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    Social Marketing:
    An Introduction
    Sara Ackerman, MPH, PhD
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    What is Social Marketing?


       The use of concepts and strategies
     from commercial marketing to influence
         individual and social practices,
        with a goal of improved human or
              environmental health
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    How does social marketing differ
    from commercial marketing?
      similar strategies:
      both sell products, ideas, practices




      different goals:
      profit vs. health or well being
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    Social marketing is not the same as
         social media marketing!
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“Social marketing
critically examines
commercial
marketing so as to
learn from its
successes and curb
its excesses.”
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    www.adbusters.org
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    Dominant behavior change
    communications campaigns aim to:

        PROTECT             WARN
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    PROTECT   WARN
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    Beyond warn and protect…
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            …integrating interests of the
            audience with those of the
            sponsor…




photo credit: www.adpunch.org
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        Social marketing can be used to
        influence:

individual                         behaviors
social  processes
   and norms
policies

institutional                           practices

image credit: http://culturegenderhealth.blogspot.com/
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    Social marketing draws on
    methods and theories from:
      Anthropology

      Behavioral   economics
      Design

      Persuasive   technology research
      Public   health
      Social   psychology
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    Social marketing strategies are
    used to:
      Develop   communication campaigns

      AND…
      Design   educational materials
      Improve   services
      Re-design   structural/environmental
      conditions
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    Some health topics that have been
    addressed by social marketing:
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    Why might social marketing be

    more difficult than commercial

             marketing?
 You’re trying to influence
 people to do things they
  are uncomfortable with,
don’t want to do, or can’t do
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    social marketing
     principles and
        methods
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        focus on audience

• Do you really know what’s
  best for your audience?


• Start by engaging and
  understanding your
  audience



photo credit: Ian
Webster
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      audience insight

    •formative research

    •process and outcome evaluation using
    “participant observation” and other
    qualitative methods
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audience segmentation
    • one size fits all solution rarely works
      for complex behaviors
    • “psychographics”:
        values
        interests
        activities
        opinions
        geographic location
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           your audience/
           target may be:
    • people whom you want to do
      something different
    • enablers
    • barriers
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         how are audience
         segments chosen?
    • persuadable?
    • size and potential impact
    • need
    • influence on primary audience
    • accessibility
    • resources needed to reach audience
    • equity/social justice considerations
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       exchange

       what I need for target audience
                      vs.
    what they desire, care about, aspire to
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    exchange




               image credit: http://bit.ly/nvfY0Z
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+
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     questioning the “rational man”
    theory of exchange




                     Image credit: Fairfax County, Virginia: http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/hd/flu/
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“Marketing Mix”/4Ps
1.   PRODUCT and its presumed
     benefit

2.   PRICE, or what audience has to do
     to obtain product

3.   PLACE, or how product reaches
     audience

4.   PROMOTION, or strategy to
     create and sustain demand for
     product
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      4Ps +
5.   PUBLICS

6.   PARTNERSHIP

7.   POLICY

8.   PURSE STRINGS

9.   POLITICS
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     Critique of 4Ps
1.   Checklist?

2.   The 4Ps are not behavior change tools

3.   What about barriers/benefits?
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    Alternatives to 4Ps
Community-Based Social Marketing:

-   behavior change via addressing
    barriers

-   less focus on attitudes & beliefs




                                        http://www.cbsm.com/public/world.lasso
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Total Process Planning
Model




                 image and content credit: UK Alcohol Learning Centre
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    SCOPE                              DEVELOP
       Identify and consult with         Look at current services
        stakeholders
                                          Involve stakeholders
       Conduct preliminary research
                                          Look at similar or competing
       Learn about your audience          programs – how will they
                                           reinforce or undermine your
        using qualitative methods          project?
       Segment your audience             Use theory appropriate to
                                           problem and audience
       Decide on research methods
                                          Develop barrier and exchange
       Develop evaluation                 model
        procedures
                                          Test your project
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    IMPLEMENT                        EVALUATE

       Use a range of strategies       PROCESS and OUTCOME
        and tailor campaign to           equally important.
        audience segments                 Process evaluation:
                                           insight into deviations
       Conduct process evaluation         from plan; understand
        to determine if program is         what produced observed
        being implemented as               outcomes
        planned and how people
                                          Outcome evaluation: did
        are responding
                                           you reach target
       Continue working with              audience; did desired
        stakeholders                       outcome occur?
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    FOLLOW-UP

       Share/disseminate best
        practices

       Continue to track outcomes
        and assess sustainability of
        target behavior
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    theories/explanatory models used
    in social marketing

    individual                     social/relational
       Social Cognitive Theory       social theory: citizenship,
                                       subjectivity, embodiment,
       Health Belief Model            social/symbolic capital, power,
                                       historical context
       Stages of Change
                                      social network analysis
       Diffusion of Innovations
                                      coalition/collaboration (PAR)

                                      social justice, environmental
                                       justice
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    critiques of social marketing



                individual


           social, economic,
           environmental,
           institutional context
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    Historical changes in
    smoking practices in U.S.
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        SM relies too heavily on
        psychological behavior
           change theories

    “One principle that distinguishes the best
    social marketers is an unrelenting
    understanding, empathy and advocacy of the
    perspective of our priority population or
    community that is not slanted by what the
    theory or research evidence does or does not
    tell us.”
              - Craig Lefebvre
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        Health behaviors are
        “wicked problems”!
    Effective change programs do not ONLY
      communicate persuasive messages.

      They also try to modify the context
        using multi-faceted strategies.




                                            photo credit:
                                            NY Times, Dec.13, 2009
+ Another example of redesigning the
   environment to promote behavior
   change
+
    Unintended consequences
    of social marketing:
       Australia’s Slip Slop Slap campaign
       to prevent skin cancer
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    Case Study:
            Cleanyourhands campaign
             UK National Social
             Marketing Center (NSMC)

     Social    marketing strategies

       Scale
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    NSMC hand hygiene project in a
    Scottish hospital
 hand    hygiene compliance high, but hospital acquired
    infections increasing

 running    out of new ways to “sell” hand hygiene

 carrot  not stick – need to persuade
    people that it’s in their interests to comply

Project:

 tailored   interventions

 “clean   leaders”
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    NSMC hand hygiene project in a
    Scottish hospital
    WHO 5 moments depiction: great in principle
    but not in practice
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    alternative representation of 5 moments:
+




           and
 gel: myths
 dispensers

 canpatients
 remind staff to
 clean hands?

 clean   zones



                   image and content credit: UK National Social Marketing Centre
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    Case Study #2:
       Copenhagen cycling
       campaign
Goal:

        increase commuting by bicycle to:
        - reduce pollution and congestion
        - improve public health

Strategy:

      - foster and spread “bicycle culture”
      - change infrastructure to reduce
barriers to    cycling
                         photo and content credit: City of Copenhagen Technical and Environmental Administration
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    infrastructure
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    bicycle culture




                      http://www.copenhagencyclechic.com/
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        outcomes

       2010: 37% of people in greater Copenhagen
        commuted by bike

       planners’ goal: 50% by 2015

       public satisfaction with cycling
              1995: 17%
              2004: 83%
              2010: 94%

       survey: why do you cycle?
           55% it’s faster
           33% it’s more convenient
           32% it’s healthy
           29% it’s cheap
+
    Thank you!




                 photo credit: William Couch

				
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posted:7/24/2012
language:English
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