Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Chlamydia, HPV, Gonorrhea, Hepatitis B, Herpes Simplex I & II, Syphilis, and Crabs/Scabies Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Teens Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Teens -In the U.S., 1 in 4 sexually active teens become infected with an STD every year.2 Some common STIs are chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital warts (also known as HPV - human papillomavirus), and herpes. (Facts in Brief: Teen Sex and Pregnancy, The Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York, 1996). Bacterial vs Viral STIs Common STDs that Common STDs that can be treated and can be treated but cured NOT cured Chlamydia Herpes Simplex I & II Gonorrhea HPV (Genital Warts) Hepatitis B Syphilis HIV/AIDS These STDs are These STDs are caused by bacteria caused by a virus Chlamydia What is it? An infection of the penis, vagina, throat, or tube that carries urine. Caused by bacteria (a kind of germ). Get it by having sex or close sexual contact with someone who has Chlamydia. Chlamydia can be spread by the vagina, penis, mouth, or anus. Signs and Symptoms Most people do not have any signs; best way to find out is to have a test done. A few people may have these signs: Thick yellow/clear discharge from penis or vagina Pain or burning when they urinate Pain during sex For women, bleeding between periods and during or after sex Long Term Effects Chlamydia can be cured. If not treated: You could pass it on to others. You have a higher chance of getting HIV The vagina or penis could hurt and swell. Continued… A woman with untreated chlamydia could get an infection that causes scars in her uterus or in the fallopian tubes If this happens: – She could have an ectopic pregnancy) – She could get PID – She might become sterile – If a woman has chlamydia while she is pregnant, chlamydia could harm the baby's eyes or lungs during birth. Treatment To cure chlamydia: You may take antibiotics You may take it in one dose or you may take pills for a week You and your partner(s) must get treated Take all of your pills, even if feel better Do not have sex for at least one week after you start your treatment Gonorrhea Spread during vaginal, anal and oral sex Symptoms show up after 2 – 21 days Most women and some men have no symptoms Continued… Possible Symptoms: Pain when they urinate or have a bowel movement A yellow discharge from the penis or vagina For men, pain in the testicles For women, pain or tenderness in the abdomen A sore throat Long Term Effects Can be cured, but if you don’t get it treated then: can pass it on to others joints/vagina/penis may swell and hurt A woman could get an infection that causes scars in her uterus/fallopian tubes. If this happens: ectopic pregnancy pelvic pain and infection (PID) might become sterile could harm the baby’s eyes during birth Treatment To cure gonorrhea: You must get a shot or take pills You and your partner(s) must be treated Take all of your pills, even if you feel better Do not have sex until you and your partner(s) have been treated. May need another checkup to make sure cured PASSED TO BABY DURING BIRTH Syphilis What is it? dangerous disease that can affect the whole body caused by bacteria get it by having sex w/someone who has it can be spread by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex Symptoms can be so mild you may never notice them. First sign is a painless sore, called a chancre (pronounced “khank-er") can be on/near the vagina, penis, mouth, or anus may not even see or feel the sore heals by itself even if it is not treated After a few weeks/months, may develop: Rash, joint pain, fever, hair loss, sore throat, and headaches These signs may also go away without treatment, but you still have the disease. Long Term Effects: Syphilis can be cured w/ medicine. If not treated: Pass it on to others Higher chance of getting HIV Blindness Brain damage Heart disease Death If a woman has syphilis while she is pregnant: Baby could have birth defects May be born dead Treatment To cure syphilis: You must get one or more shots You and your partner(s) must be treated Get all of the shots, even if you feel better Do not have sex until you and your partner(s) have finished treatment May need checkup to make sure cured Herpes HSV-1: virus that causes cold sores/fever blisters in the mouth or on the lips. May also cause genital sores HSV-2: virus that causes genital sores but also may cause sores in the mouth Both are spread through intimate sexual contact and touch Both remain in the body for life! Highly contagious when blisters break and form red, painful open sores Symptoms Occur within 1 week after contact w/infected partner Itching/burning sensation, pain in legs/buttocks/genital area, vaginal discharge, clusters of small, painful blisters that may develop into open sores May last 2-4 wks, then disappear. For some, reappear during times of stress or illness Long Term Effects Herpes cannot be cured It can cause these problems: You can pass it on to others You have a higher chance of getting HIV Your baby could get herpes while being born Treatment NO CURE Acyclovir: antiviral drug approved to treat infections Relieves symptoms and prevents recurrences Sores need to be kept clean & dry Hands need to be washed after contact HPV (Genital Warts) Genital warts are small, often painless bumps in or around the vagina, penis, or anus Caused by a virus called HPV Spread by vaginal, anal, oral sex, & direct contact w/infected sheets, towels, and clothing Even if the warts go away or are removed, the virus stays in your body and can be spread to others Symptoms Usually appear 3 – 8 months after infection Usually soft, red, or pink and resemble a cauliflower Appear on or around the genitals, and may develop in the mouth The virus can be spread to others even when there are no signs Long Term Effects Can be treated but not cured. HPV can cause these problems: Can pass it to others Higher risk of HIV & cervical cancer For pregnant women: Warts could grow & block the vagina Baby could get the virus Some medicines are not safe to use Treatment Medicationcan be placed on them and laser surgery can remove them Removed by freezing or burning, but may reappear after removal Hepatitis B Infection of the liver that can't be cured You could get Hepatitis B if you: Have sex with someone who has the virus Share needles or drugs Share earrings, razors, nail clippers, or toothbrushes Piercings/tattoos with infected tools Touch infected blood or bodily fluids Symptoms No symptoms, flu-like, or: Yellow skin/eyes No appetite Fatigue Brown/dark urine Light/gray stools Some people have pain in their: Stomach/abdomen Muscles Joints Long Term Effects No cure, some people it goes away on its own Can cause these problems: Give it to others Higher chance of getting HIV Can badly damage liver, leading to cancer/death Pregnant woman’s baby could be born with it Treatment Bed rest, healthful diet, and avoidance of alcohol Medications prescribed to improve liver function Vaccines available for lifelong immunity Sex in America 134,000 new cases of syphilis are occurring each year, the highest infection rate in 40 years. 1.3 million new gonorrhea cases occur annually. 24 million new cases of human papilloma virus (HPV) occur annually, including a high percentage among teens. 63% of all sexually transmitted infection (STI’s) cases occur among people less than 25 years of age. Condoms provide virtually no protection against an STD called the human papillloma virus (HPV). HPV is the most common medical problem seen by gynecologists and causes almost all cervical cancer in the U.S. Hello, Ms. I know Everything! "Early college-age women show the highest percentage of contraceptive failure during the first 12 months of use (25.9%). Later college-age women rank second, not far behind (18.0%)." Jones and Forrest, Family Planning Perspectives, (Jan/Feb 1992), p. 16 Dear Abby Abby once polled her female readers on this question: "Would you rather have intercourse with the man you love, or sit on a couch and have a meaningful conversation with him?" Over 80% of her respondents said they would prefer the meaningful conversation. Medical Institute for Sexual Health statistics: Today there are over 20 significantly prevalent sexually transmitted infections with 12 million newly infected persons each year. (Facts in Brief, New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1993) It is estimated that 1 in 5 Americans is now infected with a viral STD. (ibid) 63% of chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhea infections occur in persons under age 25. (ibid) 80% of people who have a sexually transmitted infection experience NO noticeable sypmtoms! (Moscicki, B., et al, "The Use and Limitations of Endocervical Gram Stains...," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 157:1, July, 1987) Medical Institute for Sexual Health statistics Condoms have a poor record for prevention of pregnancy, with failure rates of up to 13% or more per year. (Jones, E.F., and Forrest, J.D., "Contraceptive Failure in the United States: Revised Estimates...," Family Planning Perspectives, 21:3, May/June 1989) The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has referred to condoms as "an antiquated system of birth control." (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Newsletter, March, 1991) A meta-analysis of condom effectiveness from in vivo studies by Dr. Susan Weller suggests a 31% failure rate in preventing HIV transmission. (Weller, Susan, "A Meta-Analysis of Condom Effectiveness in Reducing Sexually Transmitted HIV," Social Science and Medicine, 36:12, 1993) "It is a disservice to encourage the belief that condoms will prevent Pregnancy” Dr. Susan Weller Statistics on Teen Sex Nationally, more than half of teenagers are virgins until they are at least 17 years of age (Sex and America's Teenagers, The Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York, 1994). -In the U.S., 7 in 10 women who had sex before age 14, and 6 in 10 of those who had sex before age 15 report having had sex involuntarily. (Facts in Brief: Teen Sex and Pregnancy, The Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York, 1996). -Nationally, one-quarter of 15 year old females and less than 30% of 15 year old males have had sex, compared with 66% of 18 year old females, and 68% of 18 year old males who have had sexual intercourse. (A Statistical Portrait of Adolescent Sex, Contraception, and Childbearing, National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC, 1998). Statistics on Teen pregnancy Nationally, nearly one million young women under age 20 become pregnant each year. That means close to 2800 teens get pregnant each day.( Facts in Brief: Teen Sex and Pregnancy, The Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York, 1996). -Approximately 4 in 10 young women in the U.S. become pregnant at least once before turning 20 years old.( Facts in Brief: Teen Sex and Pregnancy, The Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York, 1996). -Teen childbearing alone costs U.S. taxpayers nearly $7 billion annually for social services and lost tax revenues. (Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy, Prebecca Maynard (ed.), The Urban Institute, Washington, DC, 1997). Parasites Crabs Scabies Itching, pinhead Severe itching, blood spots on raised gray lines underwear, nits in on skin where pubic hair mites burrow Contracted Contracted through contact through contact w/infested area w/infested area Treated Treated w/medicated w/medicated shampoo shampoo Sex, Lies and HIV 34% of men and 10% of women have told lies in order to have sex. 68% of men and 59% of women have been involved with more than one person that their current partner doesn’t know about. 47% of men and 42% of women would understate the number of their previous partners in order to convince someone to have sex. "Facts on Reproductive Rights” from the National Organization for Women The Pill fails 6.2% of the time. The condom fails 14.2% of the time. The diaphragm fails 15.6% of the time. Spermicide fails 26.3% of the time.
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