VIEWS: 37 PAGES: 31 POSTED ON: 7/24/2012
WITH FIGMENT I didn’t see anything in the shadows, it was just a figment of my imagination. WHAT IS A LEXICAL CHUNK? “Basically a chunk is a group of words between 2 and 7 words long that co-occur in natural text with greater than random frequency…” (Michael Lewis 1997:8) EXAMPLES OF CHUNKS Words - car, coffee Polywords – by the way, inside out Fixed Expressions – How do you do?, That’s not the point. Semi-fixed expressions-Would you like something to drink/eat/read…? Sentence heads – The fact is…, In my opinion… Collocations – Black Market, Stock Market, Street Market. _________ cars _______ coffee “In Britain people drive cars and drink coffee, but in English they do not” (Lewis) How did you get here this morning? I drove / I came by car/ I brought the car in. I drove the car . Would you like a coffee? No thanks, I’ve just had one. No thanks, I’ve just drunk one. BETWEEN 2 AND 7 WORDS Car park Fish and chips Open and closed case I’ll have a pint Do you feel like going out? If I were you, I would definitely… L1 ACQUISITION AND CHUNKS Children start to acquire chunks at a very early age. These chunks are stored as unanalysed single units (“this is mine”) This data is held in reserve for subsequent analysis Using chunks saves processing time Adult native speakers have hundreds of thousands of chunks to hand LEXICAL APPROACH PROS “The ability to deploy a wide range of lexical chunks both accurately and appropriately is probably what most distinguishes advanced learners from intermediate ones” Scott Thornbury MORE PROS… Increased fluency More natural sounding language usage Exact ideas expressed more easily Intonation and pronunciation improve Improvement of receptive skills Cambridge ESOL exams test chunks SOME POSSIBLE CONS… Opposition of Lewis’ peers Difficult to structure a whole course Opposition from learners Chunks may easily fossilize INTEGRATION As with many other methodologies, rather than embracing them totally and ignoring the rest, it is probably best to take some ideas and integrate them into our classes… RAISING AWARENESS Can you say…? Well, you could, but you wouldn’t. Why not? Because you can’t. RAISING AWARENESS ________ olimpicamente USEFUL RESOURCES Concordance lines Lexical notebooks Monolingual dictionaries Collocation dictionaries CONCORDANCE LINES LEXICAL NOTEBOOK MONEY Verbs Adjectives Borrow Easy Change Dirty Earn Blood Make Invest Lose READING IN CHUNKS Chunks naturally appear in written texts Chunks help reading aloud Easier to identify chunks visually Helps raise awareness READING IN CHUNKS “The world’s most popular drink is water. You probably knew that already. After all, it’s a basic requirement of life on Earth. But did you know that the world’s second most popular drink is Coke? And that the human race drinks six hundred million cokes a day?” (M.Lewis 1997) READING IN CHUNKS “The world’s most popular drink// is water. You probably knew that already.// After all,// it’s a basic requirement// of life on Earth.// But did you know// that the world’s second most popular drink// is Coke?// And that the human race// drinks six hundred million cokes// a day?” (M.Lewis 1997) LISTENING TO CHUNKS Songs are an excellent source of chunks Provide pronunciation model for chunks- “If I were you I’d…” Again,helps raise awareness JASON MRAZ - I’M YOURS Divine Intervention Nothing’s going to stop me Listen to the music Bending over backwards Nibble your ear I won’t hesitate This is our fate Open up your mind SPEAKING WITH CHUNKS More natural sounding speech Recycle chunks already seen Repetition increases competence in using collocations Makes learner feel more comfortable about using chunks SPEAKING WITH CHUNKS 7 TO 1 What are you going to do tonight? I’m going to see a film. Which film and what time? Harry Potter, at 7. Can I come? Of course. Great! WRITING IN CHUNKS Using chunks helps the flow of a text Chunks also make texts sound more natural Provide useful models for writing FCE and CAE writing tasks WRITING IN CHUNKS You have been doing a project on travel and tourism. Your teacher has asked you to write an essay giving your opinions on the following statement. Travel broadens the mind and widens our horizons. Write your essay. You should write between 120 and 180 words. (Ready for FCE p102 Norris) WRITING IN CHUNKS It’s better to travel than to arrive Package holidays Year out Go abroad Narrow minded Life experience Comfort zone AND FINALLY… Make sure chunks are natural Raise awareness Integrate in class-little by little Suitable for all levels Exploit reading and listening texts for chunks Recycle in productive skills Happy Chunking!!
"TEACHING LEXICAL CHUNKS"