STDs- PP by liwenting

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									Sexually Transmitted
     Infections
       (STIs)
      Chlamydia, HPV,
   Gonorrhea, Hepatitis B,
   Herpes Simplex I & II,
 Syphilis, and Crabs/Scabies
    Sexually Transmitted Diseases
            Among Teens


   Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among
    Teens
    -In the U.S., 1 in 4 sexually active teens
    become infected with an STD every year.2
    Some common STIs are chlamydia,
    gonorrhea, genital warts (also known as HPV
    - human papillomavirus), and herpes. (Facts
    in Brief: Teen Sex and Pregnancy, The Alan
    Guttmacher Institute, New York, 1996).
Bacterial vs Viral STIs
  Common STDs that        Common STDs that
   can be treated and       can be treated but
   cured                    NOT cured
     Chlamydia                Herpes Simplex I & II
     Gonorrhea
                               HPV (Genital Warts)
                               Hepatitis B
     Syphilis
                               HIV/AIDS
  These STDs are
                           These STDs are
   caused by bacteria
                            caused by a virus
Chlamydia
    What is it?
      An infection of the penis, vagina, throat, or
       tube that carries urine.
      Caused by bacteria (a kind of germ).
      Get it by having sex or close sexual
       contact with someone who has Chlamydia.
      Chlamydia can be spread by the vagina,
       penis, mouth, or anus.
Signs and Symptoms
  Most people do not have any signs; best way
   to find out is to have a test done.
  A few people may have these signs:
     Thick yellow/clear discharge from penis or
      vagina
     Pain or burning when they urinate
     Pain during sex
     For women, bleeding between periods and
      during or after sex
Long Term Effects
  Chlamydia can be cured.
  If not treated:
     You could pass it on to others.

     You have a higher chance of getting
      HIV
     The vagina or penis could hurt and
      swell.
Continued…
      A woman with untreated chlamydia could
       get an infection that causes scars in her
       uterus or in the fallopian tubes
           If this happens:
               – She could have an ectopic pregnancy)
               – She could get PID
               – She might become sterile
               – If a woman has chlamydia while she is
                 pregnant, chlamydia could harm the baby's
                 eyes or lungs during birth.
Treatment
  To cure chlamydia:
     You may take antibiotics
        You may take it in one dose or you
         may take pills for a week
  You and your partner(s) must get
   treated
  Take all of your pills, even if feel better
  Do not have sex for at least one week
   after you start your treatment
Gonorrhea
  Spread  during vaginal, anal and
   oral sex
  Symptoms show up after 2 – 21
   days
  Most women and some men have
   no symptoms
Continued…
    Possible Symptoms:
       Pain when they urinate or have a
        bowel movement
       A yellow discharge from the penis or
        vagina
       For men, pain in the testicles
       For women, pain or tenderness in the
        abdomen
       A sore throat
Long Term Effects
  Can be cured, but if you don’t get it treated
   then:
     can pass it on to others
     joints/vagina/penis may swell and hurt
  A woman could get an infection that causes
   scars in her uterus/fallopian tubes. If this
   happens:
     ectopic pregnancy
     pelvic pain and infection (PID)
     might become sterile
     could harm the baby’s eyes during birth
Treatment
    To cure gonorrhea:
       You must get a shot or take pills

       You and your partner(s) must be
        treated
       Take all of your pills, even if you feel
        better
    Do not have sex until you and your
     partner(s) have been treated. May need
     another checkup to make sure cured
PASSED TO BABY DURING BIRTH
Syphilis
    What is it?
      dangerous disease that can affect the
       whole body
      caused by bacteria

      get it by having sex w/someone who
       has it
      can be spread by having vaginal,
       anal, or oral sex
Symptoms
  can be so mild you may never notice them.
   First sign is a painless sore, called a chancre
   (pronounced “khank-er")
     can be on/near the vagina, penis, mouth,
      or anus
     may not even see or feel the sore
  heals by itself even if it is not treated
  After a few weeks/months, may develop:
     Rash, joint pain, fever, hair loss, sore
      throat, and headaches
  These signs may also go away without
   treatment, but you still have the disease.
Long Term Effects:
  Syphilis can be cured w/ medicine. If not
   treated:
     Pass it on to others
     Higher chance of getting HIV
     Blindness
     Brain damage
     Heart disease
     Death
  If a woman has syphilis while she is pregnant:
     Baby could have birth defects
     May be born dead
Treatment
  To cure syphilis:
  You must get one or more shots
  You and your partner(s) must be
   treated
  Get all of the shots, even if you feel
   better
  Do not have sex until you and your
   partner(s) have finished treatment
  May need checkup to make sure cured
Herpes
  HSV-1:   virus that causes cold
   sores/fever blisters in the mouth or on
   the lips. May also cause genital sores
  HSV-2: virus that causes genital sores
   but also may cause sores in the mouth
  Both are spread through intimate
   sexual contact and touch
  Both remain in the body for life!
  Highly contagious when blisters break
   and form red, painful open sores
Symptoms
  Occur within 1 week after contact
   w/infected partner
  Itching/burning sensation, pain in
   legs/buttocks/genital area, vaginal
   discharge, clusters of small, painful
   blisters that may develop into open
   sores
  May last 2-4 wks, then disappear. For
   some, reappear during times of stress
   or illness
Long Term Effects
  Herpes    cannot be cured
    It can cause these problems:
      You can pass it on to others

      You have a higher chance of
       getting HIV
      Your baby could get herpes while
       being born
Treatment
  NO   CURE
  Acyclovir: antiviral drug approved
   to treat infections
     Relieves symptoms and prevents
      recurrences
  Sores need to be kept clean & dry
  Hands need to be washed after
   contact
HPV (Genital Warts)
  Genital warts are small, often painless
   bumps in or around the vagina, penis,
   or anus
  Caused by a virus called HPV
  Spread by vaginal, anal, oral sex, &
   direct contact w/infected sheets,
   towels, and clothing
  Even if the warts go away or are
   removed, the virus stays in your body
   and can be spread to others
Symptoms
  Usually appear 3 – 8 months after
   infection
  Usually soft, red, or pink and
   resemble a cauliflower
  Appear on or around the genitals,
   and may develop in the mouth
  The virus can be spread to others
   even when there are no signs
Long Term Effects
  Can be treated but not cured.
  HPV can cause these problems:
     Can pass it to others

     Higher risk of HIV & cervical cancer

  For pregnant women:
     Warts could grow & block the vagina

     Baby could get the virus

     Some medicines are not safe to use
Treatment
  Medicationcan be placed on them
  and laser surgery can remove them

  Removed by freezing or burning,
  but may reappear after removal
Hepatitis B
  Infection of the liver that can't be cured
  You could get Hepatitis B if you:
     Have sex with someone who has the
      virus
     Share needles or drugs
     Share earrings, razors, nail clippers,
      or toothbrushes
     Piercings/tattoos with infected tools
     Touch infected blood or bodily fluids
Symptoms
  No symptoms, flu-like, or:
     Yellow skin/eyes
     No appetite
     Fatigue
     Brown/dark urine
     Light/gray stools
  Some people have pain in their:
     Stomach/abdomen
     Muscles
     Joints
Long Term Effects
  No cure, some people it goes away on
   its own
  Can cause these problems:
  Give it to others
  Higher chance of getting HIV
  Can badly damage liver, leading to
   cancer/death
  Pregnant woman’s baby could be born
   with it
Treatment
  Bed  rest, healthful diet, and
   avoidance of alcohol
  Medications prescribed to improve
   liver function
  Vaccines available for lifelong
   immunity
            Sex in America
   134,000 new cases of syphilis are occurring each year, the highest
    infection rate in 40 years.

   1.3 million new gonorrhea cases occur annually.

   24 million new cases of human papilloma virus (HPV) occur annually,
    including a high percentage among teens.

   63% of all sexually transmitted infection (STI’s) cases occur among
    people less than 25 years of age.

   Condoms provide virtually no protection against an STD called the
    human papillloma virus (HPV). HPV is the most common medical
    problem seen by gynecologists and causes almost all cervical cancer in
    the U.S.
Hello, Ms. I know Everything!
  "Early college-age women show the
   highest percentage of contraceptive
   failure during the first 12 months of use
   (25.9%). Later college-age women rank
   second, not far behind (18.0%)."
  Jones and Forrest, Family Planning
   Perspectives, (Jan/Feb 1992), p. 16
         Dear Abby
Abby once polled her female readers on
 this question: "Would you rather have
 intercourse with the man you love, or
 sit on a couch and have a meaningful
 conversation with him?" Over 80% of
 her respondents said they would prefer
 the meaningful conversation.
Medical Institute for Sexual
     Health statistics:
 Today there are over 20 significantly prevalent sexually
  transmitted infections with 12 million newly infected
  persons each year. (Facts in Brief, New York: The Alan
  Guttmacher Institute, 1993)
 It is estimated that 1 in 5 Americans is now infected
  with a viral STD. (ibid)
 63% of chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhea infections
  occur in persons under age 25. (ibid)
 80% of people who have a sexually transmitted
  infection experience NO noticeable sypmtoms!
(Moscicki, B., et al, "The Use and Limitations of
  Endocervical Gram Stains...," American Journal of
  Obstetrics and Gynecology, 157:1, July, 1987)
    Medical Institute for Sexual
          Health statistics
   Condoms have a poor record for prevention of pregnancy, with failure
    rates of up to 13% or more per year. (Jones, E.F., and Forrest, J.D.,
    "Contraceptive Failure in the United States: Revised Estimates...,"
    Family Planning Perspectives, 21:3, May/June 1989)

   The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has referred
    to condoms as "an antiquated system of birth control." (American
    College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Newsletter, March, 1991)

   A meta-analysis of condom effectiveness from in vivo studies by Dr.
    Susan Weller suggests a 31% failure rate in preventing HIV
    transmission. (Weller, Susan, "A Meta-Analysis of Condom Effectiveness
    in Reducing Sexually Transmitted HIV," Social Science and Medicine,
    36:12, 1993)
   "It is a disservice to encourage the belief that condoms will prevent
Pregnancy” Dr. Susan Weller
Statistics on Teen Sex



           Nationally, more than half of teenagers are virgins until they are
             at least 17 years of age (Sex and America's Teenagers, The
             Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York, 1994).

             -In the U.S., 7 in 10 women who had sex before age 14, and
             6 in 10 of those who had sex before age 15 report having
             had sex involuntarily. (Facts in Brief: Teen Sex and
             Pregnancy, The Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York, 1996).

             -Nationally, one-quarter of 15 year old females and less than
             30% of 15 year old males have had sex, compared with 66%
             of 18 year old females, and 68% of 18 year old males who
             have had sexual intercourse. (A Statistical Portrait of
             Adolescent Sex, Contraception, and Childbearing, National
             Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC,
             1998).
    Statistics on Teen pregnancy



   Nationally, nearly one million young women under age 20 become
    pregnant each year. That means close to 2800 teens get pregnant
    each day.( Facts in Brief: Teen Sex and Pregnancy, The Alan
    Guttmacher Institute, New York, 1996).
    -Approximately 4 in 10 young women in the U.S. become pregnant at
    least once before turning 20 years old.( Facts in Brief: Teen Sex and
    Pregnancy, The Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York, 1996).
    -Teen childbearing alone costs U.S. taxpayers nearly $7 billion annually
    for social services and lost tax revenues. (Kids Having Kids: Economic
    Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy, Prebecca Maynard
    (ed.), The Urban Institute, Washington, DC, 1997).
Parasites
    Crabs                      Scabies
       Itching, pinhead           Severe itching,
        blood spots on              raised gray lines
        underwear, nits in          on skin where
        pubic hair                  mites burrow
       Contracted                 Contracted
        through contact             through contact
        w/infested area             w/infested area
       Treated                    Treated
        w/medicated                 w/medicated
        shampoo                     shampoo
     Sex, Lies and HIV
 34% of men and 10% of women have told
  lies in order to have sex.
 68% of men and 59% of women have been
  involved with more than one person that their
  current partner doesn’t know about.
 47% of men and 42% of women would
  understate the number of their previous
  partners in order to convince someone to
  have sex.
    "Facts on Reproductive
            Rights”
 from the National Organization for
  Women
 The Pill fails 6.2% of the time.
 The condom fails 14.2% of the time.
 The diaphragm fails 15.6% of the time.
 Spermicide fails 26.3% of the time.

								
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