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					               APPENDICES

                        to the




UNDP – GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FACILITY

       National Capacity Self Assessment

                Solomon Islands

United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity


          Thematic Assessment




             Prepared by Jackie Thomas


                    December 2006
Appendices

Appendix 1   Provincial Government Capacity Constraints

Appendix 2   Opportunities for Addressing Capacity Constraints

Appendix 3   NGO Capacity Constraints

Appendix 4   NGO Opportunities for Addressing Capacity Constraints

Appendix 5   Summary Analysis of ECD Organisational Requirements

Appendix 6   Survey of ECD Training Needs
                                                                                                    Appendix: 1
                                Provincial Government Capacity Constraints:
Environmental Planning       Systemic                          Institutional                   Individual
/Management Role
(convention Commitments)
Policy, Planning &           Provincial govt policies &        No specific portfolio for       Limited people with policy
Programmes (includes legal   ordinances must not conflict      environment in most             and planning and proposal
framework)                   with national govt.               provinces.                      development skills within
                                                                                               province.
                             Provincial policies are           Lack of capacity to develop
                             governed by national agency       plans and funding proposals –   Limited knowledge of
                             policies.                         limited people with skills.     provincial NRM laws and
                                                                                               regulations at provincial
                             National policies and             Lack of man power to            level both at community
                             programmes must be in             implement policies/laws or      level and within the
                             tandem with SD principles.        enforce or monitor compliance   province.
                                                               with regulations.
                             Lack of priority given to
                             environmental considerations      Heads of Depts don’t have
                                                               enough manual manpower to
                             Governance structure and          carry out functions and
                             institutional design between      responsibilities
                             provincial and national govt is
                             limiting.                         Provisions in some ordinances
                                                               outdated & penalties low.
                             Provincial autonomy is a
                             serious impediment in             Need strategic land use
                             controlling resource depletion    planning & guidelines for
                             at provincial level.              sustainable & appropriate
                                                               development.
                             Need national framework to
                             support & recognise protected     Town and Country Planning
                             areas & community based           Act does not cover customary
                             management plans &                owned land
                             regulations (to empower
                             community or chiefs/elders)

                             Complexities & confusion of
                             ownership over lagoons, reefs
                             & coastal waters

                             Traditional system of chiefs
                             breaking down – affects local
                             level enforcement of by-laws

                             Some local courts not
                             functioning properly –
                             problems with dealing with
                             breaches of customary laws
                             Need leadership and
                             accountability by Provincial
                             Govt.

                             Provinces need legal backing

                             Need Sustainable
                             Environmental Development
                              Act

                              Need Environmental Impact
                              Assessment working

                              Lack of provincial level
                              environmental policies
Research & Monitoring         Unsustainable logging              WP No R&M – no staff – rely       Limited pool of people with
(includes data collection &   threatening wildlife and BD.       on NGOs for this and for          monitoring and data
Dissemination)                                                   information and data.             collection skills

                                                                 WP no centralised data or         Provinces lack staff with
                                                                 information base – each dept      skills and knowledge.
                                                                 holds own information,
                                                                 statistics.

                                                                 Lack of support from the
                                                                 national agencies

                                                                 Lack of scientific information
                                                                 and data - information gaps (ie
                                                                 impacts of subsistence
                                                                 harvesting)

                                                                 Lack of data based and limited
                                                                 research activities results in
                                                                 lack of appropriate resource
                                                                 monitoring mechanisms.

                                                                 Lack of finance
Public Awareness &            Complexities & confusion of        WP - No proactive information     Environmental awareness in
Information Exchange          ownership over lagoons, reefs      sharing with public – based       communities is poor –
                              & coastal waters                   more on demand than               especially in rural areas.
                                                                 proactive role.
                              Logging companies not bound                                          Lack of environmental
                              to do any developmental or         Environmental information         awareness within provincial
                              environmental related              comes from ECD or WWF             staff and MPs.
                              education programmes.
                                                                                                   Need regular awareness for
                                                                                                   communities – stakeholders
                                                                                                   must have available
                                                                                                   information at resource
                                                                                                   centres.
Training & Education                                             Fisheries research staff are
                                                                 centralised in Honiara, not
                                                                 based in the provinces.

                                                                 Training opportunities are
                                                                 generally limited and slow in
                                                                 implementation.
Human &                       Lack of equitable revenue          WP – limited financial            WP – staff not proficient at
Financial Resources           sharing with National Govt;        resources, HODs not making        making budget submissions
                                                                 submissions, small budget         to central govt so no funds
                              National govt is not filling       allocations to environment.       come through.
                              positions for seconded officers                                      WP – no librarian or library,
                              in provinces ie legal officers.    Reliance on Central govt.         tourism officer not qualified,
                                                                                                   no manpower to carry out
                              Most divisions are understaffed    Need an environmental officer     R&M or environmental
                              while current staff are not well   and a legal adviser.              management, CC, BD
                              trained for specific areas.                                          conservation etc – rely on
                                                                     Need research officers and      NGOs or Honiara central
                               Provincial Govt Act confers           information networks.           govt.
                               significant authority on
                               provincial govts but they suffer      Fisheries Division lacks        Lack of skilled staff and
                               from severe under funding &           manpower.                       limited awareness among
                               poor performance                                                      community leaders are
                               management.                           Lack of support from the        obstacles to achieving
                                                                     national agencies               sustainable management

                                                                     Lack legal adviser              Lack of capacity in
                                                                     Lack staff with knowledge of    sustainable use of
                                                                     environmental issues (ie CC,    resources.
                                                                     BD, SD etc)

                                                                     Lack accommodation, logistics
                                                                     support, staffing/ manpower,
                                                                     infrastructure, supportive
                                                                     environment, finance.
Coordination & Collaboration   Main coordinating body for            Provinces need resources for    WP feels some NGOs don’t
                               provinces is Dept of PG. Govt         integrated development          know the govt processes for
                               agencies wanting to deal with         strategies and effective        dealing with Provincial Govt.
                               provinces must first go through       institutional mechanisms
                               DPG.                                  between provincial, national
                                                                     and regional organisations.

                                                                     Need central information
                                                                     centres and good
                                                                     consultation.
Reporting                      Provinces deal through DPG –          Provinces report directly to
                               particularly if want to liaise with   agencies responsible who
                               a foreign organisation or govt        report to parliament.
                               and DPG will go through
                               Foreign Affairs office.

                               Central govt is also responsible
                               to report to Parliament on
                               behalf of Provincial govt.

                               Reporting functions not well
                               coordinated
                                                                                                             Appendix: 2
                                 Provincial Government Capacity Opportunities
Environmental Planning        Systemic                         Institutional                       Individual
/Management Role
(convention commitments)
Policy, Planning &            Provincial ordinances –          Increased partnerships              Include technical advisers to
Programmes (includes legal    partnerships at provincial,      between provincial govt and         work alongside national
framework)                    national and regional level to   NGOs and communities (ie            counterparts
                              develop, implement and           Arnavon Marine Conservation
                              address SD issues.               Area partnerships)                  Include national officers in
                                                                                                   NGO projects as
                                                               Sound planning with                 counterparts.
                                                               safeguards for indigenous
                                                               approaches to resource              Employ environmental
                                                               conservation                        officers in provinces.

                                                               Provincial BD strategy.             TNC appointing Project
                                                                                                   Coordinator in Isabel and
                                                               Use of business licence             with technical support from
                                                               process for controlling logging     UNDP, to shaping effective
                                                               operations.                         institutional strategy to
                                                                                                   ensure BD protocols.
                                                               Isabel Province partnerships
                                                               with UNDP on the GEF
                                                               “Community led conservation
                                                               and resource management
                                                               project” as a model.
Research & Monitoring         Need research into Non-          NGOs already undertaking            NGOs can provide training to
(includes data collection &   Timber Forest Products for       R&M can include provincial          provincial govt officers to be
Dissemination)                targeting poverty issues and     govt officers in their activities   able to carry out these
                              meet the economic needs of                                           functions
                              rural people                     Arnavon Marine Conservation
                                                               Area & partnerships with            Assign officers to be
                                                               TNC, Provincial govt &              responsible for information
                                                               communities is a model              exchange (including
                                                               conservation area project.          collection, analysis and
                                                                                                   dissemination)
                                                               Info & data base development
                                                               is part of Isabel GEF project.      Research students carrying
                                                                                                   out research in the provinces.
Public Awareness &            Central govt to provide          Arnavon Marine Conservation         Increased partnerships with
Information Exchange          funding or officers to           Area good model for raising         NGO and Central govt to
                              undertake awareness and          community awareness.                development education
                              education campaigns.                                                 awareness programmes.
                                                               Expand PFNet email stations
                                                               and equip with HF radios for
                                                               two way communication
                                                               throughout rural areas.

                                                               Develop communications
                                                               strategy & procedures
                                                               regarding acquisition,
                                                               management & use of info
                                                               with provincial govt &
                                                               communications with
                                                               stakeholders (Isabel).
                                                       Use radio for regular bulletins
                                                       on provincial activities &
                                                       Identify communication hubs
                                                       for flow of information.
Training & Education                                   Use of communications             Increased sharing of training
                                                       networks for env. education &     and education opportunities
                                                       community awareness &             offered by NGOs to include
                                                       distance learning                 provincial staff and MPs.
                                                       opportunities
Human &                GEF funding for small and       Build capacity of public          Provide access to
Financial Resources    medium sized projects.          officers for improved             opportunities to enhance
                                                       governance & economic             community development to
                                                       management.                       promote integrated rural
                                                                                         development and increase
                                                       Allocation of adequate funds      participation of stakeholders.
                                                       to carry out work of govt
                                                       officers & provide                Recruit or train officers for
                                                       appropriate equipment &           specific fisheries areas and
                                                       materials                         research;

                                                       Establish info centres & data
                                                       base; & Establish advisory
                                                       networks within communities
Coordination &         Central govt to establish a     Provincial govt to take more
Collaboration          coordination and planning       initiative to invite NGOs to
                       unit with representation from   participate in provincial
                       provincial govt                 activities.

                                                       Provincial govts to develop
                                                       provincial & island level
                                                       coordination to ensure
                                                       coordinated approach to
                                                       liaison with communities &
                                                       resource owners.
Reporting              Systematic process for two      Capitalise on work by NGOs
                       flow of information between     in reporting back to
                       provinces and central govt –    communities. Provincial govt
                       use of advisory committees      be included as partners in the
                       or networks.                    process.

                                                       Establishment of an
                                                       environmental organisation.
                                                                                                             Appendix: 3
                                      NGO/Civil Society Capacity constraints:
Environmental Planning        Systemic                          Institutional                   Individual
/Management Role
(convention commitments)
Policy, Planning &            No national framework for         WWF falls down in               Lack of staff with skills in
Programmes (includes          BD conservation - need            environmental planning &        WWF in land use planning &
legal framework)              NBSAP                             land use planning               environmental policy
                                                                                                development & planning
                              Lacking proper                    Need Resource Management
                              implementation of Logging         Ordinance for alienated land    Some communities lack
                              Code of Practice                  in WP.                          political will for ecoforestry
                                                                                                (have been paid off)
                              No Forestry Bill                  Live Reef Fish Mgt plan
                                                                developed but not
                              Environment Act without           implemented.
                              regulations
                                                                Environment Advisory
                              Lack of political will power at   Council never established.
                              provincial level

                              Land tenure issues in NRM.

                              Provincial level ordinances
                              lacking for NRM in some
                              provinces.

                              Environment, Wildlife and
                              Fisheries Acts important

                              No proper legislation for
                              small scale forest harvesting.

                              Forest Act does not address
                              protected areas – no
                              ecoforestry standards.

                              Need emphasis on
                              reforestation of local species.

                              Marine tenure system – open
                              access makes MPAs difficult
                              - open to conflict between
                              users.

                              Laws & policies relating to
                              environment, land/
                              customary tenure & water out
                              of date or under review.
Research & Monitoring         Independency of NGOs &            WWF has data but not set up     WWF Lacks staff with skills on
(includes data collection &   lack of cooperation.              in a readable format.           data analysis
Dissemination)
                              Isolation of some locations       Not been successful in          Need GIS mapping capability
                              (difficulty with logistics),      getting govt engagement in      (either externally or internally)
                                                                NGO activities.
                              Time required to train people                                     Lack of training in marine
                                                                Localised issues of land        resource monitoring for some
                              Cost of R&M                       registration (Baoro Highlands   NGOs & communities
                                                        Makira), genealogy
                       R&M not a priority of some       processes for designating         Lack of standard protocol for
                       provinces                        areas as conservation areas.      establishing MPAs
                       .
                                                        Difficult access to remote        Process for data sharing
                                                        areas

                                                        Land owner issues.

                                                        Lack of funding, skills &
                                                        expertise, time & logistics.

                                                        Forestry Division focussed
                                                        too much on logging

                                                        Lack of technical back up -
                                                        Fisheries need more staff.

                                                        Some organisations don’t
                                                        have in house technical staff
                                                        & rely on other NGOs,
                                                        regional & Govt partners

                                                        No research on regrowth of
                                                        local timber species or
                                                        promoting fast growing local
                                                        species.
Public Awareness &     Quality of exchange of info is   Reticence to share                Need better understanding of
Information Exchange   variable at different levels –   information                       & ability in lobbying – lack of
                       fair at govt level, good at                                        recognition of power of
                       NGO, very good for delivery      SICHE School of Natural           lobbying.
                       to communities.                  Resources lacks a BD
                                                        component                         Awareness of environmental
                       Govt lacks awareness on                                            issues at provincial govt level
                       what NGOs are doing & visa       Ministry of Natural Resources     poor
                       versa.                           needs to focus more on
                                                        helping communities with          Awareness of environmental
                       Govt is not taking a lead role   environmental issues.             issues at community level
                       in awareness raising –                                             also generally poor to fair.
                       should be at the forefront of    Govt agencies reluctant to
                       awareness programmes &           share some information &          Need earlier intervention with
                       activities.                      knowledge (Forestry & DAL         communities threatened by
                                                        at national level)                logging.

                                                        Lack of awareness tools for       Communities need more legal
                                                        communities                       assistance

                                                        Govt not participating enough
                                                        at community level

                                                        Lack of telecoms & radio
                                                        communications & equipt.
Training & Education   Need to look outside country     CI – no training or               Data analysis, policy
                       for training & education         programmes for training – CI      development, govt processes,
                                                        outside the standard process      lobbying skills.
                       Limited pool of skilled          for applicants to obtain govt
                       trainers – in high demand.       scholarships                      Capturing & building on
                                                                                          Lessons Learned
                                                        Limited training opport for
                                                        staff, especially short term or   Alternative Livelihoods
                                                     refresher courses for NGOs
                                                                                      Leadership, management,
                                                     SIDT/Greenpeace are              coordination & organisational
                                                     pioneers in the Ecoforestry      management;
                                                     Management Planning
                                                     process – but need more          Communication skills,
                                                     people trained.                  counselling, selection skills,
                                                                                      media skills;
                                                     Narrow range of local timber
                                                     species sold – to narrow         Mapping & research;

                                                     Ecoforestry sector – Forest      Proposal writing, project
                                                     officers need training in        planning, evaluation,
                                                     ecoforestry management           monitoring, implementation;

                                                     Project cycle management         Budget (proposal, analysis &
                                                     skills for NGOs                  management);

                                                     Limited staff numbers &          Computer skills
                                                     especially fixed term tenures
                                                     for staff affects training       Need for sustainable forest
                                                     opportunities for some NGOs,     management capacity
                                                     hence no opportunity for long    building within community
                                                     term training for higher         based organisations
                                                     qualifications
                                                                                      Need project & business mgt
                                                                                      training for some NGO staff &
                                                                                      local partners

                                                                                      Need skills in reforestation,
                                                                                      forest restoration & marine
                                                                                      resource management
Human &               Need for transport &           Need to better prioritise        Appropriate human resources
Financial Resources   additional staff.              activities – needs strong        that have relevant knowledge
                                                     leadership.                      or skills on environmental
                      Need funding/cofinancing                                        issues.
                                                     Better office accommodation
                      Lack of core funding for       & resources.                     Reporting skills, training &
                      some NGOS –project funding                                      facilitation skills
                      only                           Need IT support services
                                                                                      Logistics
                      Need awareness materials       Field budget for field
                                                     activities, transportation       Advocacy in mining &
                      Need additional equipment                                       environmental issues
                      (boat, travelling gear,        Organisational management -
                      monitoring & dive equipment)   Accreditation through formal     Need community planning &
                                                     coursework                       facilitation skills

                                                     Strengthen, expand & sustain     TNC needs social science as
                                                     leadership training              part of work – gap &
                                                                                      conservation planner ie to link
                                                     Technical assistance in          BSSE & broader scale
                                                     organisational development       activities & partners.

                                                     Institutional strengthening to   ECANSI needs a CEO or
                                                     implement training               director in situ.

                                                     Need skills in administration    GIS, Data analysis &
                                                     & programme management           interpretation skills needed
                                                  Skills in community                Scientific report writing skills
                                                  participation & dealing with
                                                  communities (facilitation).        Need people with skills on CC
                                                                                     issues.
                                                  Ecoforestry programme
                                                  needs more resources ie            Need marine biologists.
                                                  equipment – Mills for training
                                                  purposes, community level          Need in house skills on
                                                  training, awareness, office        resource monitoring &
                                                  equipment, space, more             surveys.
                                                  foresters.
                                                                                     Ecoforestry programme needs
                                                  Financial systems within           social worker or social
                                                  NGOs can be inefficient &          scientist.
                                                  restrictive leading to delays in
                                                  activities & achievements.         Organisational management
                                                                                     skills for some NGOs.
                                                  Oxfam requires Increased
                                                  knowledge of CC for all staff      Plant pathology, entomology.
                                                  to translate into programmes
                                                  of work with communities;

                                                  Basic research skills for some
                                                  Oxfam staff for areas of
                                                  responsibility (HIV & Disaster
                                                  Management); & Specific
                                                  Advocacy & strategic
                                                  planning for programmes (eg
                                                  disaster risk management be
                                                  integrated into development
                                                  framework for national policy)
Coordination &   National govt needs to           Need to remove duplication in      Need to start at the
Collaboration    include NGOs more in policy      number of groups &                 communities & with
                 development & national           committees established &           landowners – bottom up
                 planning – need to invite        ensure regular meetings of         approach.
                 NGOs to the table                the key group (whether
                                                  CCOSI or SISDAC)
                 Need MOU or endorsement
                 between each NGO & govt,         Lack of national
                 with instrumental staff to       environmental protection
                 follow through & strengthen      authority
                 working relationships.
                                                  Not enough govt involvement
                 National & Provincial Govt       in SILMMA & other networks
                 agencies need to be
                 proactive & take the lead        Lack of coordination in the
                 from NGOs                        ecoforestry sector –
                                                  stakeholders, agents, sellers,
                 Coordination efforts have        millers, shippers.
                 failed in the past.
Reporting        Lack of library facilities for   No formal mechanism for
                 submitting reports on NGO        reporting activities to national
                 activities.                      & provincial level.

                                                  No way to know if info is
                                                  being used.

                                                  Some NGOs/donors require
                                                  unrealistic levels of reporting
                                                  from NGOs – time consuming
                                                                                                        Appendix: 4
                                  NGOs/Civil Society Capacity Opportunities
Environmental Planning       Systemic                         Institutional                    Individual
/Management Role
(Convention Commitments)
Policy, Planning &           Need to complete the             NGOs have offered support &
Programmes (includes legal   NBSAP as there is much BD        funds to the NBSAP process
framework)                   to protect – need better         & drafting of regulations for
                             liaison & partnerships with      the Environment Act &
                             stakeholders – need to           Wildlife Act;
                             convince govt of the
                             importance especially in rural   NGOs have data, information
                             development focus.               & external networks;

                             DSE is developing a Code of      NGOs & academic institutions
                             Ethics for its members.          drafting provincial level
                                                              ordinances to support MPA
                             Bridge the link between govt     establishment;
                             ministries through NGO
                             activities in rural areas.       Oxfam recruiting a Legal
                                                              Rights Officer who will have a
                             Provinces should strengthen      key role in critiquing new/
                             ordinances & be more             revised legislation to ensure
                             proactive in environmental       indigenous rights are not
                             issues – take a lead role.       undermined, there are
                                                              provisions for holding
                             Need to look at ways of          companies & decision makers
                             addressing the marine tenure     accountable, environment,
                             system & ensuring                conservation & social issues
                             community management             are addressed;
                             plans are effective.
                                                              Natural Resources & Rights
                                                              Coalition working for new
                                                              Forests Bill & to increase
                                                              consultations & urgency for
                                                              new Bill to be passed;

                                                              Isabel Resource
                                                              Management Ordinance a
                                                              good model of provincial
                                                              ordinance for communities/
                                                              NGOs;

                                                              TNC is establishing an MOU
                                                              with SIG to fund a position
                                                              within ECD to undertake
                                                              NBSAP process. Seeking
                                                              other NGO partners;

                                                              FSPI working with Fisheries,
                                                              FFA provinces & other orgs to
                                                              resolve problems with
                                                              ordinances;

                                                              FSPI moving into CC issues;

                                                              Need new legislation or
                                                              enhance Forest Bill to include
                                                              protected areas & ecoforestry
                                                              standards – Ecoforestry
                                                              Programme has developed
                                                              the standards;

                                                              Ecoforestry programme tried
                                                              urging govt to give the last
                                                              remaining forests to
                                                              ecoforestry rather than
                                                              industrial logging;

                                                              Fisheries & Marine
                                                              Resources should establish a
                                                              Coastal Fisheries Unit (to
                                                              replace role of IWP).
Research & Monitoring                                         Partnerships with govt,
(includes data collection &                                   communities, other NGOs;
Dissemination)
                                                              NGOs have staff skilled in
                                                              marine resource monitoring &
                                                              surveys, socio economic
                                                              information & data collection;

                                                              Commitment in Makira –
                                                              Provincial govt, MCCF & CI
                                                              signed tripartite MOU to
                                                              realise & work together to
                                                              accomplish conservation
                                                              outcomes;

                                                              NGO networks provide in-
                                                              house support to country
                                                              offices in GIS, data
                                                              management & analysis &
                                                              training;

                                                              Access to volunteers for data
                                                              analysis & interpretation.
Public Awareness &            Use regional organisations      Networks – SILMMA &              DSE has a data base of
Information Exchange          such as SPREP, BSSE;            NRRC;                            members & their roles

                              Need centralised info & data    NGOs carrying out own            Training for communities on
                              base which is accessible &      programme of awareness           forest legislation & legal
                              each province should hold       raising (PRAs, workshops,        rights of resource owners.
                              information relevant to its     media communications,
                              own area (ie field work         drama performances, national     Earlier intervention to provide
                              reports & results - province    radio programmes, website);      awareness on alternatives to
                              should also have copies);                                        logging.
                                                              NGOs can build relationships
                              DSE focal points in provinces   with provincial level agencies   Ecoforestry project looking to
                              – for dissemination of          (ie Environmental Health)        use participatory or playback
                              information & train the         DSE networking in                theatre to involve villagers in
                              trainers;                       conjunction with CSP &           performances as awareness
                                                              EUMPPII to support               raising.
                              NGOs are carrying out a lot     community practitioners;
                              of awareness & addressing                                        Voice Blo Mere a powerful
                              environmental issues in         More proactive role by the       group for spreading info for
                              communities;                    Ministry of NR to focus more     women & for awareness
                                                              on helping communities with      programmes & training
                       Roundtable discussions;          environment related issues;

                       Establish a suitable             Maintain good working
                       mechanism for improved info      relationship with Forestry
                       exchange at all levels of govt   Division on data sharing;
                       & with stakeholders;
                                                        NGOs provide awareness
                       Information needs to be          materials, posters, drama,
                       understandable & simple;         workshops, radio, newspaper;

                       Internet & radio                 Need a wider range of timber
                       communication;                   species sold – need a holistic
                                                        approach towards the
                       Information could be better      ecotimber industry such as
                       disseminated to villages         marketing, identification &
                       through a coordinated            promotion of NTFP as
                       approach to awareness            alternatives, shipping, road
                       raising by all CSOs, Govt,       transport;
                       Donors, etc;
                                                        Practical demonstrations
                       Brochures could be sent to a     valuable to explain ecological
                       central location (eg NRRC,       processes.
                       DSE), for collection by those
                       touring provinces – will bring
                       awareness to people about
                       organisations that exist,
                       what they do that can assist
                       them to contact the right
                       organisations for the right
                       kind of information.
Training & Education   Need greater partnerships &      WWF can provide expertise        USP to provide GIS/Data
                       understanding with govt          from its international network   analysis training
                       education ministry on need       & can include partners in        PIANGO/UNITECH post
                       for training & education in      training opportunities           graduate diploma programme
                       environment & BD issues.                                          for not-for-profit
                                                        CI aims to develop tools for     management.
                       National curriculum              conservation education that      SPC provided training on fish
                       development                      could be taught as part of a     counts.
                                                        course or module at SICHE
                       Enhance SICHE School of
                       Natural Resources courses        Encourage & allow NGO staff
                                                        to participate in
                       Drama troupe eg Wan              environmental programmes
                       Smolbag for touring              or workshops organised by
                       provinces & spreading            Govt ministries.
                       messages.
                                                        Work with NGOs such as
                       Integrate conservation into      Oxfam to share skills &
                       the school curriculum & in       access skills in other
                       formal & informal training.      countries such as PNG

                                                        Look at opportunities through
                                                        SPC & USP & SICHE for
                                                        training & education.

                                                        TNC has access to wider
                                                        organisational network for
                                                        training & services.

                                                        NGOs invite schools &
                                                      students on look & learn
                                                      opportunities.

                                                      NGOs participate in
                                                      curriculum development

                                                      FSPI offering training to
                                                      Village Development Worker
                                                      on CC issues to work at
                                                      community level.

                                                      FSPI signed MOU with USP
                                                      for scholarships for
                                                      graduates.

                                                      FSPI In-house training on
                                                      marine related issues &
                                                      exchanges within country
                                                      programmes.

                                                      Improved partnerships with
                                                      NGOs & DAL & communities
                                                      for knowledge sharing &
                                                      transfer of skills.

                                                      Oxfam utilises expertise in-
                                                      country, around the region &
                                                      within the Oxfam International
                                                      network for short term training
                                                      of staff & partners, either in
                                                      the country or externally.
Human &               EU Stabex funds (for forest     NGOs have access to               WWF is taking a closer look
Financial Resources   conservation programme)         broader organisational            at recruitment & making
                                                      networks & expertise for          stronger linkages with other
                      WWF network for expertise       developing skills.                NGOS & UNDP.

                      Volunteer organisations (AVI,   NGOs able to share skills.        TNC is accessing Australian
                      CUSO, Japan) for technical                                        Youth Ambassador to
                      support                         CI supports efforts of other      undertake role as partnership
                                                      NGOs such as TDA & MCCF           coordinator
                      Networking & partnerships to
                      deliver the needed human        Need short term consultancy       TNC is taking on a
                      resources & financial           services & training of local      coordinator for the Arnavons
                      resources for NGOs.             counterparts to fill gaps in      Marine Conservation Area.
                                                      human resources.
                                                                                        Lauru Land Conference a
                                                      NGOs look to private              successful community NRM
                                                      foundations for funding.          model

                                                      EU Microprojects & CSP are        Australian Business
                                                      potential sources of funding      Volunteer possibly provide
                                                      for NGOs & communities            some technical advice on
                                                      projects such as NTFP &           KGA projects.
                                                      ecoforestry.

                                                      There is value in being part of
                                                      a larger network (the NRRC,
                                                      network of experts in-country
                                                      & around the region, Oxfam
                                                      Australia & Oxfam NZ & a
                                                  Reference Group of local
                                                  experts) to provide the
                                                  necessary advice &
                                                  assistance.
Coordination &   Govt should invite NGOs to       Access existing organisations    Need to target communities&
Collaboration    the table for participation in   & networks – Economic            landowners – bottom up
                 policy & programme               Association of Solomon           approach
                 development & analysis           Islands, NRRC & develop
                                                  working relationships with
                 Need regular meetings of         govt agencies.
                 CCOSI
                                                  Establish a National
                 Reduce duplication in the        Protection Authority
                 number of groups &
                 committees                       SISDAC & national planning
                                                  body to work closely.
                 Need a strong coordinating
                 body – need common               Need coordination in the
                 understanding & greater          ecoforestry sector –
                 communication.                   stakeholders, agents, sellers,
                                                  millers, shippers.
                 Remove duplication of effort,
                 & decentralise efforts

                 Partnerships – meet regularly
                 to strengthen partnerships –
                 include education institutions
                 – trying to change attitudes.

                 Networking & in partnerships
                 govt to talk & listen to
                 community practitioners

                 Govt should be more active
                 in networks such as SILMMA
                 to raise national &
                 international awareness of
                 issues. (Fiji LLMA a good
                 model of success).

                 MOU between NGOs & govt.

                 If national & provincial govts
                 & NGOs are active &
                 concerned to reach rural
                 dwellers with info, they could
                 collaborate to have their info
                 sheets, etc delivered by
                 visiting NGOs or govt field
                 officers.
Reporting        Improve communication &          Copies of annual reports,        Capacity building for
                 establish an office for          data, workshop reports,          communities to be able to
                 dissemination of information     surveys etc should be            report on issues of
                                                  submitted to the govt            importance to them
                                                                                   TNC invited by SIG to attend
                                                  NGO/Govt agency MOUs.            COP 8 in Brazil.
                                                                                   Establish Community
                                                  Need to expand MOUs to           Management committees
                                                  include other agencies.
                                                                                                    Appendix 5
Summary Analysis of Organisational Requirements under the Environment Act and the Wildlife Protection
and Management Act (Source: 2004 HRD Assessment of ECD - SPREP, AusAID, AVI)

Key area & Functions                            Current Status                             Comments
Interagency co-ordination                       NIL                                        A system is required to promote
                                                                                           discussion, co-ordination and
The Director may advise any public authority    Environmental responsibilities are not
                                                                                           accountability at the highest level.
on Performance Targets”. (Part 11.sect 9)       well defined between agencies and
                                                few agencies have determined their
                                                Performance targets for environment
                                                or are held accountable for such
                                                targets.
Organisational Structure                        Current structure attached                 A review is required to determine
                                                                                           whether the organisation’s function is
                                                                                           most effectively served by a
                                                                                           Department or an independent
                                                                                           Statutory Authority.
Environmental Regulations                       NIL                                        Urgently required.
To prescribe: Application forms and
processes; forms and contents for E I
Statements & environmental reports; import
and export licenses. Appeal processes; Fees
and charges, Record keeping; license forms;
stop notices and pollution abatement notices.
Discharge and other standards for vehicles
and vessels; Penalties; Registration of
scientific organisations
Environment Advisory Committee                  NIL                                        Terms of Reference to be developed
To advise the Division or Minister,                                                        Committee to be established
specifically on technical matters
                                                                                           Training required on roles and
                                                                                           responsibilities
Director’s Position                             Established and filled position.           Technical Assistance required in
                                                                                           developing a strategic plan for the
Manage and control the Division; Advise the     Frequent absence of the Director at
                                                                                           department.
Minister; Promote co-ordination among           International Conferences and
Ministries and govt Divisions; develop, co-     Conventions, limits his capacity to
ordinate and facilitate Environmental Policy;   focus on operational matters.
Monitor, advise on international
                                                Limited environmental policy
developments and obligations; Review and
                                                developed.
ensure development of legislation; Ensure
community participation                         Legislation recently enacted.
Revise and amend national environmental         No previous state of environmental
strategies and programmes as necessary;         report made. Limited baseline data on
Submit three year report on State of            state of environment available. No
Environment                                     established systems or forums for co-
                                                ordination of environmental activities
                                                (see 1 above).
HR Management processes                         A position of Deputy Director was          Potential for position to be filled by a
                                                approved and has been frozen.              volunteer, with responsibilities to
Departmental operations; provide leadership
                                                                                           develop and institutionalise
and promote teamwork and staff motivation.      Staff living the legacy of four years of
                                                                                           appropriate staff management
                                                civil strife and deteriorating
Responsible for HR and HRD function;                                                       systems; identify and implement
Orientation; Promote learning; OH&S             conditions of service.                     systems for motivating staff, develop
                                                                                           team work and creating a culture of
Performance Management                          Staff meetings have not been held for
                                                                                           learning.
                                                four years, and information sharing
Ensuring work plans developed and carried
                                                and co-ordination between staff is
out
                                                poor. Staff requiring leadership and
Monitoring and evaluating progress              direction. Position descriptions poorly
                                                defined. No processes of work
Providing feedback,                             planning, or accountability. Limited
Provide coaching and on the job training;       on the job coaching and training, or
                                                career planning. Few links between
Ensuring work standards are met;                training opportunities, financial
Provide discipline                              compensation and work performance
                                                or attendance. Limited motivational
                                                factors within the system.
Human Resource Development                      NIL                                        Some of these processes will be either
                                                                                           in place or planned on completion of
Key elements of HRD structure and systems
                                                                                           this project. Others will be addressed
would include:
                                                                                           through an HRD Manual in June.
A Strategic plan; Position descriptions
aligned with the plan; Performance
Management Process; TNA based on all
three above; Range of learning opportunities;
Effective selection processes; Effective
implementation & dissemination; Evaluation;
Data management & analysis; Co-ordination
Administration                                  Treasury responsible for collection        Strong argument for ECD to have its
                                                and receipting of all monies from          own administrative unit, with
Budget and financial management; Develop
                                                permits. No financial reporting made       delegated responsibilities. However,
& manage financial systems for
                                                to ECD.                                    such change is unlikely failing Public
permit/licensing fees; provide financial
                                                                                           Service Reform.
reports on funding received and required;       Project money managed by Director
Ensure budget reconciliation; Stores            or project co-ordinators.
requisition/ management; Equipment
                                                Ministry Natural Resources has a
maintenance; Travel and transport
                                                centralised Administration Unit for
arrangements; Staff records
                                                stores and staff records. Stores,
                                                including stationery, have been
                                                unavailable for several months due to
                                                financial restraints. Stationary sourced
                                                from project funds.
                                                No asset registry available. Limited
                                                office equipment.
Environmental economics                         Environmental initiatives are              An economic review is required to
                                                constrained by lack of funding. There      make recommendations on
Improved valuation and pricing of
                                                appear to be no conscious links            appropriate resource allocation, taking
environmental resources. (Part 11 Sect.
                                                between income generated through the       into consideration the commercial
6(2)(d))
                                                use of natural and physical resources,     value of natural and physical
                                                (and even the permit and licensing         resources and the costs required to
                                                funds collected for the use,               ensure sustainability through
                                                development and export of natural          conservation activities.
                                                resources) and the funds required to
                                                                                           This is unlikely failing Public Service
                                                ensure sustainability i.e.
                                                                                           Reform.
                                                environmental research/ education/
                                                community development activities.


Data management                                 Nil                                        Support is required in establishing
                                                                                           data base(s) and in data analysis in the
Develop database and ensure regular analysis    All Permits frozen pending
                                                                                           following areas: EIA Statements &
of permits given, to whom, where and for        development of Regulations. No            environmental reports; import and
what. Analysis made to prevent exploitation     records maintained.                       export licenses; stop notices and
and ensure sustainability                                                                 pollution abatement notices;
                                                No data analysis to date.
                                                                                          Registration of scientific
                                                                                          organisations; complaints; HRD.
                                                                                          Training is required in data
                                                                                          management and analysis.
Development control, EIA, Review and            Staffing consists of Snr Environment      Regulations required to prescribe
Monitoring                                      Officer and Environment Officer.          systems.
Receive, assess and process all project         SEO is currently on 12 months study       Training required in systems.
development applications                        leave completing MA in EIA. Many
                                                                                          Additional staffing required as
                                                staff from this and other agencies have
Issue/refuse permits accordingly.                                                         Environmental Inspectors
                                                attended in country workshops on EIA
Monitor projects/development according to       and have the basic awareness and
the approval conditions                         conceptual understanding of what is
                                                required, if not the practical
Conduct environmental monitoring
                                                experience.
Maintain adequate records
                                                Technical support is available from
                                                SPREP and other Regional
                                                organisations
                                                Position description needs to be
                                                revised as current responsibilities do
                                                not include functions of an
                                                Environmental Inspector
                                                No environmental
                                                monitoring/surveillance activity.
                                                Staffing numbers inadequate for the
                                                role.
                                                All staff are concentrated in Honiara.
Complaints management                           NIL                                       Complaints data- base needs to be
                                                                                          established and staff trained in its
Accept, register and respond to complaints re
                                                                                          management.
environmental concerns/development
activities etc.                                                                           Community to be informed of facility.
                                                                                          However, a complaints process can
Utilise data analysis to inform environmental
                                                                                          only be useful if adequate staff and
strategy and to monitor staff performance.
                                                                                          vehicle available to investigate and
                                                                                          follow up on complaints and if
                                                                                          funding available to manage
                                                                                          environmental projects in response to
                                                                                          those complaints. A complaints
                                                                                          system without the resources to
                                                                                          resolve the complaints would
                                                                                          contribute to public cynicism and staff
                                                                                          disempowerment.
Environmental Planning                          No environmental plan in existence.       Project assistance required to develop
                                                                                          an environmental plan for SI.
Establish a plan and processes for making       EO has had training in GIS.
decisions relevant to the environment,
                                                Currently has no GIS equipment.
incorporating information acquired through
surveying, remote sensing, data mapping,        No capacity to complete plan
mapinfo and GIS.                                independently.
Disseminate this plan to all other related
agencies.
Developing and monitoring standards to          Limited research completed.               Research required in many areas of
promote sustainable development (Part 11         Standards are not available. Limited     environment to develop standards.
6(c))                                            monitoring of standards. Limited co-
                                                 operation with other govt departments.
Ensuring baseline data available on natural
                                                 ECD facilitates research by various
and physical resources
                                                 donor bodies.
Determining standards available on use and
development of natural resources.
Liaising with govt and non-govt agencies to
ensure standards are adhered to.
Management of world heritage properties          A Senior Conservation Officer            World heritage properties need to be
                                                 (Diploma in Wildlife Reserve             identified and declared
                                                 Management) and a Wildlife Officer
                                                                                          Regulations required for Park
                                                 (certificate in Protected Area
                                                                                          Management.
                                                 Management) have responsibility for
                                                 conservation management.                 Local staff employed and trained as
                                                                                          rangers and communities educated.
                                                 No world heritage sites declared.
                                                 Many sanctuaries/ reserves have been
                                                 declared historically but are un
                                                 managed. ECD manages one marine
                                                 conservation area in Isobel Province.
                                                 Prior to the “tensions” eco-tourism
                                                 was being used to encourage
                                                 protection of certain (water-
                                                 catchment) areas. This will be re-
                                                 instigated at some stage.
Pollution control                                S E O and EO have responsibilities for   Staffing numbers inadequate for role.
                                                 pollution, but no work being done on     Systems need to be developed.
To develop, establish and administer systems
                                                 waste/pollution control.                 Training required. Monitoring
of prevention and control of pollution in both
                                                                                          equipment required.
the industrial and non industrial sectors:
                                                                                          Community and govt education
Co-ordinate response with other govt             POPS project funding pending will
                                                                                          programme required.
agencies; Disseminate standards on what is       provide for the appointment of a
acceptable and unacceptable levels of            project officer and assistant.
emission; Ensure emissions are monitored by
appropriate body; Manage licensing system
for discharge of waste; Manage system of
abatement notices and stop notices for
discharge of waste.
Conservation of biological diversity and         National Bio-diversity Strategy and      Review of current status of project
ecological integrity                             Action Plan was initiated through        required urgently and if possible, a
                                                 UNEP project funding. However, no        Bio diversity Officer appointed under
Baseline data required.
                                                 project co-ordinator appointed and       project.
                                                 project stalled.


Monitoring and controlling the import            Senior Conservation Officer and          Regulations required (see above)
and export of all fauna and flora.               Wildlife Officer responsible. Position
                                                                                          Review of position descriptions
                                                 descriptions do not reflect new
Regulation through permits and                                                            required.
                                                 responsibilities.
authorisation; Monitoring and surveillance
                                                                                          Training required in systems and
through Inspectors, (Customs and Police);        Current freeze on all permits pending
                                                                                          protocols. Co-ordination systems
Liaison with Customs and Police; Public          development of Regulations. Limited
                                                                                          required with Customs and Police.
Information on regulations; Research into the    funding for implementation. Limited
                                                                                          ECD has a role in ensuring that these
status of animals and plants threatened with     research into threatened species.
                                                                                          officers are well informed on the
extinction; Development and management of
                                                 No previous data on permits              extent of their responsibilities under
statistical data- base relative to import and
                                                 maintained.                              the Act, and well skilled in their
export of flora and fauna.
                                                                                          implementation. Specifically,
                                                                                         Customs Officers will need to be able
                                                                                         to recognise Schedule 1 and Schedule
                                                                                         11 Flora and Fauna and be aware of
                                                                                         the ECD permitting procedures.
                                                                                         Data- base required and training in
                                                                                         data base management. Research into
                                                                                         threatened species required.
                                                                                         Communication strategy required to
                                                                                         inform public.
Community development and                       Some community development as a          Extensive community development
participation                                   result of specific projects, eg. IWP;    limited by lack of a strategic plan for
                                                parks establishment; turtle protection   community development; lack of staff
Promoting the informed participation of
                                                etc. IWP staff have received             and other resources. Continued
traditional landowners, and community
                                                extensive practical training in          training required to establish a
groups in the development and management
                                                facilitation skills.                     network of trained community
of environmental policy, planning &
                                                                                         facilitators in all provinces.
implementation.                                 Limited routine and/or strategic
                                                involvement of non-government
Developing effective working relationships
                                                organisations/ interest groups in
with a full range of all stakeholders.
                                                developing environmental policy and
                                                strategy.
Library and resources.                          Environment Officer responsible for      Library and resources could be
                                                library and information management.      married to an administrative function
Cataloguing all existing and incoming books,
                                                SPREP consultant has assisted in         in the event an environmental
publications, and resource materials;
                                                developing data-base and indexing        administrative unit were to be
Promoting the use of environmental library
                                                systems. Neglected area and library      established. Continued support from
facilities in the community.
                                                currently not functional.                SPREP required.


Community education and awareness               Individual officers are expected to      If ECD is to ensure community
                                                include community education within       awareness of and compliance to
A Community education and awareness
                                                their duties. This does not routinely    environmental legislation, policy and
strategy that:
                                                happen. No designated staff person       strategy it must win the hearts and
Identifies key target groups, including rural   responsible for co-ordination or         minds of the community through
and isolated communities; Identifies key        developing education strategy or         education. The culture of SI does not
environmental messages; Identifies a range      materials. Limited educational           lend itself to enforcement, given the
of strategies, according to the intended        resources available. Limited skills in   power of the wantok system and tribal
outcomes and target group; Schedules            community education and awareness.       affiliations.
outputs; The development of a range of
materials and programmes; Conduct and
evaluation of the strategy; Ongoing
education of staff in community education
skills.


Provincial Government and outer islands         NIL                                      An organisational review is required
                                                                                         to determine the structure and staffing
To ensure that environmental legislation,
                                                                                         required to enable environmental
policy and strategy is disseminated,
                                                                                         management
promoted, enacted and monitored in all
sectors of the country.
                                                                                                Appendix 6

        Summary of ECD Training Needs, the preferred process and the resources required
                     (Source: 2004 HRD Assessment of ECD - SPREP, AusAID, AVI)
Issue           Outcomes                                                                 Process         Resources
                                                                                                         required
Environment     -   Are clear on the role of the Committee                               Workshop
Advisory        -   Establish trust amongst themselves.                                  Training
Committee       -   Are clear on their responsibilities as committee members             Manual
                -   Have knowledge of environmental legislation, particularly as it
                    applies to the Council
                -   Have adequate knowledge on the structure, role and functions of
                    the Department of Conservation and Environment
                -   Understand the role of the Director
                -   Have knowledge and skills to establish effective reporting and
                    communication systems with the Director and the Department
                -   Have an awareness of international and local environmental
                    issues
                -   Have knowledge of International Conventions and Agreements.
                -   Are familiar with basic principles of Environmental Impact
                    Assessment
                -   Are skilled in effective meeting management
                -   Are skilled in evaluating the Performance of the Board in
                    fulfilling its Terms of Reference.
                -   Are skilled in negotiation

Environmental   -   Knowledge of the Acts and the Regulations (the latter are yet to     Workshop
Law                 be developed)                                                        conducted by
                -   The application of the Acts to their role                            the Office of
                -   Promoting community awareness and compliance with the                the Attorney
                    legislation                                                          General in
                -   Seeking advice from Attorney General and other law                   collaboration
                    enforcement bodies, including the Police and Customs, when           with Customs
                    necessary                                                            and the
                -   Skills in negotiating agreement, particularly in difficult or        Police.
                    sensitive situations, or with difficult people.


Strategic       -   A commitment to the need to work with other departments and          Attachment to
planning:           organisations to ensure environmental policy is reflected in their   Department
National            strategic planning.                                                  Conservation
                -   Skills in negotiating Performance Agreements                         in New
                -   Skills in monitoring progress on the implementation of Strategic     Zealand
                    Plans                                                                Manual
                -   Skills in auditing
                -   Skills in reporting

Strategic       -   Identifying and consulting with the customers of the                 Technical
Planning:           Department of Environment                                            Advisor
Departmental    -   Integrating the requirements of the Acts, International
                    Agreements and responsibilities and the consultation process
                    into the development of a strategic plan.
                -   Ensuring that position descriptions are aligned with the
                    implementation of the strategic plan.
                -   Ensuring that Performance Management processes promote
                    accountability for implementation.
                -   Evaluating the plan.
Human            -   Staff and performance management to include work-planning,            Technical   Public Service
Resource             work monitoring, feedback, coaching and problem solving.              Advisor     Reform
Management       -   Effective orientation processes, on the job training and HRD                      required to
                 -   Effective motivational strategies                                                 support
                 -   Team work                                                                         effective HRM

Control of       -   Completing application forms and processing systems                   Technical   A vehicle
Development,     -   Reporting and permitting systems                                      Advisor
EIA and          -   Processes, forms and contents for E I Statements &                    Manual
Environmental        environmental reports;
Planning         -   Advising on Appeal processes
                 -   Applying Fees and charges to be levied
                 -   Record keeping
                 -   Applying Penalties
                 -   Processes of prosecution
                 -   Analysing a situation to determine if it will have an effect on the
                     environment. This implies the:
                      Importance of protecting rare & endangered species
                      Identification of rare & endangered species
                      Knowledge of risks & consequences imposed to:
                              o Foreshores & coastal waters
                              o Internal waters
                              o The value of wetlands
                 -   Using field trips to monitor, investigate and follow up on
                     observed concerns
                 -   The capacity to collect evidence (use a camera)
                 -   The capacity to manage difficult issues with the public and
                     other organisations
                 -   The capacity to negotiate agreement.

Pollution        -   Education and Awareness Activities relative to pollution control      Technical   National
Control          -   Community development activities to promote community                 advisor     Integrated
                     management of pollution.                                              Manual      Waste
                 -   Standards of what is acceptable and unacceptable levels of                        Management
                     emission                                                                          Plan;
                 -   Disseminating standards to other organisations                                    Infrastructure to
                 -   Ensuring emissions are monitored by the acceptable body                           support waste
                 -   Monitoring, control and surveillance procedures                                   management
                 -   Prosecution procedures                                                            including
                 -   Using field trips to monitor, investigate and follow up on                        sewerage
                     observed concerns                                                                 treatment
                 -   The capacity to collect evidence                                                  facilities; a new
                 -   The capacity to manage difficult issues with the public and                       dump; adequate
                     other organisations                                                               garbage
                 -   The capacity to negotiate agreement.                                              collection
                                                                                                       services;
                                                                                                       recycling
                                                                                                       facilities.
                                                                                                       Policies and
                                                                                                       Regulations;
                                                                                                       Monitoring
                                                                                                       equipment;
                                                                                                       Vehicle.

Wildlife                                                                                   Technical
Conservation     Monitoring of Exports                                                     Advisor
and protection   - Skills in Processing of applications for export/import                  Manual
                 - Permitting systems and conditions
                 - Fees and record keeping
                  -   Inspection processes
                  -   The identification and monitoring of key flora, fauna, corals,
                      turtles, crabs, clams, plants and birds
                  -   Arrest and Prosecution Processes
                  -   Negotiation skills and managing potentially conflicting
                      situations
                  -   Developing team- work approach with Customs and the Police
                      Force.

                  Conservation
                  - Skills in implementing cultural values and practices in to protect
                     natural resources
                  - Skills in biological surveys of key species and ecosystems.
                  - Skills in conducting periodic assessments of major changes and
                     trends to the natural resources

Community         -   A commitment to community education and awareness                      Technical      Audio –visual
Education and         activities                                                             Advisor        equipment
Awareness         -   An annual schedule of education and awareness activities for a                        Stationary
                      range of target groups                                                                Power Point
                  -   The development, delivery and evaluation of a range of                                Projector
                      different education initiatives
                  -   Ability to use knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages
                      of a range of different media, relevant to the target group and
                      the desired outcomes.
                  -   Skills in drafting press releases
                  -   Skills in desktop publishing
                  -   Skills in creating videos
                  -   Skills in utilising radio (information and talk back)
                  -   Skills in conducting Environment Days
                  -   Skills in developing educational packages
                  -   Skills in Train the Trainer.

Data Analysis     -   The value of data management and analysis in determining the           Short course   Integrated
                      strategic direction of the Organisation                                               computer
                  -   The development of a data- base                                                       system
                  -   Data analysis.

Control of        -   Working effectively with a range of authorities in seeking the         Academic
Protected Areas       designation of areas as protected areas.                               Study
                  -   Promoting community advocacy of protected areas.
                  -   Managing the political arena to achieve support and
                      commitment to protected areas.
                  -   Promoting more equitable valuation of the environment, taking
                      into consideration aesthetic, health, cultural and social interests.

				
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