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TEACHING LEXICAL CHUNKS

VIEWS: 37 PAGES: 31

									WITH
FIGMENT
  I didn’t see anything in the
shadows, it was just a figment
       of my imagination.
WHAT IS A LEXICAL CHUNK?

“Basically a chunk is a group of
  words between 2 and 7 words
  long that co-occur in natural
  text with greater than random
  frequency…”

                    (Michael Lewis 1997:8)
EXAMPLES OF CHUNKS
 Words - car, coffee
 Polywords – by the way, inside out
 Fixed Expressions – How do you do?, That’s
  not the point.
 Semi-fixed expressions-Would you like
  something to drink/eat/read…?
 Sentence heads – The fact is…,
  In my opinion…
 Collocations – Black Market, Stock Market,
  Street Market.
_________ cars
_______ coffee
“In Britain people drive cars and drink
  coffee, but in English they do not”


                               (Lewis)
How did you get here this morning?


 I drove / I came by car/ I brought the
  car in.

 I drove the car .
Would you like a coffee?

 No thanks, I’ve just had one.

 No thanks, I’ve just drunk one.
BETWEEN 2 AND 7 WORDS
   Car park
   Fish and chips
   Open and closed case
   I’ll have a pint
   Do you feel like going out?
   If I were you, I would definitely…
L1 ACQUISITION AND CHUNKS
 Children start to acquire chunks at a
  very early age.
 These chunks are stored as
  unanalysed single units (“this is mine”)
 This data is held in reserve for
  subsequent analysis
 Using chunks saves processing time
 Adult native speakers have hundreds
  of thousands of chunks to hand
 LEXICAL APPROACH PROS

“The ability to deploy a wide range of
  lexical chunks both accurately and
  appropriately is probably what most
  distinguishes advanced learners from
  intermediate ones”

                             Scott Thornbury
MORE PROS…
 Increased fluency
 More natural sounding language
  usage
 Exact ideas expressed more easily
 Intonation and pronunciation improve
 Improvement of receptive skills
 Cambridge ESOL exams test chunks
SOME POSSIBLE CONS…

 Opposition of Lewis’ peers

 Difficult to structure a whole course

 Opposition from learners

 Chunks may easily fossilize
INTEGRATION

As with many other methodologies,
 rather than embracing them totally
 and ignoring the rest, it is probably
 best to take some ideas and integrate
 them into our classes…
RAISING AWARENESS
Can you say…?

Well, you could, but you wouldn’t.

Why not?

Because you can’t.
  RAISING AWARENESS



________ olimpicamente
USEFUL RESOURCES
 Concordance lines

 Lexical notebooks

 Monolingual dictionaries

 Collocation dictionaries
CONCORDANCE LINES
LEXICAL NOTEBOOK
MONEY
Verbs       Adjectives
Borrow      Easy
Change      Dirty
Earn        Blood
Make
Invest
Lose
READING IN CHUNKS
 Chunks naturally appear in written texts

 Chunks help reading aloud

 Easier to identify chunks visually

 Helps raise awareness
 READING IN CHUNKS
“The world’s most popular drink is water. You
  probably knew that already. After all, it’s a
  basic requirement of life on Earth. But did
  you know that the world’s second most
  popular drink is Coke? And that the human
  race drinks six hundred million cokes a
  day?”


                                (M.Lewis 1997)
READING IN CHUNKS
“The world’s most popular drink// is water.
  You probably knew that already.// After
  all,// it’s a basic requirement// of life on
  Earth.// But did you know// that the world’s
  second most popular drink// is Coke?//
  And that the human race// drinks six
  hundred million cokes// a day?”

                                 (M.Lewis 1997)
LISTENING TO CHUNKS
 Songs are an excellent source of
  chunks

 Provide pronunciation model for
  chunks- “If I were you I’d…”

 Again,helps raise awareness
JASON MRAZ - I’M YOURS
Divine Intervention
Nothing’s going to stop me
Listen to the music
Bending over backwards
Nibble your ear
I won’t hesitate
This is our fate
Open up your mind
SPEAKING WITH CHUNKS
 More natural sounding speech

 Recycle chunks already seen

 Repetition increases competence in using
  collocations

 Makes learner feel more comfortable about
  using chunks
SPEAKING WITH CHUNKS
7 TO 1

What are you going to do tonight?
I’m going to see a film.
Which film and what time?
Harry Potter, at 7.
Can I come?
Of course.
Great!
WRITING IN CHUNKS
 Using chunks helps the flow of a text

 Chunks also make texts sound more
  natural

 Provide useful models for writing

 FCE and CAE writing tasks
WRITING IN CHUNKS
You have been doing a project on travel and tourism. Your
teacher has asked you to write an essay giving your opinions
on the following statement.

Travel broadens the mind and widens our horizons.

Write your essay.
You should write between 120 and 180 words.



                                     (Ready for FCE p102 Norris)
WRITING IN CHUNKS
   It’s better to travel than to arrive
   Package holidays
   Year out
   Go abroad
   Narrow minded
   Life experience
   Comfort zone
AND FINALLY…
 Make sure chunks are natural
 Raise awareness
 Integrate in class-little by little
 Suitable for all levels
 Exploit reading and listening texts for
  chunks
 Recycle in productive skills
 Happy Chunking!!

								
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