Two factor theory of emotion

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					Two factor theory of emotion

      By Mr Daniel Hansson
                  Questions
1. What would be your subjective experience and
     bodily changes (heart beat, breathing) if you:
a) Heard that your best friend is in a hospital
     because of a car accident?
b) Learn that you have been accepted to a top
     university?
c) Are attacked by a vicious dog in a dark soi?
2. In what way are the cognitive and biological
     reactions similar for these scenarios? In what
     way are they different?
   Schachter & Singer’s two factor
         theory of emotion
• We need two factors
  to feel emotional.
  One is physiological
  arousal, the other is
  attribution (appraisal,
  cues in the
  environment of how
  we should feel)
• Without arousal or
  attributions we will not
  experience any
  emotion
   The order of the emotional
components in two factor theory of
            emotion


External stimulus = General physiological
   arousal = Cognitive appraisal of arousal
   (attribution) = Subjective experience of
   emotion = Behaviour
   Hypotheses in the Schachter &
        Singer experiment
• The labelling of
  arousal will depend
  on the situation if
  there is no other
  explanation
• If a reason for arousal
  is known the
  participant will not
  look for another
  reason
• No arousal will result
  in no emotion
                  Sample

• 184 male college
  psychology students
• Received credits
  towards finals
• Health records
  checked
                  Method
• Controlled experiment
• At the start of the experiment, all
  participants had an injection of
  epinephrine (causes shaky hands,
  pounding heart, increased breathing)
• Experimenter pretended that they were
  investigating “side effects of “Suproxin”
  (pretend vitamin)
       Information of effects -
             conditions
• EPI informed: Participants were informed of the
  real effects of epinephrine
• EPI misinformed: Participants were misinformed
  of the effects of epinephrine (instead were told
  that there would be itching, numb feet,
  headaches)
• EPI ignorant: Participants were told that there
  would be no side effects
• Control group: Participants were injected a
  placebo (a saline solution with no side effects)
        Condition - Euphoric
• Participants from the different information
  of effect conditions were put in a waiting
  room with a stooge, one at a time for 20
  minutes (EPI effects last 15-20 minutes)
• Stooge was friendly, played with paper
  (basketball, aeroplanes)
          Condition - Angry
• Same but had to complete questionnaire
  during 20 mins
• Stooge moaned about injections
• Personal; questions, e.g. “Do you bathe
  and wash regularly?”
• Stooge angry, ripped up questionnaire, left
               Question
• Which group should be most affected by
  the stooge’s behaviour? Based on
  Schachter & Singer’s theory and
  hypotheses, order the groups from most
  angry/happy to least angry/happy: EPI
  informed, EPI misinformed, EPI ignorant,
  Control group
          Procedure for both
• Experimenter returns,
  takes pulse
• Participants are
  asked to complete a
  questionnaire
• Participants are
  debriefed
       Crucial questions on the
            questionnaire
• Euphoric condition: 5 point scale – 0=“I
  don’t feel happy at all or good” – 4=“I feel
  extremely happy and good”
• Angry condition: 5 point scale – 0=“I don’t
  feel at all irritated or angry” – 4=“I feel
  extremely irritated and angry”
• The measure of emotion was decided by
  deducting the self rating of anger from the
  self raing of happiness
                Question
1. If you were very happy in this
   experiment, would you get a low or a
   high score?
2. If you were very angry in this experiment,
   would get a low or a high score?
     Results table- Euphoric
Condition     Number of P’s    Self report
                               Happiness
                              minus anger
Informed           25              .98

Misinformed        25             1.9

Ignorant           25            1.78

Control            25            1.61
      Results table – Anger
Condition     Number of P’s   Self-report
                              (happiness
                              minus anger)
Informed      22              1.91

Misinformed   0

Ignorant      23              1.39

Control       23              1.63
                Question
• Compare the results with your predictions.
  To what extent do the results support the
  two factor theory of emotion?
                Controls
• Double blind – stooge did not know what
  condition the participant was in
• Data questionnaire included irrelevant
  questions, e.g. current mental health.
  Some questions open-ended
• 11 participants expressed suspicion – data
  was taken out
    Methodological evaluation
+ Participants were
  randomly allocated to
  different conditions
+ Procedure was
  standardized
+ Stooge did not know
  which condition the
  participant was in
       Methodological evaluation
- No assessment of the subjects’
   emotional state before the
   experiment, or the emotional
   effect of receiving an injection
- Experiment lacked ecological
   validity. Injection of
   epinephrine does not produce
   the experience of a true
   emotion
- Sample might not be
   representative
(male college students taking
   introductory psychology at the
   university of Minnesota)
           Ethical evaluation

-Participants were not
   informed about the
   purpose of the
   experiment
- Participants were
   injected epinephrine
   without consent
           Ethical evaluation

+ Participants were
  given health checks
  before the experiment

+ Participants were
  debriefed after the
  experiment
                   Activity

• Do the multi-choice quiz
  and matching quizzes of
  the study on:

  http://www.holah.karoo
  .net/schachter.htm

				
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posted:7/24/2012
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