
  if	
  the	
  reservoir	
  is	
  large	
  enough	
  and	
  full	
  enough.	
  Run-­‐of-­‐river	
  facilities,	
  where	
  water	
  is	
  
used	
  at	
  a	
  rate	
  no	
  greater	
  than	
  the	
  river’s	
  flow,	
  are	
  also	
  dispatchable	
  at	
  times	
  of	
  year	
  when	
  
water	
  flows	
  are	
  sufficient.	
  In	
  our	
  report,	
  we	
  have	
  distinguished	
  between	
  large	
  hydro	
  (greater	
  
than	
  50	
  MW)	
  and	
  small	
  hydro.	
  
3.2.2 Wind Power
Wind	
  power	
  is	
  the	
  generation	
  of	
  electricity	
  from	
  the	
  kinetic	
  energy	
  of	
  winds.	
  Wind	
  passes	
  
through	
  turbine	
  blades	
  that	
  turn	
  a	
  shaft	
  connected	
  to	
  an	
  electricity	
  generator.	
  Wind	
  energy	
  
facilities	
  are	
  common	
  in	
  areas	
  with	
  consistent	
  winds	
  with	
  high	
  average	
  wind	
  speeds	
  or	
  areas	
  
with	
  substantial	
  gusts	
  of	
  wind	
  on	
  a	
  predictable	
  basis.	
  These	
  facilities	
  tend	
  to	
  be	
  located	
  in	
  
coastal	
  areas,	
  at	
  high	
  elevations	
  or	
  in	
  valleys	
  or	
  plains	
  near	
  mountainous	
  areas.	
  Wind	
  power	
  
facilities	
  are	
  not	
  readily	
  dispatchable,	
  although	
  their	
  output	
  is	
  often	
  predictable	
  based	
  on	
  daily	
  
wind	
  patterns.	
  They	
  require	
  back	
  up	
  through	
  electrical	
  grids	
  with	
  dispatchable	
  supplies	
  online	
  
or	
  energy	
  storage	
  devices	
  such	
  as	
  batteries.	
  
3.2.3 Biomass and Biogas
Biomass	
  energy	
  is	
  derived	
  from	
  the	
  combustion	
  of	
  organic	
  matter	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  waste	
  products	
  in	
  
a	
  forestry	
  operation	
  or	
  other	
  plant	
  matter.	
  Biomass	
  can	
  be	
  combusted	
  in	
  a	
  boiler	
  to	
  produce	
  
steam	
  for	
  turbines	
  to	
  produce	
  power.	
  In	
  cogeneration	
  applications,	
  the	
  residual	
  heat	
  (thermal	
  
energy)	
  is	
  used	
  as	
  energy	
  for	
  other	
  end-­‐uses,	
  such	
  as	
  heating	
  buildings.	
  Biomass	
  power	
  
generation	
  is	
  primarily	
  connected	
  to	
  the	
  Pulp	
  and	
  Paper	
  Manufacturing	
  and	
  Wood	
  Products	
  
Manufacturing	
  sectors	
  through	
  the	
  combustion	
  of	
  wood	
  residue	
  products	
  from	
  those	
  
industries.	
  Biomass	
  power	
  plants	
  are	
  fully	
  dispatchable	
  provided	
  that	
  wood	
  resources	
  are	
  
available,	
  although	
  there	
  is	
  a	
  lagged	
  start	
  up	
  time	
  (the	
  start	
  up	
  is	
  not	
  “instant”	
  as	
  it	
  is	
  with	
  
hydro	
  power).	
  Burning	
  biomass	
  may	
  cause	
  air	
  pollution,	
  but	
  technologies	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  to	
  
minimize	
  particulate	
  matter	
  release.	
  
Biogas	
  energy	
  is	
  derived	
  from	
  biomass	
  but	
  is	
  combusted	
  as	
  a	
  gas	
  composed	
  primarily	
  of	
  
methane,	
  also	
  the	
  most	
  common	
  constituent	
  of	
  natural	
  gas.	
  Biogas	
  is	
  commonly	
  generated	
  
from	
  biomass	
  waste	
  products	
  at	
  sewage	
  treatment	
  plants	
  and	
  solid	
  waste	
  landfills	
  and	
  through	
  
forest	
  sector	
  activities	
  and	
  agricultural	
  operations.	
  Biogas	
  can	
  be	
  produced	
  through	
  a	
  biological	
  
process	
  that	
  “digests”	
  the	
  biomass	
  in	
  a	
  chamber	
  with	
  no	
  oxygen,	
  through	
  a	
  chemical	
  process	
  or	
  
through	
  heating	
  in	
  the	
  absence	
  of	
  oxygen	
  (destructive	
  distillation).	
  The	
  biomass	
  products	
  are	
  



                                                                               26	
                                              	
  
	
                                                                    	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


converted	
  to	
  a	
  gaseous	
  fuel.	
  This	
  biogas	
  is	
  then	
  combusted	
  in	
  a	
  boiler	
  to	
  produce	
  steam	
  for	
  
power	
  generation	
  through	
  a	
  steam	
  turbine	
  or	
  through	
  a	
  combustion	
  turbine	
  directly.	
  In	
  both	
  
instances,	
  under	
  cogeneration	
  applications,	
  the	
  residual	
  heat	
  is	
  used	
  as	
  energy	
  for	
  other	
  
applications	
  (thermal	
  energy).	
  Biogas	
  generators	
  are	
  fully	
  dispatchable	
  provided	
  that	
  resources	
  
are	
  available.	
  
3.2.4 Solar Photovoltaic
Solar	
  photovoltaic	
  (PV)	
  technologies	
  use	
  semiconductor	
  devices	
  to	
  generate	
  electricity	
  directly	
  
from	
  solar	
  radiation.	
  They	
  produce	
  direct	
  current	
  electricity	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  converted	
  to	
  
alternating	
  current	
  through	
  inverters.	
  Solar	
  PV	
  is	
  used	
  throughout	
  Canada	
  on	
  many	
  different	
  
types	
  of	
  buildings.	
  Solar	
  modules	
  are	
  installed	
  as	
  attachments	
  on	
  rooftops	
  or	
  through	
  building-­‐
integrated	
  configurations.	
  Solar	
  electricity	
  is	
  available	
  only	
  during	
  daylight	
  hours	
  and	
  is	
  reduced	
  
under	
  cloudy	
  conditions	
  so	
  it	
  is	
  not	
  dispatchable.	
  Thus	
  solar	
  PV	
  modules	
  require	
  a	
  connection	
  to	
  
an	
  electrical	
  grid	
  with	
  dispatchable	
  supplies	
  online	
  or	
  energy	
  storage	
  devices	
  such	
  as	
  batteries	
  
to	
  back	
  them	
  up.	
  
3.2.5 Geothermal and Earth Energy
The	
  earth	
  is	
  naturally	
  heated	
  by	
  the	
  decay	
  of	
  radioactive	
  elements	
  in	
  its	
  mantle.	
  Geothermal	
  
energy	
  and	
  earth	
  energy	
  make	
  use	
  of	
  this	
  heat	
  source.	
  CIEEDAC’s	
  renewable	
  database	
  uses	
  
“geothermal”	
  to	
  define	
  operations	
  that	
  use	
  steam	
  or	
  hot	
  water	
  in	
  the	
  earth’s	
  crust	
  (either	
  from	
  
drilled	
  wells	
  or	
  natural	
  fissures)	
  to	
  power	
  turbines	
  that	
  generate	
  electricity.	
  This	
  is	
  only	
  possible	
  
where	
  there	
  is	
  a	
  high	
  temperature	
  gradient,	
  generally	
  in	
  areas	
  with	
  recent	
  volcanic	
  activity	
  such	
  
as	
  the	
  BC	
  coast.	
  “Earth	
  energy”	
  installations,	
  on	
  the	
  other	
  hand,	
  use	
  the	
  earth	
  for	
  direct	
  heating	
  
(such	
  as	
  for	
  hot	
  water	
  or	
  space	
  heating)	
  or	
  cooling.	
  A	
  medium	
  or	
  low	
  temperature	
  gradient	
  is	
  
adequate	
  for	
  earth	
  energy.	
  
3.2.6 Others
Other	
  renewable	
  technologies	
  and	
  resources	
  are	
  not	
  currently	
  used	
  commercially	
  in	
  British	
  
Columbia	
  or	
  are	
  not	
  included	
  in	
  the	
  database.	
  Many	
  exist	
  or	
  are	
  under	
  development	
  in	
  BC	
  or	
  
elsewhere	
  in	
  Canada.	
  These	
  include:	
  
       •   Tidal	
  energy:	
  Use	
  of	
  moving	
  seawater	
  to	
  generate	
  electricity.	
  Tidal	
  energy	
  is	
  abundant	
  in	
  
           coastal	
  areas,	
  particularly	
  on	
  the	
  BC	
  coast	
  when	
  there	
  are	
  narrow	
  passages	
  with	
  large	
  
           volumes	
  of	
  water.	
  
       •   Wave	
  power:	
  Conversion	
  of	
  the	
  kinetic	
  energy	
  of	
  ocean	
  waves	
  into	
  electricity.	
  
       •   Solar	
  thermal:	
  Use	
  of	
  the	
  sun’s	
  energy	
  to	
  heat	
  water	
  or	
  air	
  directly.	
  This	
  technology	
  is	
  
           well	
  established.	
  There	
  are	
  installations	
  in	
  BC	
  but	
  these	
  are	
  not	
  yet	
  recorded	
  in	
  the	
  
           renewables	
  database.	
  
       •   Biodiesel	
  fuel:	
  A	
  fuel	
  derived	
  from	
  renewable	
  sources	
  such	
  as	
  vegetable	
  oil.	
  Biodiesel	
  
           has	
  been	
  sold	
  in	
  BC	
  since	
  2005;	
  it	
  is	
  typically	
  blended	
  with	
  regular	
  diesel.	
  The	
  source	
  of	
  
           the	
  biodiesel	
  is	
  waste	
  vegetable	
  oil	
  from	
  food	
  preparation	
  facilities	
  such	
  as	
  restaurants;	
  
           CIEEDAC	
  has	
  no	
  records	
  of	
  commercial	
  production	
  of	
  biodiesel	
  from	
  oil	
  crops	
  such	
  as	
  
           canola.	
  




                                                                             27	
                                              	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


                          •                          Ethanol	
  fuel:	
  An	
  alcohol	
  fuel	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  mixed	
  with	
  or	
  used	
  instead	
  of	
  gasoline.	
  It	
  is	
  
                                                     made	
  by	
  distilling	
  fermented	
  sugars	
  derived	
  from	
  biomass	
  sources	
  such	
  as	
  corn	
  or	
  
                                                     wheat.	
  
                          •                          Hydrogen	
  fuels	
  and	
  fuel	
  cell	
  systems:	
  Hydrogen	
  fuel	
  is	
  only	
  renewable	
  when	
  the	
  
                                                     electricity	
  used	
  for	
  electrolysis	
  to	
  produce	
  the	
  hydrogen	
  is	
  from	
  a	
  renewable	
  source.	
  
                                                     Renewable	
  hydrogen	
  generation	
  is	
  being	
  proposed	
  at	
  several	
  locations	
  in	
  Canada	
  and	
  is	
  
                                                     currently	
  being	
  tested	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia	
  by	
  BC	
  Transit,	
  using	
  hydrogen-­‐fuelled	
  buses.	
  
Certain	
  types	
  of	
  renewable	
  energy	
  technologies	
  that	
  produce	
  few	
  environmental	
  and	
  social	
  
impacts	
  are	
  often	
  categorized	
  as	
  “green	
  energy”	
  sources.	
  These	
  supplies	
  are	
  being	
  used	
  to	
  
meet	
  regulatory	
  requirements	
  connected	
  with	
  environmental	
  policy	
  goals	
  or	
  sold	
  to	
  consumers	
  
as	
  a	
  premium	
  product	
  for	
  a	
  higher	
  price	
  than	
  conventional	
  energy	
  supplies.	
  Green	
  energy	
  is	
  
typically	
  defined	
  through	
  facility	
  certification	
  standards	
  such	
  as	
  those	
  applied	
  by	
  the	
  federal	
  
government-­‐sanctioned	
  Environmental	
  Choice	
  Eco-­‐Logo	
  Program,20	
  BC	
  Hydro21	
  and	
  the	
  
Canadian	
  Electricity	
  Association.22	
  	
  In	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  “clean	
  energy”	
  is	
  defined	
  in	
  a	
  set	
  of	
  
guidelines	
  entitled	
  BC	
  Clean	
  Electricity	
  Guidelines,	
  published	
  in	
  2005	
  and	
  available	
  from	
  the	
  BC	
  
Ministry	
  of	
  Energy	
  and	
  Mines.	
  
3.3 Methodology	
  
This	
  section	
  provides	
  an	
  overview	
  of	
  the	
  methodology	
  used	
  for	
  the	
  development	
  of	
  the	
  data	
  on	
  
BC’s	
  renewable	
  energy.	
  The	
  BC	
  data	
  are	
  part	
  of	
  a	
  larger	
  database	
  containing	
  information	
  on	
  
renewable	
  energy	
  facilities	
  throughout	
  Canada.	
  This	
  database	
  aims	
  to	
  bring	
  together	
  
information	
  on	
  all	
  renewable	
  power	
  operations	
  in	
  Canada	
  over	
  a	
  scale	
  of	
  100	
  kW	
  of	
  rated	
  
capacity.	
  In	
  the	
  case	
  of	
  run-­‐of-­‐river	
  hydro	
  and	
  earth,	
  wind	
  and	
  solar	
  power,	
  smaller	
  applications	
  
have	
  also	
  been	
  included,	
  provided	
  they	
  are	
  connected	
  to	
  a	
  regional	
  or	
  community	
  electrical	
  grid	
  
or	
  an	
  industrial	
  load.	
  In	
  2009,	
  there	
  were	
  1,228	
  records	
  for	
  renewable	
  energy	
  facilities	
  in	
  
Canada,	
  191	
  of	
  which	
  were	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  
The	
  following	
  information	
  is	
  provided	
  in	
  the	
  database	
  for	
  each	
  facility:	
  renewable	
  resource	
  type	
  
(e.g.,	
  wind,	
  hydro,	
  biomass);	
  capacity	
  (electrical,	
  thermal,	
  litre	
  production,	
  etc.);	
  number	
  of	
  
generating/production	
  units;	
  average	
  annual	
  electricity	
  or	
  thermal	
  heat	
  generation	
  if	
  
applicable;	
  start	
  year	
  and	
  capacity	
  upgrades;	
  grid	
  connection;	
  green	
  certification	
  status;	
  
conversion	
  technology;	
  market;	
  installation	
  and	
  operating	
  costs;	
  employment;	
  annual	
  revenue;	
  
government	
  incentives	
  used;	
  tax	
  payments;	
  and	
  responses	
  to	
  questions	
  on	
  energy	
  policy.	
  
3.3.1 Data Sources
The	
  original	
  data	
  were	
  collected	
  from	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  sources,	
  including	
  the	
  following:	
  



	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
20
  	
  See	
  http://terrachoice.com	
  and	
  the	
  “Renewable	
  Low-­‐Impact	
  Electricity”	
  label	
  
21
  	
  BC	
  Hydro	
  Green	
  Criteria.	
  See	
  http://www.bchydro.com/energy_in_bc/energy_technologies.html	
  
22
  	
  CEA’s	
  Environmentally	
  Preferable	
  Electricity	
  Portfolio	
  certification	
  system	
  is	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  methodology	
  
developed	
  by	
  Scientific	
  Certification	
  Systems	
  (SCS),	
  based	
  in	
  Oakland,	
  California.	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  28	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                     	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


       •   Renewable	
  energy	
  industry	
  association	
  publications	
  and	
  statistics	
  (i.e.,	
  Canadian	
  Wind	
  
           Energy	
  Association,	
  Canadian	
  Hydropower	
  Association,	
  Canadian	
  Bioenergy	
  Association,	
  
           Independent	
  Power	
  Producers	
  of	
  Ontario);	
  
       •   Renewable	
  energy	
  publications	
  from	
  government	
  and	
  institutional	
  sources;	
  	
  
       •   STC	
  report,	
  Electric	
  Power	
  Generating	
  Stations:	
  2000	
  (Catalogue	
  No.	
  57-­‐206-­‐XIB),	
  which	
  
           provided	
  by	
  far	
  the	
  bulk	
  of	
  the	
  initial	
  data	
  on	
  specific	
  sites;	
  
       •   Communications	
  with	
  and	
  materials	
  from	
  power	
  plant	
  owners	
  and	
  developers;	
  
       •   Electrical	
  utility	
  and	
  retailer	
  information	
  sources;	
  and	
  
       •   The	
  authors’	
  personal	
  knowledge	
  of	
  power	
  plants	
  in	
  Canada.	
  
The	
  survey	
  is	
  conducted	
  online	
  at	
  CIEEDAC’s	
  website.	
  The	
  information	
  automatically	
  enters	
  into	
  
a	
  Microsoft	
  Access	
  database.	
  A	
  report	
  generator	
  prints	
  the	
  database	
  information	
  in	
  the	
  tables	
  
that	
  appear	
  in	
  Appendix	
  C	
  of	
  this	
  report.	
  
The	
  database	
  has	
  several	
  limitations	
  and	
  sources	
  of	
  error,	
  including	
  the	
  following:	
  
       •   Despite	
  efforts	
  to	
  make	
  the	
  database	
  comprehensive,	
  it	
  may	
  be	
  missing	
  several	
  power	
  
           plants.	
  In	
  particular,	
  hydroelectricity,	
  biomass,	
  and	
  biogas	
  plants	
  built	
  after	
  the	
  year	
  
           2000	
  may	
  not	
  be	
  present,	
  given	
  that	
  the	
  STC	
  source	
  included	
  information	
  only	
  up	
  to	
  that	
  
           year	
  and	
  the	
  industry	
  associations	
  for	
  those	
  sources	
  of	
  energy	
  do	
  not	
  publish	
  a	
  power	
  
           plant	
  listing.	
  In	
  contrast,	
  the	
  Canadian	
  Wind	
  Energy	
  Association	
  has	
  an	
  up-­‐to-­‐date	
  list	
  of	
  
           wind	
  generation	
  facilities	
  in	
  Canada	
  and	
  the	
  STC	
  releases	
  data	
  annually	
  on	
  wind	
  and	
  
           solar	
  power	
  plants	
  (by	
  special	
  request).	
  
       •   Distributed	
  energy	
  sources	
  such	
  as	
  solar	
  photovoltaics,	
  solar	
  thermal	
  and	
  geothermal	
  
           are	
  by	
  nature	
  small	
  and	
  difficult	
  to	
  track.	
  The	
  database	
  currently	
  does	
  not	
  accurately	
  
           reflect	
  their	
  contribution	
  to	
  renewable	
  energy	
  generation	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  In	
  the	
  
           future,	
  efforts	
  will	
  be	
  made	
  to	
  obtain	
  records	
  from	
  those	
  selling	
  and	
  installing	
  these	
  
           systems.	
  
       •   Annual	
  electricity	
  generation	
  data	
  are	
  incomplete,	
  as	
  many	
  companies	
  chose	
  not	
  to	
  
           reveal	
  this	
  information.	
  The	
  response	
  rate	
  will	
  likely	
  improve	
  as	
  a	
  level	
  of	
  trust	
  is	
  built	
  
           with	
  survey	
  respondents.	
  
       •   For	
  those	
  biomass	
  and	
  biogas	
  facilities	
  that	
  mix	
  renewable	
  fuels	
  (e.g.,	
  spent	
  pulping	
  
           liquor)	
  with	
  non-­‐renewable	
  fuels	
  (e.g.,	
  natural	
  gas),	
  renewable	
  capacity	
  and	
  annual	
  
           generation	
  were	
  calculated	
  by	
  simply	
  multiplying	
  the	
  total	
  energy	
  or	
  power	
  by	
  the	
  
           proportion	
  of	
  renewable	
  fuel.	
  For	
  example,	
  a	
  10	
  MW	
  total	
  capacity	
  with	
  60%	
  of	
  the	
  
           combusted	
  fuel	
  from	
  renewable	
  spent	
  pulping	
  liquor	
  and	
  40%	
  from	
  natural	
  gas	
  would	
  
           be	
  recorded	
  as	
  6	
  MW	
  of	
  renewable	
  capacity.	
  This	
  simplification	
  disregards	
  differences	
  in	
  
           boiler	
  types	
  and	
  efficiencies	
  and	
  any	
  interdependencies	
  between	
  the	
  fuel	
  sources.	
  
The	
  tables	
  and	
  figures	
  in	
  the	
  remainder	
  of	
  this	
  section	
  are	
  generated	
  directly	
  from	
  the	
  data	
  
contained	
  in	
  the	
  CIEEDAC	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Database	
  as	
  described	
  above.	
  




                                                                              29	
                                              	
  
	
                                                                   	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


3.4 Renewable	
  Energy	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  1990–2009	
  
Because	
  funding	
  was	
  limited	
  this	
  year,	
  CIEEDAC	
  could	
  not	
  perform	
  its	
  usual	
  survey	
  of	
  renewable	
  
energy	
  generation.	
  The	
  data,	
  therefore,	
  are	
  only	
  up	
  to	
  2009.	
  
3.4.1 Capacity
BC	
  currently	
  has	
  an	
  installed	
  renewable	
  capacity	
  to	
  produce	
  electricity	
  and	
  heat	
  of	
  14.2	
  GW.	
  
About	
  90%	
  of	
  renewable	
  energy	
  capacity	
  was	
  electrical	
  capacity	
  with	
  the	
  remainder	
  being	
  
thermal	
  capacity	
  (10%).	
  Although	
  we	
  also	
  collect	
  information	
  on	
  generators	
  of	
  renewable	
  liquid	
  
fuels	
  such	
  as	
  ethanol	
  and	
  biodiesel,	
  the	
  database	
  does	
  not	
  list	
  any	
  for	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  Figure	
  
3.1	
  below	
  divides	
  renewable	
  energy	
  capacity	
  by	
  resource	
  types.	
  The	
  figure	
  shows	
  that	
  
hydroelectricity	
  dominates	
  BC’s	
  renewable	
  energy	
  power	
  market,	
  with	
  large	
  hydro	
  contributing	
  
about	
  83%	
  of	
  BC’s	
  renewable	
  energy	
  power	
  capacity	
  and	
  small	
  hydro	
  contributing	
  about	
  4.1%.	
  
About	
  12%	
  of	
  renewable	
  energy	
  power	
  capacity	
  is	
  derived	
  from	
  biomass	
  wood	
  residue	
  sources	
  
(both	
  electrical	
  and	
  thermal),	
  and	
  about	
  1%	
  is	
  from	
  biogas,	
  municipal	
  solid	
  waste	
  and	
  solar	
  
(both	
  electrical	
  and	
  thermal).	
  Renewable	
  energy	
  sources	
  provide	
  about	
  85%	
  of	
  BC’s	
  total	
  
installed	
  electrical	
  capacity	
  (non-­‐renewable	
  and	
  renewable)	
  of	
  15.2	
  GW.	
  
Figure	
  3.1.	
  Total	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Capacity	
  (kW)	
  by	
  Resource	
  Type,	
  BC,	
  2009	
  




                                                                                                                                       	
  
Source:	
  CIEEDAC	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Database,	
  2010	
  

It	
  is	
  worthwhile	
  to	
  look	
  more	
  carefully	
  at	
  those	
  resources	
  considered	
  lower	
  impact.	
  Figure	
  3.2	
  
illustrates	
  the	
  capacity	
  share	
  of	
  the	
  different	
  resources	
  with	
  large	
  hydroelectric	
  facilities	
  
excluded.	
  We	
  note	
  that	
  there	
  are	
  also	
  small-­‐scale	
  facilities	
  using	
  earth	
  energy	
  and	
  landfill	
  gas	
  
about	
  which	
  we	
  have	
  no	
  information	
  on	
  capacity	
  levels.	
  They	
  are	
  assumed	
  to	
  make	
  up	
  a	
  very	
  
small	
  proportion	
  of	
  renewable	
  energy	
  capacity.	
  




                                                                            30	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                   	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Figure	
  3.2.	
  Total	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Capacity	
  (kW)	
  by	
  Resource	
  Type,	
  Excluding	
  Large	
  Hydro,	
  BC,	
  2009	
  




                                                                                                                                         	
  
Source:	
  CIEEDAC	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Database,	
  2010	
  

Figure	
  3.3	
  illustrates	
  the	
  total	
  quantity	
  of	
  new	
  electrical	
  generating	
  capacity	
  added	
  in	
  British	
  
Columbia	
  during	
  each	
  decade	
  of	
  the	
  last	
  century,	
  broken	
  down	
  by	
  renewable	
  resource	
  type.	
  
Each	
  decade	
  up	
  to	
  the	
  1970s	
  saw	
  increasing	
  levels	
  of	
  capacity	
  expansion	
  (except	
  during	
  the	
  
1920s).	
  Since	
  then,	
  capacity	
  additions	
  have	
  dropped	
  off	
  dramatically.	
  Since	
  1991,	
  new	
  capacity	
  
has	
  come	
  primarily	
  from	
  sources	
  such	
  as	
  biomass	
  and	
  small	
  hydro.	
  
Figure	
  3.3.	
  New	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Capacity	
  by	
  Project	
  Start	
  Year,	
  BC	
  




Source:	
  CIEEDAC	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Database,	
  2010	
  




                                                                            31	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


It	
  should	
  be	
  noted	
  that	
  the	
  composite	
  chart	
  of	
  Figure	
  3.3	
  includes	
  only	
  one	
  entry	
  for	
  each	
  
power	
  plant	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  original	
  year	
  of	
  operation.	
  It	
  therefore	
  allocates	
  upgraded	
  capacity	
  to	
  
the	
  start	
  year.	
  Nevertheless,	
  it	
  provides	
  us	
  with	
  a	
  useful	
  overview	
  of	
  installation	
  activity.	
  
Figure	
  3.4	
  presents	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  facilities	
  built	
  rather	
  than	
  their	
  capacity.	
  It	
  highlights	
  recent	
  
efforts	
  to	
  add	
  lower	
  impact	
  energy	
  facilities.	
  The	
  “Other”	
  category	
  consists	
  primarily	
  of	
  solar	
  
and	
  earth	
  energy	
  installations.	
  	
  Many	
  of	
  these	
  new	
  facilities	
  are	
  small;	
  it	
  indicates	
  a	
  move	
  
toward	
  increasingly	
  distributed	
  generation.	
  
Figure	
  3.4.	
  Number	
  of	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Facilities	
  Installed	
  by	
  Project	
  Start	
  Year,	
  BC	
  




Source:	
  CIEEDAC	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Database,	
  2010	
  

3.4.2 Annual Generation of Energy
The	
  survey	
  asked	
  facility	
  operators	
  to	
  report	
  their	
  annual	
  energy	
  generation.	
  The	
  sums	
  of	
  these	
  
figures	
  are	
  listed	
  in	
  the	
  first	
  column	
  of	
  Table	
  3.1	
  below	
  (in	
  GWh).	
  However,	
  some	
  facilities	
  
reported	
  only	
  their	
  rated	
  capacity	
  and	
  not	
  their	
  annual	
  energy	
  generation.	
  Thus,	
  data	
  from	
  
39.5%	
  of	
  the	
  facilities	
  in	
  the	
  database	
  that	
  provide	
  information	
  on	
  both	
  their	
  rated	
  capacity	
  and	
  
annual	
  energy	
  generation	
  are	
  used	
  to	
  calculate	
  capacity	
  factors	
  for	
  each	
  renewable	
  resource	
  
type.	
  These	
  capacity	
  factors	
  are	
  then	
  applied	
  to	
  all	
  of	
  the	
  facilities	
  in	
  the	
  database	
  that	
  have	
  
reported	
  their	
  capacity	
  to	
  generate	
  the	
  second	
  column	
  in	
  Table	
  3.1.	
  
The	
  2009	
  renewable	
  energy	
  survey	
  for	
  British	
  Columbia	
  revealed	
  that	
  at	
  least	
  19%	
  of	
  the	
  energy	
  
produced	
  in	
  the	
  province	
  was	
  from	
  renewable	
  resources	
  and	
  estimates	
  show	
  it	
  could	
  have	
  been	
  
as	
  high	
  as	
  21%.23	
  
The	
  associated	
  quantities	
  of	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  avoided	
  are	
  also	
  listed	
  in	
  Table	
  3.1	
  (in	
  CO2	
  
equivalent).	
  These	
  calculations	
  assume	
  that	
  the	
  alternative	
  to	
  renewable	
  electricity	
  generation	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
23
 	
  Based	
  on	
  2009	
  renewable	
  energy	
  generation	
  and	
  2009	
  total	
  primary	
  energy	
  production	
  for	
  BC	
  from	
  STC’s	
  Report	
  
on	
  Energy	
  Supply	
  and	
  Demand	
  taken	
  from	
  CANSIM.	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  32	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


would	
  be	
  combined-­‐cycle	
  gas	
  turbines	
  and	
  that	
  the	
  alternative	
  to	
  burning	
  wood	
  residue	
  for	
  
thermal	
  energy	
  would	
  be	
  burning	
  natural	
  gas	
  in	
  a	
  boiler.	
  As	
  the	
  estimated	
  figures	
  below	
  might	
  
deviate	
  significantly	
  from	
  real	
  energy	
  generation	
  and	
  GHG	
  emissions	
  avoided	
  in	
  2009,	
  they	
  
should	
  be	
  cited	
  with	
  caution.	
  
Table	
  3.1.	
  Annual	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Generation	
  (GWh)	
  and	
  Avoided	
  Greenhouse	
  Gas	
  Emissions	
  
(1000	
  tonnes	
  CO2	
  equivalent),	
  BC,	
  2009	
  
       Fuel	
  Type	
                                                                                         Known	
                                                                                             Estimated	
           Potential	
               Confirmed	
           Estimated	
           Potential	
  
                                                                                                              Energy	
                                                                                              Energy	
           Total	
  Energy	
            GHG	
                  GHG	
              Total	
  GHG	
  
                                                                                                            Generation	
                                                                                          Generation	
         Generation	
               Emissions	
           Emissions	
           Emissions	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Avoided	
             Avoided	
             Avoided	
  
       Biogas	
                                                                                                                                      16	
                                                                     89	
                    105	
                     3	
                 29	
                   33	
  
       Biomass	
                                                                                                                                  4,997	
                                                                  1,980	
                  6,976	
             1,415	
                    636	
                2,051	
  
       Large	
  Hydro	
                                                                                                                          60,090	
                                                                  2,022	
                 62,112	
            26,440	
                    890	
             27,329	
  
       Small	
  Hydro	
                                                                                                                           3,058	
                                                                    137	
                  3,195	
             1,345	
                     60	
                1,406	
  
       Solar	
  	
  	
                                                                                                                                0	
                                                                      0	
                      0	
                     0	
                   0	
                      0	
  
       Other	
                                                                                                                                        1	
                                                                     43	
                     44	
                     1	
                 19	
                   19	
  
       Total	
                                                                                                                                   68,161	
                                                                  4,271	
                 72,432	
            29,204	
               1,634	
                30,838	
  
Source:	
  CIEEDAC	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Database,	
  2010	
  

Due	
  to	
  the	
  high	
  proportion	
  of	
  renewable	
  electricity	
  generation,	
  British	
  Columbia	
  emitted	
  only	
  
1.45	
  Mt	
  of	
  CO2	
  from	
  the	
  production	
  of	
  electricity	
  in	
  2009.	
  If	
  these	
  renewable	
  energy	
  facilities	
  
were	
  replaced	
  with	
  combined-­‐cycle	
  gas	
  turbines,	
  CO2	
  emissions	
  from	
  electricity	
  would	
  be	
  as	
  
high	
  as	
  29.3	
  Mt.24	
  
3.4.3 Capacity Utilization
By	
  obtaining	
  both	
  capacity	
  and	
  annual	
  generation	
  data,	
  we	
  were	
  able	
  to	
  estimate	
  the	
  average	
  
capacity	
  utilization	
  of	
  each	
  resource	
  type,	
  presented	
  in	
  Figure	
  3.5.	
  Capacity	
  utilization	
  
represents	
  annual	
  generation	
  as	
  a	
  percentage	
  of	
  what	
  could	
  be	
  generated	
  if	
  the	
  plant	
  ran	
  
constantly.	
  Barriers	
  to	
  obtaining	
  100%	
  capacity	
  utilization	
  could	
  include	
  an	
  inconsistent	
  supply	
  
of	
  fuel	
  (biomass),	
  sunlight	
  (solar)	
  or	
  water	
  (hydro);	
  planned	
  downtime	
  for	
  maintenance;	
  
mechanical	
  failure;	
  and/or	
  a	
  lack	
  of	
  demand	
  during	
  non-­‐peak	
  hours.	
  




	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
24
         	
  Assume	
  greenhouse	
  emissions	
  intensity	
  for	
  marginal	
  electricity	
  production	
  is	
  0.44	
  t	
  CO2e/MWh	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                33	
                                                	
  
	
                                                                    	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Figure	
  3.5.	
  Capacity	
  Utilization	
  by	
  Resource	
  Type,	
  BC,	
  2009	
  




Source:	
  CIEEDAC	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Database,	
  2010	
  

3.4.4 Characteristics of Electricity Generators
Figure	
  3.6	
  shows	
  the	
  breakdown	
  of	
  renewable	
  electrical	
  capacity	
  by	
  resource	
  type.	
  
Hydroelectricity	
  dominates	
  BC’s	
  renewable	
  energy	
  generation	
  market,	
  with	
  92.3%	
  from	
  large	
  
hydro	
  facilities	
  and	
  4.6%	
  from	
  small	
  hydro	
  facilities.	
  The	
  average	
  facility	
  capacities	
  are	
  62	
  MW	
  
for	
  large	
  hydro	
  and	
  3	
  MW	
  for	
  small	
  hydro.	
  Large	
  hydro	
  is	
  the	
  province’s	
  largest	
  producer	
  of	
  
renewable	
  electricity.	
  	
  
Hydroelectricity	
  can	
  also	
  be	
  broken	
  into	
  hydro	
  storage,	
  hydro	
  run-­‐of-­‐river	
  and	
  hydro	
  other.	
  The	
  
dominant	
  form	
  of	
  hydroelectricity	
  is	
  hydro	
  storage,	
  with	
  a	
  total	
  capacity	
  of	
  10.7	
  GW	
  and	
  an	
  
average	
  facility	
  capacity	
  of	
  56.5	
  MW.	
  Run-­‐of-­‐river	
  is	
  the	
  second	
  most	
  common	
  type	
  of	
  
hydroelectricity	
  in	
  BC,	
  with	
  a	
  total	
  capacity	
  of	
  1.2	
  GW	
  and	
  an	
  average	
  facility	
  capacity	
  of	
  
6.7	
  MW.	
  There	
  are	
  62	
  hydro	
  facilities,	
  including	
  32	
  hydro	
  storage	
  facilities,	
  in	
  our	
  database,	
  
which	
  represent	
  about	
  97%	
  of	
  installed	
  renewable	
  electrical	
  capacity	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  	
  
Figure	
  3.6.	
  Renewable	
  Electrical	
  Capacity	
  (kW)	
  by	
  Resource	
  Type,	
  BC,	
  2009	
  




                                                                                                                                        	
  
Source:	
  CIEEDAC	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Database,	
  2010.	
  




                                                                             34	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                     	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


Figure	
  3.7	
  illustrates	
  the	
  electrical	
  capacity	
  share	
  when	
  excluding	
  large	
  hydro	
  facilities.	
  
Nine	
  of	
  the	
  62	
  hydro	
  facilities	
  in	
  our	
  database	
  are	
  certified	
  “green”	
  by	
  BC	
  Hydro	
  or	
  the	
  
Environmental	
  Choice	
  EcoLogo	
  program.	
  
Although	
  solar	
  photovoltaics	
  are	
  shown	
  here	
  to	
  represent	
  a	
  miniscule	
  share	
  of	
  electrical	
  
capacity,	
  this	
  technology	
  is	
  likely	
  underrepresented	
  in	
  our	
  database	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  difficulty	
  of	
  
tracking	
  down	
  facilities	
  for	
  such	
  a	
  distributed	
  energy	
  source.	
  Of	
  the	
  10	
  installations	
  listed,	
  one	
  is	
  
owned	
  by	
  a	
  diversified	
  electricity	
  generator,	
  one	
  by	
  a	
  renewable	
  electricity	
  generator,	
  one	
  by	
  a	
  
telecommunications	
  firm,	
  one	
  by	
  an	
  academic	
  research	
  facility	
  and	
  one	
  by	
  a	
  private	
  
homeowner.	
  None	
  of	
  them	
  sell	
  electricity	
  to	
  the	
  grid.	
  Eight	
  of	
  them	
  were	
  installed	
  in	
  the	
  last	
  
five	
  years.	
  
Figure	
  3.7.	
  Renewable	
  Electrical	
  Capacity	
  (kW)	
  by	
  Resource	
  Type,	
  Excluding	
  Standard	
  Hydro	
  and	
  
Standard	
  Hydro	
  Storage,	
  BC,	
  2009	
  




                                                                                                                                               	
  
Source:	
  CIEEDAC	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Database,	
  2010	
  

3.4.5 Characteristics of Thermal Energy Generators
In	
  2009,	
  59	
  facilities	
  reported	
  production	
  of	
  renewable	
  thermal	
  energy,	
  with	
  a	
  total	
  capacity	
  of	
  
1,422	
  MW.	
  	
  Of	
  this	
  total	
  thermal	
  capacity,	
  91.5%	
  was	
  derived	
  from	
  wood	
  waste	
  in	
  Pulp	
  and	
  
Paper	
  and	
  Wood	
  Products	
  Manufacturing	
  establishments.	
  The	
  remainder	
  came	
  from	
  landfill	
  gas	
  
used	
  by	
  the	
  utilities	
  (7.7%)	
  and	
  earth	
  energy	
  (0.8%).
Nine	
  thermal	
  energy	
  producers	
  also	
  reported	
  generating	
  their	
  own	
  electricity	
  but	
  only	
  five	
  
facilities	
  reported	
  selling	
  electricity	
  to	
  the	
  grid.	
  Five	
  of	
  the	
  nine	
  thermal	
  energy	
  producers	
  
reported	
  that	
  they	
  purchased	
  electricity	
  from	
  the	
  grid.	
  In	
  general,	
  these	
  facilities	
  produced	
  a	
  
relatively	
  small	
  amount	
  of	
  electricity	
  compared	
  to	
  thermal	
  energy,	
  with	
  an	
  average	
  of	
  only	
  
13	
  kW	
  of	
  electrical	
  capacity	
  per	
  100	
  kW	
  of	
  installed	
  thermal	
  capacity	
  with	
  a	
  total	
  installed	
  
electrical	
  capacity	
  of	
  163	
  MW.	
  




                                                                              35	
                                              	
  
	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            	
               Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


There	
  are	
  52	
  earth	
  energy	
  facilities	
  listed	
  in	
  the	
  database.	
  Of	
  these	
  facilities,	
  32	
  have	
  an	
  average	
  
capacity	
  of	
  337	
  kW,	
  comprising	
  a	
  total	
  of	
  10.7	
  MW.	
  The	
  largest	
  facility	
  is	
  2,321	
  kW	
  and	
  the	
  
smallest	
  is	
  18	
  kW.	
  
3.5 Comparison	
  with	
  the	
  Rest	
  of	
  Canada	
  
Table	
  3.2	
  below	
  illustrates	
  Canada’s	
  renewable	
  electrical	
  capacity	
  and	
  total	
  electrical	
  capacity	
  in	
  
kilowatts	
  in	
  place	
  in	
  2005	
  by	
  province	
  (data	
  not	
  available	
  for	
  thermal	
  capacity).25	
  Quebec	
  had	
  
49%	
  of	
  Canada’s	
  renewable	
  power	
  capacity,	
  while	
  British	
  Columbia	
  had	
  about	
  17%.	
  	
  
Table	
  3.2	
  illustrates	
  the	
  percentage	
  of	
  total	
  provincial	
  and	
  territorial	
  installed	
  capacity	
  that	
  is	
  
provided	
  by	
  renewable	
  energy.	
  Quebec	
  had	
  the	
  highest	
  proportion	
  at	
  95%.	
  BC	
  ranked	
  fourth	
  at	
  
88%,	
  after	
  Québec,	
  Newfoundland	
  and	
  Labrador,	
  and	
  Manitoba.	
  
Table	
  3.2.	
  Capacity	
  	
  and	
  Percentage	
  of	
  Provincial	
  Supply	
  from	
  Renewable	
  Energy,	
  2005	
  
       Fuel	
  Type	
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Total	
  Renewable	
               Total	
  Installed	
      %	
  of	
  Provincial	
      %	
  of	
  Canadian	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Electrical	
                      Electrical	
                 Electrical	
             Renewable	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Capacity	
                       Capacity	
                    Capacity	
                  Electrical	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (kW)	
                        (kW)	
                                                  Capacity	
  
       Alberta	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1,405,099	
                  11,396,860	
                            12%	
                   1.9%	
  
       British	
  Columbia	
                                                                                                                                                                                                         12,794,488	
                  14,558,909	
                            88%	
                  17.4%	
  
       Manitoba	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     5,014,623	
                       5,532,173	
                        91%	
                   6.8%	
  
       New	
  Brunswick	
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1,072,762	
                      4,433,208	
                          24%	
                    1.5%	
  
       Newfoundland	
  &	
  Labrador	
                                                                                                                                                                                               6,961,710	
                      7,494,309	
                          93%	
                    9.5%	
  
       Nova	
  Scotia	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                541,830	
                      2,413,235	
                          22%	
                    0.7%	
  
       Nunavut	
  &	
  Northwest	
  Territories	
                                                                                                                                                                                       59,253	
                        198,466	
                          30%	
                    0.1%	
  
       Ontario	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8,520,514	
                      32,930,188	
                          26%	
                  11.6%	
  
       Prince	
  Edward	
  Island	
                                                                                                                                                                                                    16,280	
                         121,110	
                          13%	
                   0.0%	
  
       Québec	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    35,916,670	
                      37,768,726	
                          95%	
                  49.0%	
  
       Saskatchewan	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 943,705	
                      3,796,920	
                          25%	
                     1.3%	
  
       Yukon	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         77,815	
                        122,260	
                          64%	
                     0.1%	
  
       Total	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     73,324,749	
                    120,766,364	
                        60.7%	
                    100%	
  
Source:	
  CIEEDAC	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Database,	
  2010;	
  STC	
  “Electric	
  Power	
  Generation,	
  Transmission,	
  and	
  Distribution,”	
  
special	
  distribution	
  to	
  CIEEDAC	
  from	
  STC	
  

3.6 Conclusion	
  and	
  Summary	
  
Renewable	
  energy	
  resources	
  could	
  provide	
  a	
  significant	
  amount	
  of	
  energy,	
  contributing	
  to	
  goals	
  
of	
  energy	
  sustainability.	
  With	
  concerns	
  about	
  climate	
  change,	
  interest	
  in	
  this	
  area	
  has	
  
expanded,	
  especially	
  in	
  terms	
  of	
  the	
  smaller,	
  more	
  distributed	
  generation	
  sites	
  (e.g.,	
  
installations	
  of	
  less	
  than	
  500	
  kW).	
  CIEEDAC	
  believes	
  that	
  focusing	
  on	
  this	
  area	
  now	
  will	
  be	
  
important	
  in	
  future	
  assessments	
  of	
  energy	
  utilization.	
  
Renewable	
  energy	
  was	
  estimated	
  to	
  provide	
  between	
  19%	
  and	
  21%	
  of	
  energy	
  produced	
  in	
  
British	
  Columbia	
  in	
  2009.	
  The	
  installed	
  renewable	
  electricity	
  facilities	
  represent	
  almost	
  90%	
  of	
  

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
25
         	
  Based	
  on	
  2005	
  renewable	
  electrical	
  capacity	
  and	
  2004	
  total	
  installed	
  electrical	
  capacity.	
  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     36	
                                                    	
  
	
                                                                	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


the	
  province’s	
  total	
  electricity	
  capacity	
  in	
  that	
  same	
  year.	
  The	
  installed	
  renewable	
  electrical	
  
capacity	
  of	
  12.77	
  GW	
  is	
  dominated	
  by	
  hydroelectricity	
  at	
  96.6%	
  and	
  cogeneration	
  from	
  biomass	
  
wood	
  residue	
  at	
  3.1%,	
  with	
  biogas	
  and	
  solar	
  photovoltaic	
  sources	
  accounting	
  for	
  about	
  0.1%	
  of	
  
BC’s	
  installed	
  capacity.	
  
Capacity	
  was	
  rapidly	
  added	
  throughout	
  the	
  20th	
  century,	
  but	
  after	
  1970,	
  new	
  installations	
  
dropped	
  off	
  dramatically.	
  Since	
  the	
  1990s	
  the	
  focus	
  has	
  been	
  on	
  lower	
  impact,	
  smaller	
  scale	
  
operations.	
  Capacity	
  utilization	
  is	
  highest	
  among	
  biomass	
  thermal	
  operations,	
  followed	
  by	
  
biogas	
  thermal	
  generation	
  and	
  biomass	
  electricity	
  generation.	
  
BC	
  electricity	
  generation	
  emitted	
  only	
  1.45	
  Mt	
  of	
  GHGs	
  (CO2e)	
  in	
  2009	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  high	
  
percentage	
  of	
  renewable	
  sources.	
  If	
  these	
  were	
  replaced	
  with	
  combined-­‐cycle	
  gas	
  turbines,	
  
GHG	
  emissions	
  from	
  electricity	
  would	
  be	
  as	
  high	
  as	
  23.8	
  million	
  tonnes	
  of	
  GHGs.	
  
In	
  terms	
  of	
  the	
  proportion	
  of	
  installed	
  electrical	
  capacity	
  that	
  is	
  renewable,	
  British	
  Columbia	
  
ranked	
  fourth	
  after	
  Quebec,	
  Newfoundland	
  and	
  Labrador,	
  and	
  Manitoba.	
  

4 Bibliography	
  
Canadian	
  Electricity	
  Association	
  and	
  Natural	
  Resources	
  Canada.	
  2000.	
  Electric	
  Power	
  in	
  Canada	
  
      1998–99.	
  Minister	
  of	
  Public	
  Works	
  and	
  Government	
  Services	
  Canada.	
  
Canadian	
  Electricity	
  Association	
  (CEA).	
  1997.	
  Climate	
  Change	
  and	
  Electricity	
  Sector	
  Emissions.	
  
      Ottawa,	
  ON:	
  CEA.	
  
Canadian	
  Gas	
  Association	
  (CGA).	
  1996.	
  Canadian	
  Gas	
  Fired	
  Co-­‐Generation	
  Data	
  Base	
  —	
  Systems	
  
      in	
  Operation.	
  December	
  31,	
  1995.	
  
Canadian	
  Geothermal	
  Energy	
  Association.	
  No	
  date.	
  What	
  is	
  Geothermal	
  Energy?	
  Available	
  from	
  
      http://www.cangea.ca/what-­‐is-­‐geothermal/	
  
Canadian	
  Wind	
  Energy	
  Association.	
  No	
  date.	
  http://www.canwea.ca/	
  
CIEEDAC.	
  1993.	
  An	
  assessment	
  of	
  data	
  on	
  output	
  for	
  industrial	
  sub-­‐sectors.	
  Prepared	
  for	
  the	
  
      Canadian	
  Industry	
  Program	
  for	
  Energy	
  Conservation.	
  Prepared	
  by	
  J.	
  Nyboer,	
  A.	
  Bailie,	
  
      CIEEDAC.	
  
CIEEDAC.	
  1994.	
  Industrial	
  energy	
  data	
  collection	
  in	
  Canada:	
  Existing	
  system	
  and	
  proposed	
  future	
  
      development.	
  Prepared	
  for	
  Natural	
  Resources	
  Canada.	
  Prepared	
  by	
  J.	
  Nyboer,	
  A.	
  Bailie,	
  
      CIEEDAC	
  and	
  P.	
  S.	
  Sandhu,	
  P.	
  Willis,	
  Willis	
  Energy	
  Services	
  Ltd.	
  
CIEEDAC.	
  2012a.	
  A	
  review	
  of	
  existing	
  cogeneration	
  facilities	
  in	
  Canada.	
  Prepared	
  for	
  the	
  
      Canadian	
  Industry	
  Energy	
  End-­‐use	
  Data	
  and	
  Analysis	
  Centre.	
  Prepared	
  by	
  J.	
  Nyboer.	
  
CIEEDAC.	
  2012b.	
  Development	
  of	
  energy	
  intensity	
  indicators	
  in	
  industry:	
  1990–2010.	
  Burnaby,	
  
      BC:	
  Simon	
  Fraser	
  University.	
  
CIEEDAC.	
  2012c.	
  Greenhouse	
  Gas	
  intensity	
  indicators	
  in	
  industry:	
  1990–2010.	
  Burnaby,	
  BC:	
  
      Simon	
  Fraser	
  University,	
  Burnaby.	
  




                                                                         37	
                                             	
  
	
                                                               	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


CIEEDAC.	
  2012d.	
  A	
  Review	
  of	
  Energy	
  Consumption	
  and	
  Production	
  Data:	
  Canadian	
  Electricity	
  
      Generation	
  Industry	
  1990	
  to	
  2010.	
  Burnaby,	
  BC:	
  Simon	
  Fraser	
  University.	
  
Energy	
  and	
  Geoscience	
  Institute.	
  2002.	
  Geothermal	
  energy.	
  Salt	
  Lake	
  City:	
  University	
  of	
  Utah.	
  
Environment	
  Canada.	
  2011.	
  National	
  Inventory	
  Report,	
  1990–2009	
  —	
  Greenhouse	
  Gas	
  Sources	
  
       and	
  Sinks	
  in	
  Canada.	
  Ottawa:	
  EC.	
  
The	
  European	
  Association	
  for	
  the	
  Promotion	
  of	
  Cogeneration.	
  2001.	
  A	
  guide	
  to	
  cogeneration.	
  
          Belgium:	
  EAPC.	
  
Jaques,	
  A.P.,	
  F.	
  Neitzert,	
  and	
  P.	
  Boileau.	
  1997.	
  Trends	
  in	
  Canada’s	
  greenhouse	
  gas	
  emissions	
  
       1990-­‐1995.	
  Ottawa:	
  Environment	
  Canada.	
  
Klein,	
  M.	
  2002.	
  Database	
  of	
  Canadian	
  gas	
  turbine	
  cogeneration	
  and	
  GTCC	
  Installations.	
  Ottawa:	
  
           Environment	
  Canada.	
  
Natural	
  Resources	
  Canada.	
  2001.	
  Canada’s	
  Emissions	
  Outlook:	
  1997–2020.	
  Ottawa:	
  Natural	
  
       Resources	
  Canada.	
  
Phylipsen,	
  G.,	
  K.	
  Blok,	
  and	
  E.	
  Worrell.	
  1996.	
  Handbook	
  on	
  international	
  comparisons	
  of	
  energy	
  
       efficiency	
  in	
  the	
  manufacturing	
  industry.	
  Department	
  of	
  Science,	
  Technology	
  and	
  
       Society,	
  Utrecht	
  University.	
  
Pulp	
  and	
  Paper	
  Canada.	
  2012.	
  Pulp	
  and	
  Paper	
  Canada	
  Annual	
  Mill	
  Directory.	
  Available	
  at	
  
          http://www.pulpandpapercanada.com/	
  
Statistics	
  Canada.	
  [various	
  years].	
  Report	
  on	
  energy	
  supply	
  and	
  demand	
  in	
  Canada.	
  No.	
  57-­‐003-­‐
        XPB,	
  Ottawa,	
  Ontario.	
  
Statistics	
  Canada.	
  1990–2006.	
  Electric	
  power	
  generation,	
  transmission	
  and	
  distribution.	
  No.	
  57-­‐
        202	
  XIB,	
  Ottawa,	
  Ontario.	
  
Statistics	
  Canada.	
  1990–2010a.	
  Table	
  127-­‐0001.	
  Electric	
  power	
  statistics,	
  monthly	
  (Megawatt	
  
        hour).	
  CANSIM	
  series	
  (database).	
  	
  
Statistics	
  Canada.	
  1990-­‐2010b.	
  Table	
  128-­‐0009.	
  Supply	
  and	
  demand	
  of	
  primary	
  and	
  secondary	
  
        energy	
  in	
  terajoules,	
  annual.	
  CANSIM	
  (database).	
  	
  	
  
Statistics	
  Canada.	
  1990–2010c.	
  Table	
  379-­‐0025.	
  Gross	
  domestic	
  product	
  (GDP)	
  at	
  basic	
  prices,	
  
        by	
  North	
  American	
  Industry	
  Classification	
  System	
  (NAICS).	
  CANSIM	
  series	
  (database).	
  	
  
Statistics	
  Canada.	
  2011.	
  Electric	
  power	
  generating	
  stations,	
  2009.	
  No.	
  57-­‐206-­‐XPB,	
  Ottawa,	
  
        Ontario.	
  
UNESCAP.	
  2000.	
  Part	
  1:	
  Overview	
  of	
  cogeneration	
  and	
  its	
  status	
  in	
  Asia,	
  in	
  Guidebook	
  on	
  
     Cogeneration	
  as	
  a	
  Means	
  of	
  Pollution	
  Control	
  and	
  Energy	
  Efficiency	
  in	
  Asia.	
  Available	
  at	
  
     http://www.unescap.org/publications/detail.asp?id=759.	
  	
  
	
                                         	
  




                                                                        38	
                                             	
  
	
                                                                  	
              Pacific	
  Institute	
  for	
  Climate	
  Solutions	
  


                                                       List	
  of	
  Appendices	
  
       Appendix	
  A:	
  Energy	
  Use	
  Data	
  Tables,	
  1990–2010	
  
       Appendix	
  B:	
  Cogeneration	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  2010	
  
                          NOTE:	
  Data	
  updating	
  and	
  review	
  are	
  not	
  complete;	
  data	
  reflect	
  previous	
  
                          assessments	
  and	
  do	
  not	
  reflect	
  current	
  systems.	
  	
  
       Appendix	
  C:	
  Renewable	
  Energy	
  Facilities	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  2010	
  
                          NOTE:	
  Data	
  updating	
  and	
  review	
  are	
  not	
  complete;	
  data	
  reflect	
  previous	
  
                          assessments	
  and	
  do	
  not	
  reflect	
  current	
  systems.	
  
	
  




                                                                           39	
                                             	
  
                                                                                                                                             Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

                                                               Appendix A: Energy Use Data Tables
Table 1. Total Energy Use by Major Sector in British Columbia (PJ)
                                          1990          2000          2001          2002          2003      2004      2005       2006           2007      2008      2009     2010
 Total Energy Used                           931        1,184         1,163         1,114         1,102     1,155     1,147          1,127       1,150     1,089     1,043    1,071
  Total Industrial                           409          491           458           440           443       472       473            458         449       384       379      404
  Transportation                             254          348           344           336           340       352       335            325         341       340       348      362
  Agriculture                                 10         16.2          18.1          14.5          13.7      13.4      11.2           11.5        13.4      12.7      11.8     18.0
  Residential                                121          143           141           142           136       138       145            147         163       152       153      136
  Comm., Instit. & Public Admin              116          122           120           147           131       140       142            142         145       152       106      105
  Electric Power Generation                   21           44            60            23            26        29        29             31          26        35        33       35
Note: “Total Energy Used” includes all hidden and confidential values, as well as total energy used to make secondary electricity.
Source: STC RESD

Table 2. Industrial Energy Use by Industry Sub-sector in British Columbia (PJ)
                                              1990         2000         2001          2002          2003     2004      2005          2006        2007      2008     2009      2010
 Total Industrial                                409           491           458           440       443       472       473           458         449       384      379      404
  Total Mining, Oil & Gas Extraction             29.5          28.8          26.7          25.6      23.3      28.0      26.9          37.2        43.4      43.0     41.4     56.6
  Total Manufacturing                            367           451           419           401       406       429       432           405         389       325      325      338
    Pulp and Paper                               276           317           282           274       268       294       292           311         292       236      244      256
    Smelting and Refining                           X             X             X             X         X         X         X             X           X         X        X        X
    Cement                                          X             X             X             X         X         X         X             X           X         X        X        X
    Petroleum Refining                           23.4             X             X             X         X         X         X             X           X         X        X        X
    Chemical Manufacturing                       15.2          12.7           7.9           8.7       8.9       7.8       8.5          10.0         8.1       7.7      6.9      6.4
    Other Manufacturing                          35.3          81.2          95.5          82.9      90.8      86.1      91.1          46.8        51.4      38.7     37.9     40.2
  Forestry                                        3.0           5.5           7.8           7.6       7.2       7.6       7.2           8.6         8.0       7.1      6.0     10.2
  Construction                                    9.8           5.7           5.1           5.8       6.5       6.9       7.0          458         449       384      379      404
Note: “Total Manufacturing” includes the confidential and hidden values of the Smelting and Refining and Cement sub-sectors; Pulp and Paper consumption includes biomass
fuels (spent pulping liquor and solid wood waste).
Source: STC RESD




                                                                                             40
                                                                                                                                           Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 3. Energy Used to Make Secondary Electricity (TJ)
                                              1990      2000        2001        2002        2003         2004        2005        2006          2007      2008      2009       2010
 Coal                                              0         0           0           0           0            0          42          23            15         0        0           0
 Natural Gas                                  16,589    42,857      58,251      22,382      24,968       27,377      28,045      30,600        25,614    33,789   31,908      33,620
 Petroleum Products                            4,491     1,183       1,467         805       1,114        1,326         729         314           578       734      879         965
   Diesel Fuel Oil                             2,209       663         724         563         613          506         440         295           567       647      812         617
   Light Fuel Oil                                  0        27        3.88           0           0            0        3.88           0             0         0        0           0
   Heavy Fuel Oil                              2,283       493         740         242         502          820         285          19            11        87       67         348
 Total                                        21,080    44,039      59,718      23,187      26,082       28,703      28,816      30,937        26,207    34,524   32,787      34,585
 Secondary Electricity Generated*             13,340    30,515      34,564      23,245      23,234       26,376      26,808      26,461        27,155    26,543   30,940      35,853
*Note: This electricity includes that generated from biomass but data on quantity of biomass used to make electricity are not available.
Source: STC RESD

Table 4. Energy Used to Make Steam (TJ)
                                   1990          2000        2001          2002        2003          2004         2005        2006           2007       2008      2009        2010
 Coal                                     -         289         188            36          36         7,537          187         187            395        388       288         108
 Natural Gas                              -         207         353             5          11            20            8          13              -          4         -           -
 Total                                    -         496         541            41          47          7557          195         200            395        392       288         108
Source: STC RESD

Table 5. Population, GDP and Energy Intensity Indicators
                                   1990          2000        2001          2002        2003          2004         2005        2006           2007       2008      2009        2010
 Population (‘000)                  3,292         4,039       4,076         4,098       4,122         4,155        4,197       4,244          4,310      4,384     4,460       4,531
 Intensity (TJ/Pop)                 0.316         0.315       0.285         0.272       0.267         0.278        0.273       0.265          0.267      0.248     0.234       0.236
 Index (1990=1)                        1.0        0.997       1.009         0.961       0.946         0.983        0.966       0.939          0.944      0.878     0.827       0.836
 GDP(2002 $billion)                 100.7         131.4       122.8         126.8       130.0         135.0        141.3       146.8          150.9      151.7     148.3       153.1
 Intensity (TJ/$mil)                 10.3            9.7         9.5           8.8         8.5           8.6          8.1         7.7            7.6        7.2       7.0         7.0
 Index (1990=1)                          1        0.938       0.854         0.792       0.764         0.771        0.732       0.692          0.687      0.647     0.634       0.631
Sources: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and province, annual (dollars).




                                                                                       41
                                                                                                                                     Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 6. Energy Use by Fuel Type (TJ)
 Fuel Type                    1990           2000        2001        2002         2003         2004         2005         2006         2007         2008         2009            2010
 Coal                          3,293        9,803         12,243      10,754      11,243       14,280       11,358       17,109       15,800       14,091       11,109       10,937
 Natural Gas                 211,772      291,148        287,781     282,449     256,140      253,714      251,805      216,689      226,245      226,001      216,511      205,312
 Gas Plant NGLs               18,027       11,351         11,930      11,102      10,616       10,007       12,286       31,476       33,413       33,758       29,744       31,796
 Electricity                 188,313      219,414        211,434     212,953     214,635      222,096      226,072      214,895      240,186      216,922      212,214      211,670
 Steam                             -        2,865          2,680         201         297        2,031        1,978        1,808        2,241        2,155          383          540
 Coke                            813          254            205         223         230            -            -            -            -            -            -            -
 Coke Oven Gas
 Petroleum Products          318,692      387,251        381,911     381,519     394,262      414,059      402,862      399,115      406,638      404,909      372,888      395,602
   Still Gas
   Motor Gas                 123,636      161,847        158,725     158,796     161,608      171,236      162,332      160,353      161,973      158,470      161,970      163,804
   Kerosene                    1,907          946            870         823         776          846          651          445          705          422          381          313
   Diesel Fuel Oil            96,275      119,971        119,979     122,402     125,078      132,527      131,715      129,734      130,871      141,293      110,503      124,471
   Light Fuel Oil             16,079        9,343          9,750       8,220       7,776        8,006        7,589        7,263        6,227        3,407        3,042        2,262
   Heavy Fuel Oil             45,390       29,903         39,695      31,342      44,256       45,175       41,966       39,903       46,895       37,659       38,620       39,857
   Petroleum Coke                205          426            538         529         486          488          461          416          426          361          343          235
   Aviation Gasoline           1,083          513            503         548         545        1,156          908        3,712        3,153        3,349        3,245        2,475
   Aviation Turbo Fuel        34,119       64,302         51,851      58,859      53,737       57,015       57,240       57,289       56,388       59,948       54,784       62,185
 Total Energy (PJ)               931        1,180          1,158       1,113       1,102        1,155        1,149        1,148        1,172        1,109        1,062        1,092
Source: STC RESD. An anomaly occurs when summing fuels (this table) or when estimating fuels based on supply (see Table 1). STC and CIEEDAC are investigating this variation.

Table 7. Production (GDP) and Energy Intensity Indicators, All Sectors (Million $2002)
                                   1990         2000        2001        2002         2003        2004         2005         2006        2007         2008         2009        2010
 GDP                               83,920      121,546     122,848     126,761      130,026     135,021      141,339      146,762     150,874      151,695      148,300     153,085
 Intensity (Energy/TJ/GDP)           11.1          9.7         9.5         8.8          8.5         8.6          8.1          7.7         7.6          7.2          7.0         7.0
 Index (1990 = 1)                      1.0       0.879       0.854       0.792        0.764       0.771        0.732        0.692       0.687        0.647        0.634       0.631
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by NAICS and province, annual (dollars).




                                                                                     42
                                                                                                                                   Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 8. Energy Use, Mining and Oil and Gas Extraction (TJ)
 Fuel Type                        1990        2000         2001        2002         2003        2004        2005         2006        2007      2008      2009      2010
 Coal                                                                                                           453       3,669       4,658     4,636     3,681     3,683
 Natural Gas                       3,755       3,937        2,703       3,730        1,137       3,751        2,513      11,478      16,328    22,086    23,058    25,038
 Gas Plant NGLs                      480       1,295            x         746          672         604        1,166       1,152       1,369     1,539     1,210     1,230
 Electricity                      13,619      10,806       11,953      11,377        9,718       9,333        9,362       7,385       8,960     3,595     3,310     3,543
 Coke
 Coke Oven Gas
 Petroleum Products               11,690      12,721       11,199        9,729      11,799      11,759       13,432      13,468      12,035    11,169    10,189    14,531
   Still Gas
   Motor Gas
   Kerosene                          237         165          186          115         138         174                      314         298       301
   Diesel Fuel Oil                11,194      12,155       10,537        9,180      10,984      10,907          179         117          83        68         8         8
   Light Fuel Oil                    259         401          476          434         677         678       12,591      12,206      11,337    10,502     8,357    12,880
   Heavy Fuel Oil                                                                                               663         629         283       268       322       237
   Petroleum Coke
   Aviation Gasoline
   Aviation Turbo Fuel
 Total Energy                     29,542      28,760       26,685      25,581       23,329      27,977       26,927      37,152      43,351    43,027    41,449    56,608
Source: STC RESD

Table 9. Production (GDP) and Energy Intensity Indicators, Mining and Oil and Gas Extraction (Million $2002)
                                  1990        2000         2001        2002         2003        2004        2005         2006        2007      2008      2009      2010
 GDP                               2,015       3,344        4,252       4,383        4,298       4,270       4,643        4,645       4,422     4,598     4,293     4,595
 Intensity (Energy/TJ/GDP)          14.7          8.6          6.3         5.8          5.4         6.6         5.8          8.0         9.8       9.4       9.7     12.3
 Index (1990 = 1)                      1       0.587        0.428       0.398        0.370       0.447       0.396        0.546       0.669     0.638     0.658     0.840
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by NAICS and province, annual (dollars).




                                                                                    43
                                                                                                                   Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 10. Energy Use, Pulp and Paper (TJ)
 Fuel Type                      1990          2000      2001      2002      2003      2004      2005      2006       2007        2008        2009        2010
 Coal                                                                121       614       565       338       603        788         491          (0)         15
 Natural Gas                    28,040        40,151    31,937    32,232    25,132    26,602    19,042    22,738     22,790      19,167      19,684      18,216
 Gas Plant NGLs
 Electricity                    47,835        52,439    48,012    46,578    48,226    52,547    54,735    46,700     42,293      36,467      33,787      33,764
 Coke                                                                201       297     2,031     1,978     1,808      2,241       2,071         304         432
 Coke Oven Gas
 Petroleum Products             30,948         7,749     9,487   4,312.0   5,723.0   4,953.0   2,434.0   2,817.0    2,550.0       838.0     2,746.0     2,514.0
   Still Gas
   Motor Gas                                                                                                                x           x           x           x
   Kerosene                                                                                                                             x           x           x
   Diesel Fuel Oil               3,241           532       486       487       486       483       467      126             X           x           x           x
   Light Fuel Oil                   77           140         4         5         4        43         4
   Heavy Fuel Oil               27,629         8,815     3,829     3,820     3,821     5,198     4,484     2,308      2,291       1,798             x           x
   Petroleum Coke
   Aviation Gasoline
   Aviation Turbo Fuel                                                                                                    x           x           x           x
 Solid Wood Waste              42,152      63,612       57,456    61,138    68,287    80,621    89,182   103,503     96,917      83,203      79,918      90,809
 Spent Pulping Liquor         126,673     150,430      132,454   129,727   120,213   127,140   124,669   132,595    124,192      93,482     107,139     110,733
 Total Energy                 275,649     314,382      279,333   274,309   268,491   294,458   292,378   310,764    291,771     235,718     243,578     256,483
Source: STC RESD

Table 11. Production (GDP) and Energy Intensity Indicators, Pulp and Paper (Million $2002)
                                1990          2000      2001      2002      2003      2004      2005      2006       2007        2008        2009        2010
 GDP                             1,510         1,484     1,241     1,316     1,334     1,411     1,527     1,488      1,583       1,367       1,172       1,200
 Intensity (Energy/TJ/GDP)       182.5         213.8     227.3     208.5     201.3     208.6     191.4     208.8      184.3       172.4       207.8       213.7
 Index (1990 = 1)                 1.00         1.171     1.245     1.142     1.103     1.143     1.049     1.144      1.010       0.944       1.138       1.171
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 v382-7717




                                                                            44
                                                                                                                                       Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 12. Production (GDP), Non-ferrous Smelting and Refining (Million $2002)1
                                    1990         2000       2001       2002         2003        2004        2005            2006         2007       2008       2009       2010
 GDP                                   959              x          x     1,509       1,523       1,678        1,718          1,775        1,843      1,666      1,458      1,448
Note: 1. Energy use, and thus intensity indicators are not available.
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by NAICS and province, annual (dollars).

Table 13. Production (GDP), Cement (Million $2002)
                                    1990         2000       2001       2002         2003        2004        2005            2006         2007       2008       2009       2010
 GDP                                       x        240        213        239          281         311         319             355          461        390        274        264
Note: 1. Energy use, and thus intensity indicators are not available.
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by NAICS and province, annual (dollars)

Table 14. Energy Use, Petroleum Refining (TJ)1
 Fuel Type                          1990         2000       2001       2002         2003        2004        2005            2006         2007       2008       2009       2010
 Coal                                                   x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
 Natural Gas                         4,466              x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
 Gas Plant NGLs                                         x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
 Electricity                         1,331              x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
 Coke                                                   x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
 Coke Oven Gas
 Petroleum Products                 17,624              x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
   Still Gas                        13,473              x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
   Motor Gas                            10              x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
   Kerosene                                             x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
   Diesel Fuel Oil                     170              x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
   Light Fuel Oil                        8              x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
   Heavy Fuel Oil                      405              x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
   Petroleum Coke                    3,554              x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
   Aviation Gasoline                                    x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
   Aviation Turbo Fuel                   4              x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
 Total Energy                       23,420              x          x          x            x           x           x               x            x          x          x          x
Note: 1. Energy use data are confidential after 1998.
Source: STC RESD




                                                                                    45
                                                                                                                                       Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 15. Production (GDP) and Energy Intensity Indicators, Petroleum Refining (Million $2002)
                                  1990        2000         2001        2002        2003         2004        2005            2006         2007       2008       2009       2010
 GDP                                     x           x            x         75           77          74            x               x            x          x          x          X
 Intensity (Energy/TJ/GDP)               -           -            -        0.0          0.0         0.0            -               -            -          -          -          -
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by NAICS and province, annual (dollars)

Table 16. Energy Use, Chemical Manufacturing (TJ)
 Fuel Type                        1990        2000         2001        2002        2003         2004        2005            2006         2007       2008       2009       2010
 Coal                                                           X           x            x           x            x              x            x            x          x          x
 Natural Gas                        8,731       6,033       2,007       2,335        2,349       1,689        2,215          1,879        1,784            x          x          x
 Gas Plant NGLs
 Electricity                        6,387       6,657       5,917       6,398        6,546       6,081        6,193          7,926        6,258      5,542      5,311      4,937
 Steam                                                                                                                                                              x          x
 Coke Oven Gas
 Petroleum Products               105.75        38.25                                                           0.2           0.21          0.2        0.6        0.6        0.9
   Still Gas
   Motor Gas
   Kerosene
   Diesel Fuel Oil                     35                                     x           x            x           x               x            x          x          x          X
   Light Fuel Oil                                                             x           x            x           x               x            x          x          x          X
   Heavy Fuel Oil                      71          38                         x           x            x           x               x            x
   Petroleum Coke                                                                                                                  x            x          x          x          X
   Aviation Gasoline
   Aviation Turbo Fuel
 Total Energy                     15,224      12,728        7,924       8,733        8,895       7,769        8,487          9,960        8,136      7,681      6,870      6,399
Source: STC RESD

Table 17. Production (GDP) and Energy Intensity Indicators, Chemical Manufacturing (Million $2002)
                                  1990        2000         2001        2002        2003         2004        2005            2006         2007       2008       2009       2010
 GDP                                 139         170          181         225             x        220         236             158          142        127        112        106
 Intensity (Energy/TJ/GDP)         109.4        74.9         43.8        38.8             -       35.3        36.0            63.0         57.3       60.5       61.5       60.5
 Index (1990 = 1)                   1.00       0.684        0.400       0.355             -      0.323       0.329           0.575        0.523      0.553      0.562      0.553
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025




                                                                                   46
                                                                                                                                   Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions


Table 18. Energy Use, Other Manufacturing (TJ)
 Fuel Type                        1990        2000         2001        2002        2003         2004        2005         2006        2007      2008      2009      2010
 Coal                                            271            x           x            x           x           x            x           x         x         x         x
 Natural Gas                      26,722      66,346       77,894      63,824       70,872      67,089      70,659       23,518      25,949    19,074    16,337    17,357
 Gas Plant NGLs                      449         952        1,394           x            x           x           x            x           x         x         x         x
 Electricity                       6,760      11,431       13,534      14,405       14,839      14,306      14,597       17,627      18,813    13,559    15,881    16,935
 Coke                                                                       x            x           x           x            x           x         0         0         0
 Steam                                                                                   -           -           -            -           -        84        79       108
 Petroleum Products                1,387        2,190       1,998       2,330        2,963       2,793       2,440        2,262       2,540     1,715     2,085     2,161
   Still Gas
   Motor Gas                                                                             -           -           -            x           x         x         x         x
   Kerosene                           45            8                                    -           -           -            x           x         x         x         x
   Diesel Fuel Oil                   940        1,708       1,674           x            x           x           x        1,881       1,808     1,203     1,612     1,704
   Light Fuel Oil                    147          256         140         140          124         124          39          113         109        85        27         -
   Heavy Fuel Oil                    255           43         115                      208           -           -            4           4         x         x         x
   Petroleum Coke                                 176          70             x          x           x           x            x           x         x         x         x
   Aviation Gasoline                                                                     -           -           -            x           x         x         x         x
   Aviation Turbo Fuel                                                                   -           -           -            x           x         x         x         x
 Total Energy                     35,318      81,194       95,460      82,908       90,773      86,079      91,089       46,772      51,352    38,747    37,891    40,179
Source: STC RESD

Table 19. Production (GDP) and Energy Intensity Indicator, Other Manufacturing (Million $2002)
                                  1990        2000         2001        2002        2003         2004        2005         2006        2007      2008      2009      2010
 GDP                               7,473       8,553        7,896       8,881       7,214        9,696      10,115       10,964      11,138     9,211     8,084     8,618
 Intensity (Energy/TJ/GDP)            4.7         9.5        12.1          9.3       12.6           8.9         9.0          4.3         4.6       4.2       4.7       4.7
 Index (1990 = 1)                   1.00       2.008        2.558       1.975       2.662        1.878       1.905        0.903       0.975     0.890     0.992     0.986
Sources: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by NAICS and province, annual (dollars)




                                                                                   47
                                                                                                                                     Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 20. Energy Use, Total Manufacturing (TJ)
 Fuel Type                        1990        2000         2001        2002         2003        2004        2005            2006       2007       2008          2009      2010
 Coal                              3,283       9,069        9,538      10,754      11,243       11,751      10,379      10,392         12,214    10,291          7,426         x
 Natural Gas                      73,905     124,322      107,711     102,428     101,490       98,700      95,317      52,592         55,336    45,662         42,250    42,411
 Gas Plant NGLs                      449         952        1,394       1,823       1,713        1,539       2,971           x              x         x              x         x
 Electricity                      86,608      97,398       87,721      87,763      92,983       98,969     101,729      91,975         87,530    81,309         76,881    76,226
 Coke                                813         254          205         201         297        2,031       1,978       1,808          2,241     2,155            383       540
 Coke Oven Gas                                                            223         231            0           0           0              0         0              0         0
 Petroleum Products               32,824      10,309       11,994       7,043       9,061        8,584       5,613       8,900          8,100     5,853          8,119     7,319
   Still Gas                                                                            0            0           0           0              0         0              0         0
   Motor Gas                                                                            0            0           0           x              x         x              x         x
   Kerosene                           45            8                                   0            0           0           x              x         x              x         x
   Diesel Fuel Oil                 4,375        3,474       2,248        2,531      2,941        2,815       2,359       2,493          2,290     1,566          1,988     2,045
   Light Fuel Oil                    236          349         283          144        167          128          39         113            109        85             31         0
   Heavy Fuel Oil                 27,963        6,052       8,925        3,820      5,406        4,484       2,308       2,295          1,802         x          2,253     2,112
   Petroleum Coke                    205          426         538          548        547        1,154         908       3,926          3,323     3,523          3,245     2,475
   Aviation Gasoline                                                                    0            0           0           x              x         x              x         x
   Aviation Turbo Fuel                                                                  0            0           0           x              x         x              x         x
 Total Energy                    366,705     451,077     418,535      401,101     405,515      429,336     431,839     404,698        389,174   325,034        325,201   338,426
Note: Total includes Pulp and Paper, Smelting and Refining, Cement, Petroleum Refining, Chemicals, Other Manufacturing, and confidential/hidden consumption.
Source: STC RESD

Table 21. Production (GDP) and Energy Intensity Indicators, Total Manufacturing (Million $2002)
                                  1990        2000         2001        2002         2003        2004        2005            2006       2007       2008          2009      2010
 GDP                              10,834      14,990       13,667      13,687       13,884      14,723      15,904          15,885     14,546     12,657        13,156    15,904
 Intensity (Energy/TJ/GDP)          33.8        30.1         30.6        29.3         29.2        29.2        25.4            24.5       22.3       25.7          25.7      25.4
 Index (1990 = 1)                   1.00       0.889        0.905       0.866        0.863       0.861       0.752           0.724      0.660      0.759         0.760     0.752
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by NAICS and province, annual (dollars)




                                                                                    48
                                                                                                                                    Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 22. Energy Use, Forestry (TJ)
 Fuel Type                        1990        2000         2001        2002        2003         2004        2005        2006          2007      2008      2009      2010
 Coal
 Natural Gas
 Gas Plant NGLs
 Electricity
 Coke
 Coke Oven Gas
 Petroleum Products                2,978        5,523       7,848       7,585        7,206       7,555        7,246         8,621      7,970     7,111     5,988    10,206
   Still Gas
   Motor Gas                                                                -            -           -            -         1,436      1,635     1,732       901     1,667
   Kerosene                           26            8           4           4            4           8            4             4          4         4         4         4
   Diesel Fuel Oil                 2,696        5,373       7,733       7,511        7,105       7,357        7,009         6,971      6,178     5,259     4,987     8,460
   Light Fuel Oil                    147           23          81          50           31         190          167           163        151       113        81         8
   Heavy Fuel Oil                    108          119          30          21           64           0           68            47          0         4        13        68
   Petroleum Coke
   Aviation Gasoline
   Aviation Turbo Fuel
 Total Energy                      2,978        5,523       7,848       7,585        7,206       7,555        7,246         8,621      7,970     7,111     5,988    10,206
Source: STC RESD

Table 23. Production (GDP) and Energy Intensity Indicators, Forestry (Million $2002)
                                  1990        2000         2001        2002        2003         2004        2005        2006          2007      2008      2009      2010
 GDP                               3,030       2,638        2,647       2,713       2,761        3,129       3,102       3,022         2,855     2,463     2,168     2,514
 Intensity (Energy/TJ/GDP)            1.0       2.09         2.97        2.80        2.61         2.41        2.34        2.85          2.79      2.89      2.76      4.06
 Index (1990 = 1)                   1.00       2.129        3.015       2.842       2.653        2.454       2.375       2.900         2.838     2.936     2.808     4.127
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by NAICS and province, annual (dollars)




                                                                                   49
                                                                                                                                      Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 24. Energy Use, Construction (TJ)
 Fuel Type                        1990        2000         2001        2002        2003         2004        2005            2006        2007      2008      2009      2010
 Coal
 Natural Gas                       4,258        1,109       1,006       1,135        1,379       1,735        1,829          1,921       2,058     1,817       853     1,406
 Gas Plant NGLs                      677          125         119          91           78          71           76             73          89        99        78        78
 Electricity
 Coke
 Coke Oven Gas
 Petroleum Products                4,835        4,422       4,020       4,612        5,044       5,112        5,141          5,309       6,476     6,417     5,507     6,021
   Still Gas
   Motor Gas                                                                0            0           0            0            268         433       422       593       935
   Kerosene                           15            4           4           4            4           4            4              4           4         0         0        11
   Diesel Fuel Oil                 4,158        4,251       3,845       4,458        4,937       4,983        4,990          4,899       5,929     5,952     4,703     4,998
   Light Fuel Oil                    654          167         171         151          105         124          147            136         109        47        89        70
   Heavy Fuel Oil                      8                                    0            0           0            0              0           0         0       119         9
   Petroleum Coke
   Aviation Gasoline
   Aviation Turbo Fuel
 Total Energy                      9,770        5,656       5,144       5,840        6,501       6,917        7,045          7,303       8,634     8,333     6,438     7,506
Source: STC RESD

Table 25. Production (GDP) and Energy Intensity Indicators, Construction (Million $2002)
                                  1990        2000         2001        2002        2003         2004        2005            2006        2007      2008      2009      2010
 GDP                               5,778       5,795        6,021       6,328       6,927        7,675       8,115           8,936       9,097     9,501     8,617     9,673
 Intensity (Energy/TJ/GDP)            1.7         1.0          0.9         0.9         0.9          0.9         0.9             0.8         0.9       0.9       0.7       0.8
 Index (1990 = 1)                   1.00       0.577        0.506       0.546       0.555        0.533       0.513           0.483       0.561     0.519     0.442     0.459
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by NAICS and province, annual (dollars)




                                                                                   50
                                                                                                                                     Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 26. Energy Use, Total Industry (TJ)
 Fuel Type                        1990         2000        2001         2002        2003         2004       2005            2006       2007      2008      2009      2010
 Coal                              3,283        9,069           X       10,754      11,243       14,457     10,996          14,225     17,056    15,081    11,267    11,095
 Natural Gas                      81,918      130,150     111,398      107,296     104,007      104,187     99,660          65,991     73,632    69,564    66,157    68,855
 Gas Plant NGLs                    1,606        2,372       2,650        2,660       2,465        2,215      4,212           4,158      4,948     5,556     4,374     4,444
 Electricity                     100,227      108,203      99,399       99,139     102,701      108,302    111,091          99,360     96,490    84,904    80,190    79,770
 Coke                                813          254         205          201         297        2,031      1,978           1,808      2,241     2,155       383       540
 Coke Oven Gas                                                             222         231            0          0               0          0         0         0         0
 Petroleum Products               52,323       32,980      35,060       28,968      33,111       33,010     31,432          36,299     34,573    30,558    29,797    38,077
   Still Gas
   Motor Gas                                                                 0           0            0          0           x              x         x         x         x
   Kerosene                          324          185         192          121         147          185        185         124            317       170       143       121
   Diesel Fuel Oil                22,427       25,255      24,363       23,681      23,681       23,681     23,681      23,681         23,681    23,681    23,681    23,681
   Light Fuel Oil                  1,292          943       1,009          780         982        1,121      1,017       1,040            892       613       695       539
   Heavy Fuel Oil                 28,076        6,171       8,959        3,842       5,474        4,484      2,372       2,542          1,836       408     2,444     2,223
   Petroleum Coke                    205          426         538          547         547        1,154        908       3,926          3,323     3,523     3,245     2,475
   Aviation Gasoline                                                         0           0            0          0           x              x         x         x         x
   Aviation Turbo Fuel                                                       0           0            0          0         494            868       969       408       602
 Total Energy                    408,996      491,015     458,216      440,106     442,550      471,785    473,057     457,776        449,123   383,513   379,067   404,165
Note: Total includes Forestry, Construction, Total Manufacturing and confidential/hidden consumption.
Source: STC RESD

Table 27. Production (GDP) and Energy Intensity Indicators, Total Industry (Million $2002)
                                  1990         2000        2001         2002        2003         2004       2005            2006       2007      2008      2009      2010
 GDP                              21,656       26,768      26,587       27,111      27,871       29,798     31,294          32,507     32,258    31,108    27,735    29,938
 Intensity (Energy/TJ/GDP)          18.9         18.3        17.2         16.2        15.9         15.8       15.1            14.1       13.9      12.3      13.7      13.5
 Index (1990 = 1)                   1.00        0.971       0.913        0.860       0.841        0.838      0.800           0.746      0.737     0.653     0.724     0.715
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by NAICS and province, annual (dollars)




                                                                                    51
                                                                                                                                      Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 28. Energy Use, Transportation (TJ)
 Fuel Type                          1990         2000          2001         2002         2003         2004         2005      2006       2007      2008      2009      2010
 Coal
 Natural Gas                        16,846        32,360       36,521       26,370       20,639       21,955       19,233    15,059     18,095    17,488    16,998    16,463
 Gas Plant NGLs                     12,237         4,914        4,829        4,596        4,166        4,153        3,052     3,014      3,589     4,027     3,169     3,222
 Electricity                           557           619          607          719          752          698          712       616        750     1,304     1,599     1,992
 Coke
 Coke Oven Gas
 Petroleum Products                223,952      310,403      302,514      304,170      314,221      325,345       312,327   306,457   318,939    317,288   326,384   340,424
   Still Gas                                                                    0            0            0             0         0         0          0         0         0
   Motor Gas                       115,283      152,436      150,042      149,569      152,191      161,963       153,388   149,832   150,903    147,165   154,585   154,987
   Kerosene                                                                     0            0            0             0         0         0          0         0         0
   Diesel Fuel Oil                  61,348        73,184       73,306      71,698       73,149       71,257        67,810    67,442    71,897     78,289    83,134    87,960
   Light Fuel Oil                                                               0            0            0             0         0         0          5         0        14
   Heavy Fuel Oil                   16,561        23,120       29,784      26,618       38,127       38,118        37,043    34,965    42,096     34,735    35,998    37,638
   Petroleum Coke                                                               0            0            0             0         0         0          0         0         0
   Aviation Gasoline                   446          144          168          168          174          144           178       204       275        255       181       144
   Aviation Turbo Fuel              30,314       61,519       49,215       56,115       50,580       53,867        53,908    54,006    53,706     56,841    52,487    59,679
 Total Energy                      253,592      348,256      344,180      335,857      339,777      352,149       335,327   325,146   341,472    340,107   348,150   362,101
Note: Total includes railways, airlines, marine, pipelines, road transport/urban transit and retail pump sales.
Source: STC RESD

Table 29. Production (GDP) and Energy Intensity Indicators, Transportation (Million $2002)
                                    1990         2000          2001         2002         2003         2004         2005      2006       2007      2008      2009      2010
 GDP                                 5,141       14,855        14,835       14,789       15,284       15,864       17,340    18,784     18,829    18,415    17,959    18,473
 Intensity (Energy/TJ/GDP)            49.3         23.4          23.2         22.7         22.2         22.2         19.3      17.3       18.1      18.5      19.4      19.6
 Index (1990 = 1)                     1.00        0.475         0.471        0.460        0.451        0.450        0.392     0.351      0.368     0.374     0.393     0.397
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by NAICS and province, annual (dollars)




                                                                                         52
                                                                                                                                     Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 30. Energy Use, Agriculture (TJ)
 Fuel Type                        1990        2000         2001        2002        2003         2004        2005            2006       2007      2008      2009      2010
 Coal
 Natural Gas                       2,781        4,149       4,140         731          695         669          742            750        739       691       557     5,716
 Gas Plant NGLs                      449          190         256         162          152         149          144            142        170       190       149       152
 Electricity                         984        1,827       1,439       1,344        1,294       1,452        1,472          1,329      1,737     2,619     2,708     2,664
 Coke
 Coke Oven Gas
 Petroleum Products                5,880      10,073       12,271      12,223       11,571      11,151        8,879          9,252     10,760     9,201     8,356     9,432
   Still Gas
   Motor Gas                       2,211        2,583       3,224       4,018        4,092       4,158        3,812          3,798      3,843     3,801     3,273     3,927
   Kerosene                          377          196         166         154           98          41            8             11          8         4         0         4
   Diesel Fuel Oil                 1,791        6,320       7,308       7,185        7,066       6,833        5,021          5,377      6,833     5,370     5,048     5,442
   Light Fuel Oil                  1,501          920       1,498         803          314         120           39             54         70        19        35        58
   Heavy Fuel Oil                                  55          77          68
   Petroleum Coke
   Aviation Gasoline
   Aviation Turbo Fuel                                                                                                           9          7         8
 Total Energy                     10,093      16,238       18,106      14,461      13,713       13,421      11,238          11,472     13,410    12,701    11,770    17,964
Source: STC RESD

Table 31. Production (GDP) and Energy Intensity Indicators, Agriculture (Million $2002)
                                  1990        2000         2001        2002        2003         2004        2005            2006       2007      2008      2009      2010
 GDP                                 878         975        1,141       1,058       1,053        1,057       1,061           1,078      1,134     1,147     1,157     1,156
 Intensity (Energy/TJ/GDP)          11.3        16.7         15.9        13.7        13.0         12.7        10.6            10.6       11.8      11.1      10.2      15.5
 Index (1990 = 1)                  0.760       1.119        1.067       0.919       0.875        0.853       0.712           0.715      0.795     0.744     0.684     1.044
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by NAICS and province, annual (dollars)




                                                                                   53
                                                                                                                                      Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 32. Energy Use, Residential (TJ)
 Fuel Type                        1990        2000         2001        2002        2003         2004        2005            2006        2007       2008       2009       2010
 Coal                                 10                        x           0            0           0         523             206          73          0          0          0
 Natural Gas                      63,285      78,579       76,085      79,284       75,220      72,591      79,057          81,620      80,176     80,534     81,022     67,221
 Gas Plant NGLs                    2,244         990        1,009       1,283        1,152       1,015         906             896       1,066      1,197        942        957
 Electricity                      45,280      58,328       58,226      60,042       59,164      63,115      63,413          63,783      79,834     69,706     69,308     66,835
 Coke
 Coke Oven Gas
 Petroleum Products               10,281        5,584       5,809       1,059           951      1,238          899            898         964        920      2,076      1,380
   Still Gas
   Motor Gas                                                                0             0          0            0              0          11          6         22          0
   Kerosene                          934          226         121         121           124        185           75             64         102         64         64         26
   Diesel Fuel Oil                                                          0             0          0            0              0           0          0          1          0
   Light Fuel Oil                  9,310        5,358       5,688         939           826      1,055          826            834         854        846      1,987      1,354
   Heavy Fuel Oil                     38
   Petroleum Coke
   Aviation Gasoline
   Aviation Turbo Fuel
 Total Energy                    121,100     143,458     141,196      141,668     136,487     137,960      144,800     147,402         162,555    152,358    153,347    136,393
Source: STC RESD

Table 33. Production (GDP) and Energy Intensity Indicators, Residential (Million $2002)
                                  1990        2000         2001        2002        2003         2004        2005            2006        2007       2008       2009       2010
 GDP                               7,875      12,341       12,621      13,212      13,629       14,144      14,946          15,667      16,471     17,311     18,158     18,955
 Intensity (Energy/TJ/GDP)          15.4        11.6         11.2        10.7        10.0           9.8         9.7             9.4         9.9        8.8        8.4        7.2
 Index (1990 = 1)                   1.00       0.756        0.727       0.697       0.651        0.634       0.630           0.612       0.642      0.572      0.549      0.468
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by NAICS and province, annual (dollars)




                                                                                   54
                                                                                                                                      Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 34. Energy Use, Commercial and Institutional (TJ)
 Fuel Type                          1990            2000       2001       2002       2003       2004        2005            2006        2007       2008       2009       2010
 Coal
 Natural Gas                        45,952          48,414     45,594     63,435     50,554     49,436      47,699          47,806      46,993     52,422     46,969     44,421
 Gas Plant NGLs                      1,453           2,640      2,969      3,194      2,908      2,612       1,746           1,726       2,053      2,303      1,815      1,843
 Electricity                        37,952          46,518     48,100     48,262     47,534     45,453      46,317          46,846      57,794     54,681     54,458     56,513
 Coke
 Coke Oven Gas
 Petroleum Products                 19,513          24,910     23,253     31,972     30,393     42,333      45,985          42,924      37,981     42,640      2,642      1,981
   Still Gas
   Motor Gas                       5,494        6,115          4,694      4,442      5,327      5,117       5,135       4,928           5,460      5,737      1,334      1,183
   Kerosene                         249          328            381        430        403        426         381         249             275        185        173        162
   Diesel Fuel Oil                 6,726       13,340         13,512     18,311     18,897     28,376      31,931      30,345          26,412     34,355      2,275      2,689
   Light Fuel Oil                  3,551        2,021          1,467      5,645      5,653      5,711       5,711       5,327           4,349      1,924       326        295
   Heavy Fuel Oil                   697          616            956        816        659       2,571       2,550       2,397           2,962      2,516       170          0
   Petroleum Coke                    -            -              -          0          0          0           0           0               0           0         0           0
   Aviation Gasoline                429          392            325        349        308        342         282         188             131         94        101         60
   Aviation Turbo Fuel             2,368        2,098          1,919      1,982      3,157      3,149       3,332       2,779           1,806      2,132      1,889      1,904
 Total Energy                     104,866      122,495        119,917    146,863    131,387    139,834     141,749     142,144         145,084    152,046    105,884    104,758
Note: This sector includes Public Administration.
Source: STC RESD

Table 35. Production (GDP) and Energy Intensity Indicators, Commercial and Institutional (Million $2002)
                                    1990            2000       2001       2002       2003       2004        2005            2006        2007       2008       2009       2010
 GDP                                37,713          66,756     68,635     71,351     73,648     74,183      75,217          80,418      83,842     81,409     80,759     82,168
 Intensity (Energy/TJ/GDP)              2.8             1.8        1.7        2.1        1.8        1.9         1.9             1.8         1.7        1.9        1.3        1.3
 Index (1990 = 1)                     1.00           0.660      0.628      0.740      0.642      0.678       0.678           0.636       0.622      0.672      0.472      0.459
Note: This sector includes Public Administration.
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by NAICS and province, annual (dollars)




                                                                                     55
                                                                                                                                      Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 36. Energy Use, Public Administration (TJ)
 Fuel Type                        1990        2000         2001        2002        2003         2004        2005            2006        2007      2008      2009      2010
 Coal                                             734         278
 Natural Gas                         990        6,401       6,704       5,333        5,027       4,879        5,414          5,467       5,370     5,301     4,804     2,639
 Gas Plant NGLs                       38          246         149           0            0           0            0              0           0         0         0         0
 Electricity                       3,313        3,940       3,664       3,447        3,191       3,075        3,068          2,962       3,582     3,708     3,952     3,896
 Coke
 Coke Oven Gas
 Petroleum Products                6,746        3,393       3,082       3,124        4,017       3,371        3,338          3,288       3,414     4,302     3,633     4,311
   Still Gas
   Motor Gas                         648          714         763         770          809         816          819            798         802       791       949       984
   Kerosene                           19           11           8           0            4           8            0              0           0         0         0         0
   Diesel Fuel Oil                 3,984        1,877       1,490       1,524        2,264       1,858        1,888          1,850       1,835     2,677     1,892     2,474
   Light Fuel Oil                    429           97          93          54           50          47           39             39          31        27        27        19
   Heavy Fuel Oil                     21                                                                                                                         9
   Petroleum Coke
   Aviation Gasoline                 208          10           10          10          23           13           7               7           7        10        17         0
   Aviation Turbo Fuel             1,437         684          718         759         868          628         583             595         741       797       741       834
 Total Energy                     11,067      14,715       13,879      11,905      12,235       11,324      11,820          11,717      12,395    13,311    12,389    10,846
Source: STC RESD

Table 37. Production (GDP) and Energy Intensity Indicators, Public Administration (Million $2002)
                                  1990        2000         2001        2002        2003         2004        2005            2006        2007      2008      2009      2010
 GDP                               5,074       5,774        6,277       6,339       6,588        6,790       6,919           7,128       7,188     7,202     7,268     7,506
 Intensity (Energy/TJ/GDP)            2.2         3.2          2.8         2.6         2.1          2.2         2.0             1.7         1.7       1.6       1.6       1.6
 Index (1990 = 1)                   1.00       1.471        1.279       1.190       0.982        0.993       0.920           0.766       0.780     0.721     0.746     0.716
Source: STC CANSIM Table 379-0025 — Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at basic prices, by NAICS and province, annual (dollars)




                                                                                   56
                                                                                                                               Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 38. Electricity Generation, Net Supply and Producer Consumption of British Columbia (GWh)
 Fuel Type                       1990         2000        2001        2002        2003         2004      2005        2006        2007           2008     2009     2010
 Total Electricity Prod.          61,014      68,685      58,764      65,335      63,383       61,979    67,774      61,598      71,830         66,072   65,057   63,637
   Primary Electricity            57,308      60,208      49,163      58,878      56,929       54,652    60,327      54,247      64,287         58,699   56,462   53,678
   Secondary Electricity           3,706       8,476       9,601       6,457       6,454        7,327     7,447       7,350       7,543          7,373    8,594    9,959
 Total Net Supply                 57,514      64,054      61,542      62,895      60,837       63,450    65,732      68,151      69,022         68,546   68,827   66,838
   Primary Electricity            53,809      55,577      51,941      56,438      54,383       56,123    58,285      60,801      61,479         61,173   60,233   56,879
   Secondary Electricity           3,706       8,476       9,601       6,457       6,454        7,327     7,447       7,350       7,543          7,373    8,594    9,959
 Producer Consumption
                                   5,205       3,112       2,778        3,742       1,216       1,756     2,934      12,376      12,378         10,356   10,984   10,130
 (Primary)
Source: STC CANSIM Table 128-0003 — Supply and demand of primary and secondary energy in natural units, computed annual total (megawatt hour)

Table 39. Electricity Power Statistics, British Columbia (GWh)
 Fuel Type                       1990         2000        2001        2002        2003         2004      2005        2006        2007           2008     2009     2010
 Overall Total Gen.               60,662      68,241      57,332      64,945      63,051       60,496    67,774      61,598      71,830         66,072   65,057   63,637
   Total Utility Gen              47,742      54,368      45,630      51,630      49,243       46,647    54,129      48,080      58,603         52,795   51,852   51,208
   Total Industrial Gen           12,921      13,873      11,702      13,315      13,808       13,849    13,645      13,517      13,227         13,277   13,205   12,429
   Total Hydro Gen                57,245      59,754      48,338      58,627      56,689       53,281    60,327      54,247      64,287         58,699   56,462   53,555
     By Utility                   46,387      50,346      40,679      49,396      46,797       43,653    50,305      44,464      54,706         48,634   46,263   44,395
     By Industry                  10,858       9,409       7,659       9,231       9,892        9,629    10,022       9,783       9,581         10,065   10,199    9,160
   Total Convent. Steam            3,197       7,138       7,615       4,319       4,230        4,908     4,997       5,370       5,007          4,774    4,280    4,565
     By Utility                    1,224       3,547       4,380       1,106       1,144        1,555     1,414       1,674       1,385          1,592    1,295    1,313
     By Industry                      2.0      3,591       3,235       3,213       3,086        3,353     3,583       3,696       3,622          3,182    2,985    3,252
   Total Internal Combust            220          69          69          74          73           80       102          48          83             90      126      131
     By Utility                      130          50          49          61          54           59        62          11          58             60      105      114
     By Industry                    89.9          19          20          13          19           21        39          37          24             31       21       17
   Total Combust. Turbine             0.4      1,280       1,310       1,925       2,059        2,226     2,348       1,932       2,454          2,509    2,270    2,287
     By Utility                       0.4        426         522       1,067       1,248        1,381     2,348       1,932       2,454          2,509    2,270    2,287
     By Industry                        0        854         788         858         812          845         0           0           0              0        0        0
Source: STC CANSIM Table 127-0001 — Electric power statistics, computed annual total (megawatt hour)




                                                                                  57
                                                                                                                                    Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

                                                     Appendix B: Cogeneration Data Tables, 2010
NOTE: Data updating and review are not complete; data reflect previous assessments and do not reflect current systems.
Table 1. Cogeneration for British Columbia
          Start                                                                                                               Electrical      Thermal
 NAICS            Operator                             Type of Business                Primary Thermal Host                                                 Cogen Type    Fuel
          Year                                                                                                              Capacity (kW)   Capacity (kW)
 2211     1999    Calpine Island Cogeneration          Independent Power Producer      Norske Skogindustrier, Elk Falls        290,000         78,051       GT            NG
 2211     1993    Atco Power                           Electric Utility                Duke Energy                             118,000                      GT            NG
 2213     1998    Greater Vancouver Regional Dist.     Water Treatment Plant           Iona Island WWT Plant                     4,050         3,963        SI            Digester
 2213             Annacis Island                       Water Treatment Plant                                                     3,400
 2213             Vancouver Landfill                   Landfill                                                                  9,000
 3113     1973    Rogers Sugar                         Food Manufacturer               Rogers Sugar                              3,000         3,778        BPST          NG
 3211     1985    Riverside Forest Products            Wood Products                   Riverside Forest Products                12,000        55,560        CST           Hog
 3211     1999    Tolko Industries Ltd.                Wood Products                                                            22,000        33,000        BPEST
 3212     1936    Louisianna Pacific                   Wood Products                   Louisiana Pacific                         7,500        18,750        ECST          Hog
 3221     1949    Western Pulp Ltd.                    Pulp and Paper                  Port Alice Operations                    15,000        97,500        BPST, ECST    SPL
 3221     1963    Pope and Talbot Inc.                 Pulp and Paper                  Pope and Talbot Harmac Pulp              30,000        373,603       BPST          SPL
 3221     1964    Norske Canada                        Pulp and Paper                  Port Alberni Pulp and Paper Div.         18,000        137,400       BPEST         Hog
 3221     1968    Tembec Industries Inc.               Pulp Mill                       Tembec Industries Inc.                   58,500        276,625       BPEST         SPL
 3221     1968    Catalyst Paper                       Pulp and Paper                                                           36,000        254,468       BPEST
 3221     1972    Cariboo Pulp and Paper               Pulp and Paper                  Cariboo Pulp and Paper                   32,000        387,890       BPEST         SPL
 3221     1972    Domtar Pulp                          Pulp Mill                                                                76,500                      BPST, CST
 3221     1973    Canadian Forest Products             Pulp and Paper                  CANFOR – Northwood                       55,400                      BPEST         SPL
 3221     1979    Pope and Talbot Ltd.                 Pulp and Paper                  Mackenzie Pulp Operation                 20,000         54,650       BPEST         SPL
 3221     1980    Norske Skogindustrier                Pulp and Paper                  Crofton Pulp & Paper                     38,700         45,267       BPST
 3221     1989    Howe Sound Pulp and Paper            Pulp and Paper                  Howe Sound Pulp and Paper               112,500        414,600       BPEST, ECST   SPL
 3221     1993    Celgar Pulp Co.                      Pulp and Paper                  Celgar Pulp Co.                          52,000        342,807       BPEST         SPL
                                                                                                                    Total     1,018,050      4,840,000
Note: Summary for Province = BC (21 detail records). Thermal capacity estimated, not all recipients responded
Source: Canadian Cogeneration Database, CIEEDAC




                                                                                      58
                                                                                                                        Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

                                                 Appendix C: Renewable Energy Data, 2009
NOTE: Data updating and review are not complete; data reflect previous assessments and do not reflect current systems.
Table 1. Biogas — Landfill Gas Facilities
                                                                                   Electrical   Purchase      Sell          Thermal
                                                                   Type of                                                                          Eco-
Name                      Company                      Location                    Capacity     Electricity   Electricity   Capacity   Start Year
                                                                   Business                                                                         certification
                                                                                   (kW)         from Grid?    to Grid?      (kW)
Hartland Landfill         Maxim Power Corp.            Victoria                    1,600                                               2004
Jackman Landfill          ToGro Greenhouses Ltd.       Langley     Agriculture                                                         1995
                                                                   Wallboard
Port Mann Landfill        Georgia Pacific              Surrey                                   Yes           No                       1993
                                                                   Manufacturer
Vancouver Landfill        Maxim Power Corp.            Delta                       5,550                                    99,540     2003
Total                                                                              7,150                                    110,040

Table 2. Biogas — Sewage Facilities
                                                                                   Electrical   Purchase      Sell          Thermal
                                                                                                                                                    Eco-
Name                 Company                Location       Type of Business        Capacity     Electricity   Electricity   Capacity   Start Year
                                                                                                                                                    certification
                                                                                   (kW)         from Grid?    to Grid?      (kW)
                     Greater Vancouver                     Regional Wastewater
Annacis Island                              Richmond                               4,400        Yes           Yes           3,300      1975
                     Regional District                     Treatment Facility
                     Greater Vancouver                     Regional Wastewater
Iona Islands                                Richmond                               3,750        Yes           No            1,500      1995
                     Regional District                     Treatment Facility
Total                                                                              8,150                                    4,800




                                                                              59
                                                                                                                      Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 3. Solar Photovoltaic Installations
                                                                                      Electrical   Purchase      Sell          Thermal
                                                                                                                                          Start   Eco-
Name                      Company           Location        Type of Business          Capacity     Electricity   Electricity   Capacity
                                                                                                                                          Year    certification
                                                                                      (kW)         from Grid?    to Grid?      (kW)
BCIT Solar Installation                     Burnaby         College                   4            No            No                       2000
CMHC Home Solar           BCIT Technology                   Academic Research and
                                            Burnaby                                   2            No            No                       2000
Installation              Center                            Development
                          City of White
Operations Centre                           White Rock                                                                                    2003
                          Rock
Prince George Solar
                          Private home      Prince George   Residences                1            No            No                       1996
Installation
                                                            Renewable Electricity
Solar Plus                Solar Plus        Mill Bay                                  1            Yes                                    1987
                                                            Generator
TELUS Solar
                          TELUS Inc.        Vancouver       Telecommunications        3            No            No                       2000
Installation
                                                            Diversified Electricity
Victoria Solar House      SPS Energy        Victoria                                  1            No            No                       2001
                                                            Generator
Victoria Solar House 2                      Victoria                                  2                                                   2004
Williams Farrel
                                            Vancouver                                                                                     2000
Building
Total                                                                                 14




                                                                            60
                                                                                                                   Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 4. Hydroelectricity – Storage Facilities
                                                                                       Electrical   Purchase      Sell          Thermal
                                                                                                                                           Start   Eco-
Name                  Company                    Location          Type of Business    Capacity     Electricity   Electricity   Capacity
                                                                                                                                           Year    certification
                                                                                       (kW)         from Grid?    to Grid?      (kW)
Alouette              BC Hydro                   Alouette Lake     Crown Corporation   9,000        No            Yes                      1928
Arrow Lakes           Columbia Power
                                                 Columbia River                        185,000      No                                     2002
Generating Station    Corporation
Ash River             BC Hydro                   Ash River         Crown Corporation   27,000       No            Yes                      1959
Bridge River #1       BC Hydro                   Bridge River      Crown Corporation   191,000      No            Yes                      1948
Bridge River #2       BC Hydro                   Bridge River      Crown Corporation   275,000      No            Yes                      1959
Cheakamus             BC Hydro                   Cheakamus River   Crown Corporation   157,000      No            Yes                      1957
Clowhom               BC Hydro                   Clowhom River     Crown Corporation   33,000       No            Yes                      1957
Comox Dam             BC Hydro                   Puntledge River   Crown Corporation                                                       1953
Corra Linn            FortisBC                   Kootenay River    Utility             45,000       No            No                       1932
Falls River           BC Hydro                   Falls River       Crown Corporation   7,000        No            Yes                      1930
Gordon M. Shrum       BC Hydro                   Peace River                           2,730,000    No            Yes                      1968
John Hart             BC Hydro                   Campbell River    Crown Corporation   126,000      No            Yes                      1947
Jordan River          BC Hydro                   Jordan River      Crown Corporation   170,000      No            Yes                      1971
Kemano Generating     Alcan Primary Metal,
                                                 Kemano            Aluminum Smelter    960,000      No            Yes                      1954
Station               BC
Kootenay Channel      BC Hydro                   Kootenay River    Crown Corporation   572,000      No            Yes                      1975
La Joie               BC Hydro                   Dounton Lake      Crown Corporation   25,000       No            Yes                      1957
Ladore Falls          BC Hydro                   Campbell River    Crown Corporation   47,000       No            Yes                      1956
Lake Buntzen #1       BC Hydro                   Lake Buntzen      Crown Corporation   55,000                                              1951
Lake Buntzen #2       BC Hydro                   Lake Buntzen      Crown Corporation                                                       1914
                                                                   Renewable
                      Brookfield Power
Lois                                             Lois Lake         Electricity         34,660       No            Yes                      1930
                      Operations: BC
                                                                   Generators
Mica                  BC Hydro                   Columbia River    Crown Corporation   1,805,000    No            Yes                      1976
                      Northern Utilities Inc.                      Renewable
Moresby Lake          and Queen Charlotte        Moresby Lake      Electricity         5,700                                               1990
                      Power Corp.                                  Generator
                      Brookfield Power                             Renewable
Powell River          Operations: BC             Powell Lake       Electricity         47,250       No            No                       1911
                      Operations                                   Generators

                                                                          61
                                                                                                                                    Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

                                                                                                 Electrical      Purchase       Sell              Thermal
                                                                                                                                                              Start      Eco-
Name                   Company                        Location            Type of Business       Capacity        Electricity    Electricity       Capacity
                                                                                                                                                              Year       certification
                                                                                                 (kW)            from Grid?     to Grid?          (kW)
Revelstoke             BC Hydro                       Columbia River      Crown Corporation      1,980,000       No             Yes                           1984
Ruskin                 BC Hydro                       Hayward Lake        Crown Corporation      10,500          No             Yes                           1930
Seton                  BC Hydro                       Seton Creek         Crown Corporation      48,000          No             Yes                           1956
                                                      Pend D’Oreille
Seven Mile             BC Hydro                                           Crown Corporation      804,000         No             Yes                           1979
                                                      River
Shuswap Falls          BC Hydro                       Shuswap River       Crown Corporation      6,000           No             Yes                           1929
Stave Falls            BC Hydro                       Stave Lake          Crown Corporation      90,000          No             Yes                           1912
Strathcona             BC Hydro                       Campbell River      Crown Corporation      64,000          No             Yes                           1958
Wahleach               BC Hydro                       Wahleach Lake       Crown Corporation      63,000          No             Yes                           1952
Whatshan               BC Hydro                       Wahleach Lake       Crown Corporation      54,000          No             Yes                           1972
Total                                                                                            10,720,610

Table 5. Earth Energy Installations
                                                                                           Electrical   Purchase      Sell             Thermal
Name                    Company                          Location      Type of Business    Capacity     Electricity   Electricity      Capacity      Start Year       Eco-certification
                                                                                           (kW)         from Grid?    to Grid?         (kW)
100 Mile House          Canlan Ice Sports                100 Mile      Recreational
                                                                                                                                       773.784       2002
Recreation Centre       Corporation                      House         Facility
Airport Hangar                                           Campbell
                                                                                                                                       70.344        2004
Campbell River                                           River
                        Association of Professional
APEG Building                                            Burnaby       Office Building                                                 246
                        Engineers
                                                                       Recreational
Art Holdings Area       Icekube Systems                  Chase                                                                         562.752       1999
                                                                       Facility
Beaver Flats                                             Whistler                                                                                    2002
                        Mike Wiegele Helicopter
Blue River Resort                                        Blue River    Hotel
                        Skiing
Bob McMath Secondary    Bob McMath Secondary
                                                         Richmond      School                                                                        1997
School                  School
Bow Mel Chrysler                                         Duncan                                                                        87.93         2004
Brentwood College                                        Mill Bay      College                                                         246.204       2002
Burnaby Mountain
                                                         Burnaby       School
Secondary
                        Kalico Developments Ltd. &                     Real Estate
Caper’s Building                                         Vancouver                                      Yes                            739           1993
                        Salt Lick Projects Ltd.                        Developer

                                                                                      62
                                                                                                                                 Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

                                                                                        Electrical   Purchase      Sell             Thermal
Name                     Company                      Location      Type of Business    Capacity     Electricity   Electricity      Capacity   Start Year   Eco-certification
                                                                                        (kW)         from Grid?    to Grid?         (kW)
Ciele Condominum                                      Vancouver
City of Vancouver
                                                      Vancouver                                                                     175.86     2004
Works Building
Copcan Contracting                                    Nanaimo                                                                       123.102    2002
Cornerstone Building                                  Burnaby                                                                       120        2004
Discovery Bay Resort                                  Kelowna                                                                       2321.352   2002
First Lutheran Church                                 Kelowna                                                                       211.032    2002
Gleneagles Community
                         District of West Vancouver   Vancouver     Community Centre                                                           2003
Centre
Gulf Islands Secondary   Gulf Islands Secondary       Salt Spring
                                                                    School                                                                     1993
School                   School                       Island
Heritage Woods                                        Port
                                                                    School                                                          298.962    2004
Secondary School                                      Moody
                                                                    Recreational
Ice Box Arena            Icekube Systems              Kamloops                                                                      562.752    1999
                                                                    Facility
                                                                    Recreational
Ice Box Arena            Icekube Systems              Kamloops                                                                      281.376    2000
                                                                    Facility
Kitsilano Condo
                                                      Kitsilano                                                                     527.58     1993
Development
Landmark Technology
                         Stober Construction          Kelowna       Office Complex
Centre
                                                      Fort
Living Waters Church                                                                                                                70.344     2002
                                                      Langley
                                                                    Recreational
Mission Centre Office    Icekube Systems              Kelowna                                                                       506.4768   2003
                                                                    Facility
Nature Centre                                         Masset                                                                        17.586     2002
Nestor School                                         Coquitlam     School                                                          140.688    2000
                                                                    Recreational
Nicola Valley Arena      Icekube Systems              Merritt                                                                       562.752    2001
                                                                    Facility
Ocean Farms                                           Duncan                                                                        70.344
                                                                    Recreational
Oliver Curling Club      Oliver Curling Club          Oliver                                                                                   1994
                                                                    Facility
Pacific Agrifood         Agriculture and Agri-Foods                 Research
                                                      Agassiz
Research Centre          Canada                                     Institution
Pacific Gardens                                       Nanaimo
Pacific Sands Beach                                   Tofino                                                                        316.548    2004

                                                                                   63
                                                                                                                                  Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

                                                                                         Electrical   Purchase      Sell             Thermal
Name                       Company                      Location      Type of Business   Capacity     Electricity   Electricity      Capacity    Start Year   Eco-certification
                                                                                         (kW)         from Grid?    to Grid?         (kW)
Resort
Peace Arch Visitors
                                                        Surrey
Centre
                                                        South
Poet’s Cove                                             Pender                                                                                   2003
                                                        Island
Quarry Stone Lakeside
                                                        Mara                                                                         119.5848    2003
Villas
Rockridge Canyon Youth
                                                        Princeton                                                                    140.688     2004
Camp
Rutland Elementary
                           Rutland Elementary School    Kelowna       School
School
                           Kalico Developments Ltd. &                 Real Estate
S.F.Home
                           Salt Lick Projects Ltd.                    Developers
Salt Spring Elementary                                  Salt Spring
                                                                      School                                                         105.516     2001
School                                                  Island
Saturna Island                                          Saturna
                                                                      Community Centre                                               105.516     2004
Community Centre                                        Island
Seaview School                                          Coquitlam                                                                    105.516     2000
Serene Lea Farms                                        Mara                                                                         140.688     2003
Shoal Point, Fisherman’s
                                                        Victoria                                                                                 2003
Wharf
Sk’Elp School of
                           Kamloops Indian Band         Kamloops                                                                                 2002
Excellence
Spruce Grove Field         Resort Municipality of
                                                        Whistler      Government                                                                 2000
House                      Whistler
Sto-Lo Nation Medical
                                                        Chilliwack                                                                   105.516     2004
Building
Sun Rivers Golf Resort     Sun Rivers Golf Resort       Kamloops                                                                                 2004
Sundance Lodge Resort                                   Kelowna                                                                      703.44      2004
Tekmar Control Systems     Tekmar Control Systems
                                                        Vernon        Factory
Ltd.                       Ltd.
Telkwa Faith Reformed
                                                        Telkwa        Church                                                         211.032     2003
Church
Total                                                                                                                                10,770.27



                                                                                    64
                                                                                                                                Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 6. Low Impact Hydro Facilities
                                                                                               Electrical   Purchase      Sell          Thermal
                                                                                                                                                   Start   Eco-
Name                     Company               Location          Type of Business              Capacity     Electricity   Electricity   Capacity
                                                                                                                                                   Year    certification
                                                                                               (kW)         from Grid?    to Grid?      (kW)
Aberfeldie               BC Hydro              Bull River        Crown Corporation             5,000        No            Yes                      1922
                         Canadian Hydro                          Diversified Electricity
Akolkolex                                      Revelstoke                                      10,000       No            Yes                      1995    ECP Eco-Logo
                         Developers Inc.                         Generator
                                                                                                                                                           Environmental
Bonnington Falls         Nelson, Corp of the
                                               Kootenay River    Integrated Electric Utility   15,350       Yes           No                       1905    Choice Program,
Generating Station       City of
                                                                                                                                                           Eco-Logo, 1999
Boston Bar Generating    Algonquin Power
                                               Scuzzy Creek      Hydro Site Managers           7,200        Yes           Yes                      1995
Station                  Income Fund
                         Columbia Power                          Renewable Electricity
Brilliant                                      Kootenay River                                  149,000      No            No                       1943
                         Corp.                                   Generator
                         EPCOR Generation
Brown Lake                                     Prince Rupert     Electricity Generation        7,000                                               1996
                         Inc.
Clayton Falls            BC Hydro              Clayton Falls     Crown Corporation             2,000        No            Yes                      1961
                         Pacific Cascade
Eagle Lake Micro Hydro   Hydro Inc. &                                                                                                                      BC Hydro Green
                                               West Vancouver    Municipality                  200          Yes           Yes                      2003
at C2 Reservoir          District of West                                                                                                                  Certified, 2003
                         Vancouver
Elko Plant               BC Hydro              Elk River         Crown Corporation             12,000       No            Yes                      1924
Hluey Lake Hydro                                                 Renewable Electricity                                                                     Environmental
                         Regional Power        Dease Lake                                      200          Yes           Yes                      2003
Project                                                          Generator                                                                                 Choice Certified
Hystad and East Twin     East Twin Creek                         Renewable Electricity                                                                     B.C. Hydro Green
                                               Valemount                                       6,000        Yes           Yes                      1989
Creek                    Hydro Ltd.                              Generator                                                                                 Certified, 2002
Lower Bonnington         FortisBC              Kootenay River    Utility                       49,500       No            No                       1925

                         TransCanada                             Renewable Electricity
Mamquam                                        Mamquam River                                   50,000                                              1996
                         Energy                                  Generator
                         EPCOR Generation
Miller Creek                                   Pemberton         Electricity Generation        29,500                                              2003
                         Inc.
Peace Canyon             BC Hydro              Peace River       Crown Corporation             694,000      No            Yes                      1980
                         Canadian Hydro                          Renewable Electricity                                                                     BC Hydro Green
Pingston Creek                                 Revelstoke                                      45,000       No            Yes                      2003
                         Developers Inc.                         Generator                                                                                 Certified
Puntledge                BC Hydro              Puntledge River   Crown Corporation             24,000       No            Yes                      1955
                         Purcell Mountain      Purcell
Purcell Mountain Lodge                                           Lodge                         15                                                  1992
                         Lodge                 Mountain Lodge
Raging River             Raging River Power    Port Alice        Mining and Energy Company     1,750        Yes           Yes                      2002    BC Hydro Green

                                                                                    65
                                                                                                                  Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

                                                                                 Electrical   Purchase      Sell          Thermal
                                                                                                                                     Start   Eco-
Name                 Company           Location          Type of Business        Capacity     Electricity   Electricity   Capacity
                                                                                                                                     Year    certification
                                                                                 (kW)         from Grid?    to Grid?      (kW)
                     and Mining Inc                                                                                                          IPP, 2003
Rutherford Creek     Innergex Inc.     Pemberton
                     Clean Power                         Renewable Electricity                                                               Environmental
Sechelt                                Sechelt Creek                             16,000       Yes           Yes                      1997
                     Income Fund                         Generator                                                                           Choice Certified
South Slocan         FortisBC          Kootenay River    Utility                 53,100       No            No                       1928
                                       Spillimacheen
Spillimacheen        BC Hydro                            Crown Corporation       4,000        No            Yes                      1955
                                       River
Upper Bonnington     FortisBC          Kootenay River    Utility                 61,630       No            No                       1907
                     Canadian Hydro
Upper Mamquam                          Squamish                                                                                      2005
                     Developers Inc.
Walden Hydro Plant   BC Hydro          Lillooet          Crown Corporation       16,000       No            No                       1974
Walter Hardman       BC Hydro          Cranberry Creek   Crown Corporation       8,000        No            Yes                      1960
Waneta Generating    Columbia Power    Pend d'Oreille
                                                                                                                                     1952
Station              Corporation       River
Wilsey dam           BC Hydro          Shuswap River     Crown Corporation                                                           1929
TOTAL                                                                            1,269,245




                                                                          66
                                                                                                                        Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 7. Biomass — Wood Residue Facilities
                                                                                       Electrical   Purchase      Sell          Thermal
                                                                                                                                              Start   Eco-
Name                    Company             Location         Type of Business          Capacity     Electricity   Electricity   Capacity
                                                                                                                                              Year    certification
                                                                                       (kW)         from Grid?    to Grid?      (kW)
Armstrong               Tolko BC            Armstrong        Pulp and Paper Company    20,000       Yes           Yes                         2000
Campbell River          Norske Canada       Campbell River   Pulp and Paper Company    25,000       Yes           No
Celgar                  Celgar Pulp Co.     Castlegar        Pulp and Paper Company    49,400       Yes           Yes               325,667   1960
Chetwynd                Tembec Inc.         Chetwynd         Pulp and Paper Company                                                           1980
Crofton                 Norske Canada       Crofton          Pulp and Paper Company    38,000       Yes           No                          1981
                        Canadian Forest
Fraser Flats                                Prince George    Pulp and Paper Company    45,428       Yes           No                          1973
                        Products
                        Louisiana-Pacific
Golden EWP Division                         Golden           Pulp and Paper Company    7,000        Yes           Yes                18,375   1936
                        Engineered Wood
                        Pope and Talbot
Harmac                                      Nanaimo          Pulp and Paper Company    27,300                                       283,414   1963
                        Inc.
Kelowna                 Tolko BC            Kelowna          Pulp and Paper Company    12,000                     Yes                32,250   1948
                        Abitibi
Mackenzie                                   Mackenzie        Pulp and Paper Company    11,120       No            No                224,800   1997
                        Consolidated Inc.
Port Alberni            Norske Canada       Port Alberni     Pulp and Paper Company    17,680       Yes           No                 93,432   1963
Port Alice              Western Pulp Ltd.   Port Alice       Pulp and Paper Company    19,200       Yes                             170,400   1949
Powell River            Norske Canada       Powell River     Pulp and Paper Company    25,000       Yes           Yes                         1910
                        Norske Skog
Pulp Mill
                        Canada Ltd.
Quesnel Plywood         Quesnel Plywood     Quesnel          Forestry                  29,024       Yes                              20,517   1972
Western Manufacturing   Scott Paper Ltd.    New
                                                             Pulp and Paper Company    14,000       Yes           No                 11,389   1950
Division                (Kruger)            Westminster
Western Pulp Ltd.       Western Pulp Ltd.                    Woodfibre                 7,000                                                  1947
                        TransCanada                          Diversified Electricity
Williams Lake                               Williams Lake                              72,000       Yes           Yes                         1993
                        Power LP                             Generator
Total                                                                                  419,152                                  1,181,743.9




                                                                               67
                                                                                                                          Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

Table 8. Biomass — Other Facilities
                                                                                           Electrical   Purchase      Sell          Thermal
                                                                                                                                               Start   Eco-
Name                     Company                Location         Type of Business          Capacity     Electricity   Electricity   Capacity
                                                                                                                                               Year    certification
                                                                                           (kW)         from Grid?    to Grid?      (kW)
                         Environmental
EYA-UBC Biodiesel
                         Youth Alliance /       Vancouver        Non-Profit / Academic     11,120                                              2002
Project
                         UBC
Neoteric Biofuels Inc.                          Westbank
Total

Table 9. Standard Hydro Facilites
                                                                                           Electrical   Purchase      Sell          Thermal
                                                                                                                                               Start   Eco-
Name                     Company                Location         Type of Business          Capacity     Electricity   Electricity   Capacity
                                                                                                                                               Year    certification
                                                                                           (kW)         from Grid?    to Grid?      (kW)
Klemtu Hydro project     Kitasoo First Nation   Klemtu           First Nation Government   620                                                 1981
                         Synex Energy                            Diversified Electricity                                                               BC Hydro
Mears Creek                                     Gold River                                 3,800
                         Resources Ltd.                          Generator                                                                             Green IPP
                         Central Coast                           Renewable Electricity
Ocean Falls                                     Link Lake                                  12,200                                              1917
                         Power Corp.                             Generator
Port Alice               Western Pulp Ltd.      Victoria Lake    Pulp and Paper Company    2,000                                               1953
Tennant Lake             NVI Mining Ltd.        Tennant Lake     Mining Company            3,060                                               1966
Thelwood Hydro           NVI Mining Ltd         Thelwood Lake    Mining Company            8,200                                               1985
                         Teck-Cominco           Pend D'Oreille
Waneta                                                           Mining Company            337,700      Yes                                    1954
                         Metals                 River
Woodfibre                Western Pulp Ltd.      Henrietta Lake   Pulp and Paper Company    2,587                                               1947
Total                                                                                      370,167




                                                                                68
University of Victoria
PO Box 1700 STN CSC
Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2

Phone 250-853-3595
 Fax 250-853-3597
E-mail pics@uvic.ca
  Web pics.uvic.ca

								
To top