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					Aspects on sustainability:
      Agriculture



       Christine Jakobsson
           Vice Director
   Baltic University Secretariat   1
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT



ECONOMIC        SOCIAL



     ENVIRONMENTAL


                          2
 Non-sustainable issues of present day agriculture
Production
      · Contaminants and residues in food
        · Unfavourable market conditions for agricultural production
          Excessive livestock density
Natural resources
        · Dependence on fossil energy
        ·   Low efficiency of energy use in agricultural production
        ·   Dependence on non-renewable phosphorus deposits
        ·   Lack of water and of high water quality
        ·   Nutrient losses (N and P) to the environment
        ·   Decrease in soil fertility (acidification, carbon content, nutrient
            status, structure, compaction, salinisation)
        ·   Erosion
        ·   Pesticide residues in soil, water and non-target organisms
        ·   Accumulation of heavy metals and nuclides
        ·   Soil contamination with persistent organic and inorganic
            substances
        ·   Loss of biodiversity and genetic resources
        ·   Air pollution (NH3, CH4, N2O, pesticides)
                                                                                  3
 Non-sustainable issues of present day agriculture

Human and animal welfare
       · Occupational threats to farmers and consumers health
       · Dependence on growth promoters and antibiotics in animal
         production
       · Unfavourable animal welfare and threats to animal health
       • Diseases that can spread from animals to humans e g
         BSE, avian influenza
Socio-economic criteria
       · Unfavourable economical profitability of farming
       · Lack of food security and food production security
       · Unfavourable social infra-structure in rural areas
       · Lack of preservation of nature and historical values
       · Urbanisation
Competence- Education
       · Lack of education, information and management skill
                                                              4
         Some practical measures
Agricultural structure
• The distribution of agricultural production - greater
  integration of animal and crop production, greater
  evenness in localisation within a region
• Maintain fertile arable land for food production and
  protect from urban use (roads, landfills, buildings)
Products
• Human diet: more vegetarian and less meat, different
  types of meat
• Food quality - health
                                                          5
            Some practical measures
 Plant nutrients
• Number of livestock units per hectare arable land
   –    P & N in manure corresponds to the crops nutrient
       requirements
• Storage of slurry, urine and solid manure
   –   impermeable stores of high quality
   –   minimum 6 months storage capacity
   –   covering of slurry and urine stores
   –   filling beneath the covers of slurry and urine stores
• Timing for spreading of slurry, urine and manure
   –   when the crop needs nutrients
   –   in the spring on light and peat soils - soil compaction
   –   for FYM on heavy clay soils in the autumn, to be ploughed in
   –   incorporation as soon as possible after spreading
   –   not on soils that are deeply frozen, water saturated or
                                                                      6
       covered with snow
       Some practical measures
 Plant nutrients cont.
• Suitable techniques for spreading slurry and
  manure
   – improved spreading techniques
   – consideration taken to soil compaction
• The application rate for nutrients should not
  exceed the crops needs
   – increased precision in nutrient application
   – increased recycling of P by sewage sludge etc.
   – increased production of nitrogen fixating crops
   – greater precision in detecting the crops needs of
     nitrogen
• Protective buffer strips for water-courses, wetlands
  and other nutrient reducing areas should be
  promoted and established where needed
• Green cover - at least 50% or other appropriate        7
  measures
         Some practical measures
  Plant nutrients cont.
• Soil fertility maintained by protecting land from
  contamination and carbon depletion
   – reduced soil cultivation
   – only usage of clean high quality fertilizers, sewage
     sludge, manure
   – decreased deposition of heavy metals
Transport and energy
• Reduced transportation of products, increased
  application of ”local supply”
• Production and use of bio-energy to be greatly
  increased - self-sufficiency for agriculture on
  energy?
                                                            8
     Some practical measures
Animal production
• Housing and systems adapted to allow
  normal animal behaviour
• Recruitment of dairy cows and beef cattle in
  outdoor systems
• Increased proportion of cattle and other
  grazing animals
• Animal feed based on domestic or local
  production
• Production optimised rather than maximised

                                                 9
      Some practical measures
Plant protective products
• Reduced use of pesticides
• Alternative methods of control should be encouraged
• The substitution principle should be used when
  applicable
• Only approved registered substances in use
• Education and licence for handling, use and storage
• Application technology
   – prevent unintentional drift or run-off
   – establish protective zones by watercourses
   – no spraying by aircraft
• Testing of sprayers at regular intervals
                                                   10
      Some practical measures
Improving occupational health of farmers
• improving the indoor climate in animal housing
   – toxic gases (H2S, NH3)
   – dust
   – noise
• use environmentally less harmful chemicals
• less ”chemicals” in use
• improving technology to prevent heavy lifting or back
  and muscular injuries
• improved climate within the drivers cabin (tractor etc.)
• better education leads often to better health

                                                       11
 Administrative control measures

• Need of more knowledge about
  agriculture and suitable practices -
  Good Agricultural Practice (Codes of
  GAP) - farmers
• Need of increased knowledge - society
  and consumers
• Agreement on economic and legislative
  control measures

                C. Jakobsson 11/97    12
             Baltic 21-Agriculture Action programme
          Part 2. Actions to sustainable agriculture
First and second priority

1. Education and training

2. Create demonstration watersheds with
   demonstration farms in a network in the different
   countries




                            C. Jakobsson 1/98          13
          Baltic 21-Agriculture Action programme

    Part 1. Programmes for sustainable agriculture


1. Reduce the nutrient losses from agriculture
2. Reduce the risks connected with the use of
plant protection products
3. Protect ground & surface water for
drinking water purposes in agricultural areas
4. Preserve agricultural productivity for
 production of high quality food & feed


                       C. Jakobsson 1/98             14
         Baltic 21-Agriculture Action programme
    Part 1. Programmes for sustainable agriculture


5. Maintain & develop biodiversity
6. Reduce the use of growth promoters & antibiotics
   in agriculture & to promote animal health

7. Develop rural infra-structure & to promote a high
   quality of life in rural areas
8. Promote the development of new production
   alternatives for arable land
9. Other measures


                      C. Jakobsson 1/98              15
                   Baltic 21 Agriculture Sector
Programme 1. Programmes to reduce the nutrient
           losses from agriculture
 Already existing tools or tools under preparation
     · According to the HELCOM Annex III
        · Livestock density
        · Storage of slurry, urine and solid manure
        · Agricultural waste water and silage effluents
        · Application of organic manures
        · Application rates for nutrients
        · Winter crop cover
        · Water protection measures and nutrient reduction
          areas
    · According to EU’s nitrate directive (91/676/EEC)
        · establishing vulnerable zones
        · establishing action programmes
        · monitoring of waters
                                                             16
                    Baltic 21 Agriculture Sector
Programme 1. Programmes to reduce the nutrient
           losses from agriculture

 Already existing tools or tools under preparation cont.
     · According to EU’s regulation on protection of the
       environment and maintenance of the countryside (No
       2078/92)
        · farm practices compatible with protection of the
          environment and natural resources
        · reductions in use of fertilisers and in farm livestock
        · an environmentally favourable extensification of
          farming
     · Code of Good Agricultural Practice
     · National legislation



                                                              17
                          Baltic 21 Agriculture Sector
Programme 1. Programmes to reduce the nutrient losses
                  from agriculture
Proposed new elements
      Nutrients
          – The use of the nutrients on the farms should be as efficient as
            possible, which should in many cases lead to reduced inputs.
          – Nutrient balances should be used to promote an efficient use of
            nutrients
      Phosphorus
            · The available phosphorus content of arable topsoils should not
                exceed the requirements of an acceptable crop production.
              · The annual phosphorus input should be calculated in relation
                to: the phosphorus content in the topsoil of the field and the
                crops requirements
              · The phosphorus input should be of the same size as the
                phosphorus removed
              · Need for good monitoring data on the phosphorus status of
                arable land and nutrient balances to show if the supply of
                phosphorus in the soils increases or is depleted
                                                                         18
                              Baltic 21 Agriculture Sector
    Programme 1. Programmes to reduce the nutrient
               losses from agriculture
Proposed new elements
·   Crop and animal production should be more integrated in all countries.
·   Farm size: very large non-sustainable animal holdings should reduce the
    number of livestock or be split up into smaller, more evenly distributed animal
    holdings to reduce the negative environmental impact and to improve the
    recirculation of plant nutrients from manure.
·   Choose crops, crop variety and crop rotations for a minimum need of soil
    cultivation to reduce nitrogen mineralisation
·   The farmers should take environmental considerations when removing land
    from food production in a situation of excess agricultural land for food
    production:
         ·   soils poor in phosphorus
         ·   organic soils from previously drained wetlands
         ·   soils sensitive to erosion
         ·   soils sensitive to nitrate leaching
·   Promote the development and implementation of new technology that can
    reduce the losses of nutrients, such as site specific crop management
                                                                             19
              Goals for sustainable agriculture
Agriculture contributes significantly to the society of the future. Sustainable
agriculture is the production of high quality food and other agricultural
products / services in the long run with consideration taken to economy and
social structure, in such a way that the resource base of non-renewable and
renewable resources is maintained. Important sub-goals are:
1. the farmers income should be sufficient to provide a fair standard of
living in the agricultural community
2. the farmers should practise production methods which do not threaten
human or animal health or degrade the environment including biodiversity
and at the same time minimise the environmental responsibilities that future
generations must assume
3. non-renewable resources have to gradually be replaced by renewable
resources and that recirculation of non-renewable resources is maximised
4. sustainable agriculture will meet societies needs of food and recreation
and preserve the landscape, cultural values and the historical heritage of
rural areas and contribute to create stable well developed and secure rural
communities
5. the ethical aspects of agricultural production are secured
                                                                         20
           Baltic 21-Agriculture Action programme
            Actions to sustainable agriculture

Promotion and implementation of already existing tools or
  tools under preparation

   1. ANNEX III to the Helsinki convention ”Prevention of
       pollution from agriculture”

    2. EU directives, regulations etc.
       * Nitrate directive               * Maastricht Treaty
       * Sewage sludge                   * Amsterdam Treaty
       * Organic farming                 * Agenda 2000
       * Water Framework                 * CAP
       * Placing of plant protection products on the market
       * Protection of the environment and maintenance of the
         countryside                     *IPPC Directive
       * 5th Environmental Action Program
       * 6th Environmental Action Program etc.
                          C. Jakobsson 1/98                     21
           Baltic 21-Agriculture Action programme
            Actions to sustainable agriculture


Promotion and implementation of already existing tools or
  tools under preparation cont…..

  3. National Codes of Good Agricultural Practice
       • EU nitrate directive
       • HELCOM
  4. National legislation




                        C. Jakobsson 1/98                   22
           Baltic 21-Agriculture Action programme
      Part 2. Actions to sustainable agriculture cont.
Third priority group (no ranking within the group)
3. Establish a co-ordinating function for sustainable
    agriculture in the Baltic Sea catchment area
4. Develop a ”Virtual Research Institute” for sustainable
    agriculture in the Baltic Sea Region based on
    NOVABOVA
5. Elaborate and implement agro-environmental
            legislation and policies
6. Institutional strengthening for sustainable agriculture
7. Develop support (knowledge, financial) to the
      countries in transition and Poland
                       C. Jakobsson 1/98                 23
                      Baltic 21 Agriculture Sector
Progress in the Baltic 21 Agricultural Sector
The implementation is still in its initial phase,
• A Baltic 21 network is established.
• A draft work plan has been elaborated,
 Projects & Activities (some examples)
• Research Network for Sustainable Agriculture in the Baltic
   Sea Region (NOVABOVA).
• Baltic Agricultural Run-Off Action Programme (BAAP),
• Elaboration of Codes of Good Agricultural Practice.
• Baltic Sea Regional Project (GEF) aimed at implementing
   priority actions associated with control of non-point source
   pollution from agriculture (including demonstration sites).
• Establishment of demonstration areas and pilot project for
   proving sustainable development in practice.

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posted:7/24/2012
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