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IEEE Projects 2012-2013 Mobile Communication

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IEEE Projects 2012-2013 Mobile Communication Powered By Docstoc
					            Elysium Technologies Private Limited
            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
            Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
            http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com



         IEEE FINAL YEAR PROJECTS 2012 – 2013
                      MOBILE COMPUTING
Corporate Office: Madurai
    227-230, Church road, Anna nagar, Madurai – 625 020.
    0452 – 4390702, 4392702, +9199447933980
    Email: info@elysiumtechnologies.com, elysiumtechnologies@gmail.com
    Website: www.elysiumtechnologies.com

Branch Office: Trichy
    15, III Floor, SI Towers, Melapudur main road, Trichy – 620 001.
    0431 – 4002234, +919790464324.
    Email: trichy@elysiumtechnologies.com, elysium.trichy@gmail.com.
    Website: www.elysiumtechnologies.com

Branch Office: Coimbatore
    577/4, DB Road, RS Puram, Opp to KFC, Coimbatore – 641 002.
    +919677751577
    Website: Elysiumtechnologies.com, Email: info@elysiumtechnologies.com

Branch Office: Kollam
    Surya Complex, Vendor junction, Kollam – 691 010, Kerala.
    0474 – 2723622, +919446505482.
    Email: kerala@elysiumtechnologies.com.
    Website: www.elysiumtechnologies.com

Branch Office: Cochin
    4th Floor, Anjali Complex, near south over bridge, Valanjambalam,
    Cochin – 682 016, Kerala.
    0484 – 6006002, +917736004002.
   Email: kerala@elysiumtechnologies.com, Website: www.elysiumtechnologies.com

    IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com



                             MOBILE COMPUTING                                                             2012 - 2013
EGC     A Statistical Mechanics-Based Framework to Analyze Ad Hoc Networks with Random
4301
        Access


       Characterizing the performance of ad hoc networks is one of the most intricate open challenges; conventional ideas
       based on information-theoretic techniques and inequalities have not yet been able to successfully tackle this problem in
       its generality. Motivated thus, we promote the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), a particle flow
       model in statistical mechanics, as a useful analytical tool to study ad hoc networks with random access. Employing the
       TASEP framework, we first investigate the average end-to-end delay and throughput performance of a linear multihop
       flow of packets. Additionally, we analytically derive the distribution of delays incurred by packets at each node, as well
       as the joint distributions of the delays across adjacent hops along the flow. We then consider more complex wireless
       network models comprising intersecting flows, and propose the partial mean-field approximation (PMFA), a method that
       helps tightly approximate the throughput performance of the system. We finally demonstrate via a simple example that
       the PMFA procedure is quite general in that it may be used to accurately evaluate the performance of ad hoc networks
       with arbitrary topologies.


EGC     A Fade-Level Skew-Laplace Signal Strength Model for Device-Free Localization with
4302    Wireless Networks

        We propose a broadcast algorithm suitable for a wide range of vehicular scenarios, which only employs local
        information acquired via periodic beacon messages, containing acknowledgments of the circulated broadcast
        messages. Each vehicle decides whether it belongs to a connected dominating set (CDS). Vehicles in the CDS use a
        shorter waiting period before possible retransmission. At time-out expiration, a vehicle retransmits if it is aware of at
        least one neighbor in need of the message. To address intermittent connectivity and appearance of new neighbors, the
        evaluation timer can be restarted. Our algorithm resolves propagation at road intersections without any need to even
        recognize intersections. It is inherently adaptable to different mobility regimes, without the need to classify network or
        vehicle speeds. In a thorough simulation-based performance evaluation, our algorithm is shown to provide higher
        reliability and message efficiency than existing approaches for nonsafety applications.


EGC     Acknowledgment-Based Broadcast Protocol for Reliable and Efficient Data Dissemination
4303    in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

        We propose a broadcast algorithm suitable for a wide range of vehicular scenarios, which only employs local
        information acquired via periodic beacon messages, containing acknowledgments of the circulated broadcast
        messages. Each vehicle decides whether it belongs to a connected dominating set (CDS). Vehicles in the CDS use a
        shorter waiting period before possible retransmission. At time-out expiration, a vehicle retransmits if it is aware of at
        least one neighbor in need of the message. To address intermittent connectivity and appearance of new neighbors, the

               IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


        evaluation timer can be restarted. Our algorithm resolves propagation at road intersections without any need to even
        recognize intersections. It is inherently adaptable to different mobility regimes, without the need to classify network or
        vehicle speeds. In a thorough simulation-based performance evaluation, our algorithm is shown to provide higher
        reliability and message efficiency than existing approaches for nonsafety applications.

EGC
4304
          Chameleon: A Color-Adaptive Web Browser for Mobile OLED Displays

        Displays based on organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology are appearing on many mobile devices. Unlike liquid
        crystal displays (LCD), OLED displays consume dramatically different power for showing different colors. In particular,
        OLED displays are inefficient for showing bright colors. This has made them undesirable for mobile devices because
        much of the web content is of bright colors. To tackle this problem, we present the motivational studies, design, and
        realization of Chameleon, a color adaptive web browser that renders webpages with power-optimized color schemes
        under user-supplied constraints. Driven by the findings from our motivational studies, Chameleon provides end users
        with important options, offloads tasks that are not absolutely needed in real time, and accomplishes real-time tasks by
        carefully enhancing the codebase of a browser engine. According to measurements with OLED smartphones,
        Chameleon is able to reduce average system power consumption for web browsing by 41 percent and is able to reduce
        display power consumption by 64 percent without introducing any noticeable delay.


EGC      An MIMO Configuration Mode and MCS Level Selection Scheme by Fuzzy Q-Learning for
4305
         HSPA+ Systems

       In this paper, we propose a fuzzy Q-learning-based MIMO configuration mode and MCS level (FQL-MOMS) selection
       scheme for high speed packet access evolution (HSPA+) systems. The FQL-MOMS selection scheme intends to enhance
       the system throughput under the block error rate (BLER) requirement guarantee. It will determine an appropriate MIMO
       configuration mode and MCS (modulation and coding scheme) level for packet data transmission in HSPA+ systems,
       under the situations that the channel status is varying and the channel quality indication (CQI) has report delay. The
       FQL-MOMS scheme considers not only the reported CQI and the last transmission result but also the BLER performance
       metric and the transmission efficiency. Moreover, it is effectively configured, where the fuzzy rules and the
       reinforcement signals for the Q-learning algorithm are sophisticatedly designed. Simulation results show that the
       proposed FQL-MOMS scheme increases the system throughput by up to 49.3% and 35.9%, compared to the
       conventional adaptive threshold selection (ATS) scheme [12] and the Q-HARQ scheme [14], respectively, under the
       BLER requirement fulfillment.



EGC      A Trigger Identification Service for Defending Reactive Jammers in WSN
4306


       During the last decade, Reactive Jamming Attack has emerged as a great security threat to wireless sensor networks,
       due to its mass destruction to legitimate sensor communications and difficulty to be disclosed and defended.


               IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
                          Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


       Considering the specific characteristics of reactive jammer nodes, a new scheme to deactivate them by efficiently
       identifying all trigger nodes, whose transmissions invoke the jammer nodes, has been proposed and developed. Such a
       trigger-identification procedure can work as an application-layer service and benefit many existing reactive-jamming
       defending schemes. In this paper, on the one hand, we leverage several optimization problems to provide a complete
       trigger-identification service framework for unreliable wireless sensor networks. On the other hand, we provide an
       improved algorithm with regard to two sophisticated jamming models, in order to enhance its robustness for various
       network scenarios. Theoretical analysis and simulation results are included to validate the performance of this
       framework.




EGC     A Cost Analysis Framework for NEMO Prefix Delegation-Based Schemes
4307
       Collaborative Business Processes (cBPs) form the backbone of enterprise integration. With the growing reliance on the

       Network Mobility (NEMO) efficiently manages the mobility of multiple nodes that moves together as a mobile network. A
       major limitation of the basic protocol in NEMO is the inefficient route between end hosts. A number of prefix delegation-
       based schemes have been proposed in the literature to solve the route optimization problem in NEMO. Approaches used
       by the schemes trade off delivery of packets through the partially-optimized route with signaling and other processing
       overheads. Cost of delivering packets through the partially-optimized route along with signaling and other processing
       cost need to be measured to find out the gain from tradeoff. However, cost analysis performed so far on NEMO
       protocols consider only the cost of signaling. In this paper, we have developed analytical framework to measure the
       costs of the basic protocol for NEMO, and four representative prefix delegation-based schemes. Our results show that
       cost of packet delivery through the partially-optimized route dominates over other costs. Therefore, optimizing the route
       completely is preferable to reduction of signaling as far as cost of network mobility is concerned. Our cost analysis
       framework will help in decision making to select the best route optimization scheme depending on the load imposed by
       the scheme on the infrastructure.


EGC      A Novel MAC Scheme for Multichannel Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks
4308


       This paper proposes a novel medium access control (MAC) scheme for multichannel cognitive radio (CR) ad hoc
       networks, which achieves high throughput of CR system while protecting primary users (PUs) effectively. In designing
       the MAC scheme, we consider that the PU signal may cover only a part of the network and the nodes can have the
       different sensing result for the same PU even on the same channel. By allowing the nodes to use the channel on which
       the PU exists as long as their transmissions do not disturb the PU, the proposed MAC scheme fully utilizes the spectrum
       access opportunity. To mitigate the hidden PU problem inherent to multichannel CR networks where the PU signal is
       detectable only to some nodes, the proposed MAC scheme adjusts the sensing priorities of channels at each node with
       the PU detection information of other nodes and also limits the transmission power of a CR node to the maximum
       allowable power for guaranteeing the quality of service requirement of PU. The performance of the proposed MAC

               IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
                          Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                          Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                          http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


       scheme is evaluated by using simulation. The simulation results show that the CR system with the proposed MAC
       accomplishes good performance in throughput and packet delay, while protecting PUs properly.


EGC     Approximation Algorithms for Data Broadcast in Wireless Networks
4309


       Large Broadcasting is a fundamental operation in wireless networks and plays an important role in the communication
       protocol design. In multihop wireless networks, however, interference at a node due to simultaneous transmissions from
       its neighbors makes it nontrivial to design a minimum-latency broadcast algorithm, which is known to be NP-complete.
       We present a simple 12-approximation algorithm for the one-to-all broadcast problem that improves all previously
       known guarantees for this problem. We then consider the all-to-all broadcast problem where each node sends its own
       message to all other nodes. For the all-to-all broadcast problem, we present two algorithms with approximation ratios of
       20 and 34, improving the best result available in the literature. Finally, we report experimental evaluation of our
       algorithms. Our studies indicate that our algorithms perform much better in practice than the worst-case guarantees
       provided in the theoretical analysis and achieve up to 37 percent performance improvement over existing schemes.
EGC      Avoiding the Rush Hours: WiFi Energy Management via Traffic Isolation
4310

       WiFi continues to be a prime source of energy consumption in mobile devices. This paper observes that, despite a rich
       body of research in WiFi energy management, there is room for improvement. Our key finding is that WiFi energy
       optimizations have conventionally been designed with a single AP in mind. However, network contention among
       different APs can dramatically increase a client's energy consumption. Each client may have to keep awake for long
       durations before its own AP gets a chance to send it packets to it. As AP density increases, the waiting time inflates,
       resulting in a proportional decrease in battery life. We design SleepWell, a system that achieves energy efficiency by
       evading network contention. The APs regulate the sleeping window of their clients in a way that different APs are
       active/inactive during nonoverlapping time windows. The solution is analogous to the common wisdom of going late to
       office and coming back late, thereby avoiding the rush hours. We implement SleepWell on a testbed of eight Laptops
       and nine Android phones, and evaluate it over a wide variety of scenarios and traffic patterns. Results show a median
       gain of up to 2x when WiFi links are strong; when links are weak and the network density is high, the gains can be even
       more.


EGC
4311
         Compressed-Sensing-Enabled Video Streaming for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks


        This paper presents the design of a networked system for joint compression, rate control and error correction of video
       over resource-constrained embedded devices based on the theory of Compressed Sensing (CS). The objective of this
       work is to design a cross-layer system that jointly controls the video encoding rate, the transmission rate, and the
       channel coding rate to maximize the received video quality. First, compressed sensing-based video encoding for
       transmission over Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) is studied. It is shown that compressed sensing can


               IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


       overcome many of the current problems of video over WMSNs, primarily encoder complexity and low resiliency to
       channel errors. A rate controller is then developed with the objective of maintaining fairness among different videos
       while maximizing the received video quality. It is shown that the rate of Compressed Sensed Video (CSV) can be
       predictably controlled by varying only the compressed sensing sampling rate. It is then shown that the developed rate
       controller can be interpreted as the iterative solution to a convex optimization problem representing the optimization of
       the rate allocation across the network. The error resiliency properties of compressed sensed images and videos are then
       studied, and an optimal error detection and correction scheme is presented for video transmission over lossy channels.
       Finally, the entire system is evaluated through simulation and test bed evaluation. The rate controller is shown to
       outperform existing TCP-friendly rate control schemes in terms of both fairness and received video quality. The test bed
       results show that the rates converge to stable values in real channels.


EGC
         Chip Error Pattern Analysis in IEEE 802.15.4
4312


       IEEE 802.15.4 standard specifies physical layer (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) sublayer protocols for low-rate
       and low-power communication applications. In this protocol, every 4-bit symbol is encoded into a sequence of 32 chips
       that are actually transmitted over the air. The 32 chips as a whole is also called a pseudonoise code (PN-Code). Due to
       complex channel conditions such as attenuation and interference, the transmitted PN-Code will often be received with
       some PN-Code chips corrupted. In this paper, we conduct a systematic analysis on these errors occurring at chip level.
       We find that there are notable error patterns corresponding to different cases. We then show that recognizing these
       patterns enables us to identify the channel condition in great details. We believe that understanding what happened to
       the transmission in our way can potentially bring benefit to channel coding, routing, and error correction protocol
       design. Finally, we propose Simple Rule, a simple yet effective method based on the chip error patterns to infer the link
       condition with an accuracy of over 96 percent in our evaluations.


EGC     Converge Cast: On the Capacity and Delay Tradeoffs
4313


       In this paper, we define an ad hoc network where multiple sources transmit packets to one destination as Converge-Cast
       network. We will study the capacity delay tradeoffs assuming that n wireless nodes are deployed in a unit square. For
       each session (the session is a dataflow from k different source nodes to 1 destination node), k nodes are randomly
       selected as active sources and each transmits one packet to a particular destination node, which is also randomly
       selected. We first consider the stationary case, where capacity is mainly discussed and delay is entirely dependent on
       the average number of hops. We find that the per-node capacity is Θ (1/√(n log n)) (given nonnegative functions f(n) and
       g(n): f(n) = O(g(n)) means there exist positive constants c and m such that f(n) ≤ cg(n) for all n ≥ m; f(n)= Ω (g(n)) means
       there exist positive constants c and m such that f(n) ≥ cg(n) for all n ≥ m; f(n) = Θ (g(n)) means that both f(n) = Ω (g(n))
       and f(n) = O(g(n)) hold), which is the same as that of unicast, presented in (Gupta and Kumar, 2000). Then, node mobility
       is introduced to increase network capacity, for which our study is performed in two steps. The first step is to establish
       the delay in single-session transmission. We find that the delay is Θ (n log k) under 1-hop strategy, and Θ (n log k/m)

               IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
                            Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                            Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                            http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


       under 2-hop redundant strategy, where m denotes the number of replicas for each packet. The second step is to find
       delay and capacity in multisession transmission. We reveal that the per-node capacity and delay for 2-hop
       nonredundancy strategy are Θ (1) and Θ (n log k), respectively. The optimal delay is Θ (√(n log k)+k) with redundancy,
       corresponding to a capacity of Θ (√((1/n log k) + (k/n log k)). Therefore, we obtain that the capacity delay tradeoff
       satisfies delay/rate ≥ Θ (n log k) for both strategies.

EGC    Characterizing the Security Implications of Third-Party Emergency Alert Systems over
4314
       Cellular Text Messaging Services

       Cellular text messaging services are increasingly being relied upon to disseminate critical information during
       emergencies. Accordingly, a wide range of organizations including colleges and universities now partner with third-
       party providers that promise to improve physical security by rapidly delivering such messages. Unfortunately, these
       products do not work as advertised due to limitations of cellular infrastructure and therefore provide a false sense of
       security to their users. In this paper, we perform the first extensive investigation and characterization of the limitations
       of an Emergency Alert System (EAS) using text messages as a security incident response mechanism. We show
       emergency alert systems built on text messaging not only can meet the 10 minute delivery requirement mandated by the
       WARN Act, but also potentially cause other voice and SMS traffic to be blocked at rates upward of 80 percent. We then
       show that our results are representative of reality by comparing them to a number of documented but not previously
       understood failures. Finally, we analyze a targeted messaging mechanism as a means of efficiently using currently
       deployed infrastructure and third-party EAS. In so doing, we demonstrate that this increasingly deployed security
       infrastructure does not achieve its stated requirements for large populations.




EGC     Coverage Verification without Location Information
4315


       Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have recently emerged as a prominent technology for environmental monitoring and
       hazardous event detection. Yet, their success depends considerably on their ability to ensure reliable event detection.
       Such guarantees can be provided only if the target field monitored by a WSN does not contain coverage holes that are
       not monitored by any sensor. Currently, the coverage hole detection solutions require accurate knowledge of the
       sensors locations, which cannot be easily obtained, or they cannot provide guarantees on the coverage quality. In this
       study, we address the challenge of designing an accurate k-coverage verification scheme, without using location
       information, for a predefined k ≥ 1. To this end, we present two efficient, distributed, and localized k-coverage
       verification schemes with proven guarantees on their coverage detection quality. Our simulations show that the
       schemes accurately detect coverage holes of various sizes.




                IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
                              Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                              Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                              Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                              http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com



EGC      Design of Efficient Multicast Protocol for IEEE 802.11n WLANs and Cross-Layer
4316
         Optimization for Scalable Video Streaming

        The legacy multicasting over IEEE 802.11-based WLANs has two well-known problems-poor reliability and low-rate
        transmission. In the literature, various WLAN multicast protocols have been proposed in order to overcome these
        problems. Existing multicast protocols, however, are not so efficient when they are used combining with the frame
        aggregation scheme of IEEE 802.11n. In this paper, we propose a novel MAC-level multicast protocol for IEEE 802.11n,
        named Reliable and Efficient Multicast Protocol (REMP). To enhance the reliability and efficiency of multicast services in
        IEEE 802.11n WLANs, REMP enables selective retransmissions for erroneous multicast frames and efficient adjustments
        of the modulation and coding scheme (MCS). In addition, we propose an extension of REMP, named scalable REMP (S-
        REMP), for efficient delivery of scalable video over IEEE 802.11n WLANs. In S-REMP, different MCSs are assigned to
        different layers of scalable video to guarantee the minimal video quality to all users while providing a higher video
        quality to users exhibiting better channel conditions. Our simulation results show that REMP outperforms existing
        multicast protocols for normal multicast traffic and S-REMP offers improved performance for scalable video streaming.



 EGC     Design and Analysis of the Gateway Relocation and Admission Control Algorithm in
 4317
         Mobile WiMAX Networks

        The WiMAX Forum has defined a two-tiered mobility management to minimize handover delay and packet loss. However,
        it leads to another problem: When to perform ASN GW relocation? The standards only define the ASN GW relocation
        procedures without specifying when the ASN GW relocation should be performed. It is left for vendors and operators to
        develop their own proprietary solutions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm, which incorporates traditional
        Admission Control (AC) and Wiener Process (WP)-based prediction algorithms to determine when to carry out ASN GW
        relocation. We further develop an analytical model to analyze the proposed algorithm. Simulations are also conducted to
        evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the
        performance significantly in terms of blocking probability, dropping probability, average serving rate, and average
        signaling overhead.


EGC     Cooperative Download in Vehicular Environments
4318



        We consider a complex (i.e., nonlinear) road scenario where users aboard vehicles equipped with communication
        interfaces are interested in downloading large files from road-side Access Points (APs). We investigate the possibility of
        exploiting opportunistic encounters among mobile nodes so to augment the transfer rate experienced by vehicular
        downloaders. To that end, we devise solutions for the selection of carriers and data chunks at the APs, and evaluate
        them in real-world road topologies, under different AP deployment strategies. Through extensive simulations, we show



                IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
                             Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                             Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                             Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                             http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


       that carry&forward transfers can significantly increase the download rate of vehicular users in urban/suburban
       environments, and that such a result holds throughout diverse mobility scenarios, AP placements and network loads.

EGC
4319    Energy-Efficient Cooperative Video Distribution with Statistical QoS Provisions over
        Wireless Networks
       The WiMAX Forum has defined a two-tiered mobility management to minimize handover delay and packet loss. However,
       it leads to another problem: When to perform ASN GW relocation? The standards only define the ASN GW relocation
       procedures without specifying when the ASN GW relocation should be performed. It is left for vendors and operators to
       develop their own proprietary solutions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm, which incorporates traditional
       Admission Control (AC) and Wiener Process (WP)-based prediction algorithms to determine when to carry out ASN GW
       relocation. We further develop an analytical model to analyze the proposed algorithm. Simulations are also conducted to
       evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the
       performance significantly in terms of blocking probability, dropping probability, average serving rate, and average
       signaling overhead.

EGC    Detection of Selfish Manipulation of Carrier Sensing in 802.11 Networks
4320


       Recently, tuning the clear channel assessment (CCA) threshold in conjunction with power control has been considered
       for improving the performance of WLANs. However, we show that, CCA tuning can be exploited by selfish nodes to
       obtain an unfair share of the available bandwidth. Specifically, a selfish entity can manipulate the CCA threshold to
       ignore ongoing transmissions; this increases the probability of accessing the medium and provides the entity a higher,
       unfair share of the bandwidth. We experiment on our 802.11 testbed to characterize the effects of CCA tuning on both
       isolated links and in 802.11 WLAN configurations. We focus on AP-client(s) configurations, proposing a novel approach
       to detect this misbehavior. A misbehaving client is unlikely to recognize low power receptions as legitimate packets; by
       intelligently sending low power probe messages, an AP can efficiently detect a misbehaving node. Our key contributions
       are: 1) We are the first to quantify the impact of selfish CCA tuning via extensive experimentation on various 802.11
       configurations. 2) We propose a lightweight scheme for detecting selfish nodes that inappropriately increase their CCAs.
       3) We extensively evaluate our system on our testbed; its accuracy is 95 percent while the false positive rate is less than
       5 percent.



EGC
       Efficient Virtual Backbone Constructionwith Routing Cost Constraint in
4321
       WirelessNetworks Using Directional Antennas


       Directional antennas can divide the transmission range into several sectors. Thus, through switching off sectors in
       unnecessary directions in wireless networks, we can save bandwidth and energy consumption. In this paper, we will
       study a directional virtual backbone (VB) in the network where directional antennas are used. When constructing a VB,


               IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
                            Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                            Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                            http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


        we will take routing and broadcasting into account since they are two common operations in wireless networks. Hence,
        we will study a VB with guaranteed routing costs, named α Minimum rOuting Cost Directional VB (α-
        MOC-DVB). Besides the properties of regular VBs, α-MOC-DVB also has a special constraint — for any
        pair of nodes, there exists at least one path all intermediate directions on which must belong to α-MOC-DVB and
        the number of intermediate directions on the path is smaller than α times that on the shortest path. We prove
        that construction of a minimum α-MOC-DVB is an NP-hard problem in a general directed graph. A heuristic
        algorithm is proposed and theoretical analysis is also discussed in the paper. Extensive simulations demonstrate that
        our α-MOC-DVB is much more efficient in the sense of VB size and routing costs compared to other VBs.


 EGC    Distributed Throughput Maximization in Wireless Networks via Random Power
 4322
        Allocation

        We develop a distributed throughput-optimal power allocation algorithm in wireless networks. The study of this problem
        has been limited due to the nonconvexity of the underlying optimization problems that prohibits an efficient solution
        even in a centralized setting. By generalizing the randomization framework originally proposed for input queued
        switches to SINR rate-based interference model, we characterize the throughput-optimality conditions that enable
        efficient and distributed implementation. Using gossiping algorithm, we develop a distributed power allocation algorithm
        that satisfies the optimality conditions, thereby achieving (nearly) 100 percent throughput. We illustrate the performance
        of our power allocation solution through numerical simulation.




EGC     Distributed and Online Fair Resource Management in Video Surveillance Sensor
4323    Networks

        Visual capability introduced to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) render many novel applications that would otherwise
        be infeasible. However, unlike legacy WSNs which are commercially deployed in applications, visual sensor networks
        create additional research problems that delays the real-world implementations. Conveying real-time video streams over
        resource constrained sensor hardware remains to be a challenging task. As a remedy, we propose a fairness-based
        approach to enhance the event reporting and detection performance of the Video Surveillance Sensor Networks. Instead
        of achieving fairness only for flows or for nodes as investigated in the literature, we concentrate on the whole
        application requirement. Accordingly, our Event-Based Fairness (EBF) scheme aims at fair resource allocation for the
        application level messaging units called events. We identify the crucial network-wide resources as the in-queue
        processing turn of the frames and the channel access opportunities of the nodes. We show that fair treatment of events,
        as opposed to regular flow of frames, results in enhanced performance in terms of the number of frames reported per
        event and the reporting latency. EBF is a robust mechanism that can be used as a stand-alone or as a complementary
        method to other possible performance enhancement methods for video sensor networks implemented at other
        communication layers.


 EGC     Efficient Rendezvous Algorithms for Mobility-Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks
 4324           IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com




       Recent research shows that significant energy saving can be achieved in mobility-enabled wireless sensor networks
       (WSNs) that visit sensor nodes and collect data from them via short-range communications. However, a major
       performance bottleneck of such WSNs is the significantly increased latency in data collection due to the low movement
       speed of mobile base stations. To address this issue, we propose a rendezvous-based data collection approach in which
       a subset of nodes serve as rendezvous points that buffer and aggregate data originated from sources and transfer to the
       base station when it arrives. This approach combines the advantages of controlled mobility and in-network data caching
       and can achieve a desirable balance between network energy saving and data collection delay. We propose efficient
       rendezvous design algorithms with provable performance bounds for mobile base stations with variable and fixed
       tracks, respectively. The effectiveness of our approach is validated through both theoretical analysis and extensive
       simulations.


EGC     Distributed Throughput Maximization in Wireless Networks via Random Power
4325
        Allocation


       Scalable video transmission over a network is easily adaptable to different types of mobile experiencing different
       network conditions. However the transmission of differentiated video packets in an error-prone wireless environment
       remains problematic. We propose and analyze a cross-layer error control scheme that exploits priority-aware block
       interleaving (PBI) in the MAC layer for video broadcasting in CDMA2000 systems. The PBI scheme allocates a higher
       priority to protecting the data which are more critical to the decoding of a video stream, and therefore has more effect on
       picture quality in the application layer. The use of Reed-Solomon coding in conjunction with PBI in the MAC layer can
       handle error bursts more effectively if its implementation takes account of underlying error distributions in the physical
       layer, and differentiates between different types of video packets in the application layer. We also calculate the
       maximum jitter from the variability of the Reed-Solomon decoding delay and determine the size of jitter buffer needed to
       prevent interruptions due to buffer underrun. Simulations demonstrate the extent to which we can improve the perceived
       quality of scalable video.


EGC     Energy-Efficient Strategies for Cooperative Multichannel MAC Protocols
4326


       Distributed Information SHaring (DISH) is a new cooperative approach to designing multichannel MAC protocols. It aids
       nodes in their decision making processes by compensating for their missing information via information sharing
       through neighboring nodes. This approach was recently shown to significantly boost the throughput of multichannel
       MAC protocols. However, a critical issue for ad hoc communication devices, viz. energy efficiency, has yet to be
       addressed. In this paper, we address this issue by developing simple solutions that reduce the energy consumption
       without compromising the throughput performance and meanwhile maximize cost efficiency. We propose two energy-


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                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


       efficient strategies: in-situ energy conscious DISH, which uses existing nodes only, and altruistic DISH, which requires
       additional nodes called altruists. We compare five protocols with respect to these strategies and identify altruistic DISH
       to be the right choice in general: it 1) conserves 40-80 percent of energy, 2) maintains the throughput advantage, and 3)
       more than doubles the cost efficiency compared to protocols without this strategy. On the other hand, our study also
       shows that in-situ energy conscious DISH is suitable only in certain limited scenarios.




EGC     Enhancing Privacy and Accuracy in Probe Vehicle-Based Traffic Monitoring via Virtual
4327
        Trip Lines

       Traffic monitoring using probe vehicles with GPS receivers promises significant improvements in cost, coverage, and
       accuracy over dedicated infrastructure systems. Current approaches, however, raise privacy concerns because they
       require participants to reveal their positions to an external traffic monitoring server. To address this challenge, we
       describe a system based on virtual trip lines and an associated cloaking technique, followed by another system design
       in which we relax the privacy requirements to maximize the accuracy of real-time traffic estimation. We introduce virtual
       trip lines which are geographic markers that indicate where vehicles should provide speed updates. These markers are
       placed to avoid specific privacy sensitive locations. They also allow aggregating and cloaking several location updates
       based on trip line identifiers, without knowing the actual geographic locations of these trip lines. Thus, they facilitate the
       design of a distributed architecture, in which no single entity has a complete knowledge of probe identities and fine-
       grained location information. We have implemented the system with GPS smartphone clients and conducted a
       controlled experiment with 100 phone-equipped drivers circling a highway segment, which was later extended into a
       year-long public deployment.




EGC     Directed by Directionality: Benefiting from the Gain Pattern of Active RFID Badges
4328


       Tracking of people via active badges is important for location-aware computing and for security applications. However,
       the human body has a major effect on the antenna gain pattern of the device that the person is wearing. In this paper,
       the gain pattern due to the effect of the human body is experimentally measured and represented by a first-order
       directional gain pattern model. A method is presented to estimate the model parameters from multiple received signal
       strength (RSS) measurements. An alternating gain and position estimation (AGAPE) algorithm is proposed to jointly
       estimate the orientation and the position of the badge using RSS measurements at known-position anchor nodes. Lower
       bounds on mean squared error (MSE) and experimental results are presented that both show that the accuracy of
       position estimates can be greatly improved by including orientation estimates in the localization system. Next, we
       propose a new tracking filter that accepts orientation estimates as input, which we call the orientation-enhanced
       extended Kalman filter (OE-EKF), which improves tracking accuracy in active RFID tracking systems.



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                          Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


EGC     Fault Localization Using Passive End-to-End Measurements and Sequential Testing for
4329
        Wireless Sensor Networks

       Traffic Faulty components in a network need to be localized and repaired to sustain the health of the network. In this
       paper, we propose a novel approach that carefully combines active and passive measurements to localize faults in
       wireless sensor networks. More specifically, we formulate a problem of optimal sequential testing guided by end-to-end
       data. This problem determines an optimal testing sequence of network components based on end-to-end data in sensor
       networks to minimize expected testing cost. We prove that this problem is NP-hard, and propose a recursive approach
       to solve it. This approach leads to a polynomial-time optimal algorithm for line topologies while requiring exponential
       running time for general topologies. We further develop two polynomial-time heuristic schemes that are applicable to
       general topologies. Extensive simulation shows that our heuristic schemes only require testing a very small set of
       network components to localize and repair all faults in the network. Our approach is superior to using active and passive
       measurements in isolation. It also outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches that localize and repair all faults in a
       network.


EGC     FESCIM: Fair, Efficient, and Secure Cooperation Incentive Mechanism for Multi-hop
4330
        Cellular Networks

       Faulty components in a network need to be localized and repaired to sustain the health of the network. In this paper, we
       propose a novel approach that carefully combines active and passive measurements to localize faults in wireless sensor
       networks. More specifically, we formulate a problem of optimal sequential testing guided by end-to-end data. This
       problem determines an optimal testing sequence of network components based on end-to-end data in sensor networks
       to minimize expected testing cost. We prove that this problem is NP-hard, and propose a recursive approach to solve it.
       This approach leads to a polynomial-time optimal algorithm for line topologies while requiring exponential running time
       for general topologies. We further develop two polynomial-time heuristic schemes that are applicable to general
       topologies. Extensive simulation shows that our heuristic schemes only require testing a very small set of network
       components to localize and repair all faults in the network. Our approach is superior to using active and passive
       measurements in isolation. It also outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches that localize and repair all faults in a
       network.


EGC     Estimating Parameters of Multiple Heterogeneous Target Objects Using Composite
4331
        Sensor Nodes

       We propose a method for estimating parameters of multiple target objects by using networked binary sensors whose
       locations are unknown. These target objects may have different parameters, such as size and perimeter length. Each
       sensors, which is incapable of monitoring the target object's parameters, sends only binary data describing whether or
       not it detects target objects coming into, moving around, or leaving the sensing area at every moment. We previously
       developed a parameter estimation method for a single target object. However, a straight-forward extension of this
       method is not applicable for estimating multiple heterogeneous target objects. This is because a networked binary


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                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
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                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


       sensor at an unknown location cannot provide information that distinguishes individual target objects, but it can provide
       information on the total perimeter length and size of multiple target objects. Therefore, we propose composite sensor
       nodes with multiple sensors in a predetermined layout for obtaining additional information for estimating the parameter
       of each target object. As an example of a composite sensor node, we consider a two-sensor composite sensor node,
       which consists of two sensors, one at each of the two end points of a line segment of known length. For the two-sensor
       composite sensor node, measures are derived such as the two sensors detecting target objects. These derived
       measures are the basis for identifying the shape of each target object among a given set of categories (for example,
       disks and rectangles) and estimating parameters such as the radius and lengths of two sides of each target object.
       Numerical examples demonstrate that networked composite sensor nodes consisting of two binary sensors enable us to
       estimate the parameters of target objects.


EGC     Handling Selfishness in Replica Allocation over a Mobile Ad Hoc Network
4332


       In a mobile ad hoc network, the mobility and resource constraints of mobile nodes may lead to network partitioning or
       performance degradation. Several data replication techniques have been proposed to minimize performance
       degradation. Most of them assume that all mobile nodes collaborate fully in terms of sharing their memory space. In
       reality, however, some nodes may selfishly decide only to cooperate partially, or not at all, with other nodes. These
       selfish nodes could then reduce the overall data accessibility in the network. In this paper, we examine the impact of
       selfish nodes in a mobile ad hoc network from the perspective of replica allocation. We term this selfish replica
       allocation. In particular, we develop a selfish node detection algorithm that considers partial selfishness and novel
       replica allocation techniques to properly cope with selfish replica allocation. The conducted simulations demonstrate
       the proposed approach outperforms traditional cooperative replica allocation techniques in terms of data accessibility,
       communication cost, and average query delay.


EGC     Fast Data Collection in Tree-Based Wireless Sensor Networks
4333


       We investigate the following fundamental question-how fast can information be collected from a wireless sensor
       network organized as tree? To address this, we explore and evaluate a number of different techniques using realistic
       simulation models under the many-to-one communication paradigm known as convergecast. We first consider time
       scheduling on a single frequency channel with the aim of minimizing the number of time slots required (schedule length)
       to complete a convergecast. Next, we combine scheduling with transmission power control to mitigate the effects of
       interference, and show that while power control helps in reducing the schedule length under a single frequency,
       scheduling transmissions using multiple frequencies is more efficient. We give lower bounds on the schedule length
       when interference is completely eliminated, and propose algorithms that achieve these bounds. We also evaluate the
       performance of various channel assignment methods and find empirically that for moderate size networks of about 100
       nodes, the use of multifrequency scheduling can suffice to eliminate most of the interference. Then, the data collection
       rate no longer remains limited by interference but by the topology of the routing tree. To this end, we construct degree-


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                             Elysium Technologies Private Limited
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                             Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
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         constrained spanning trees and capacitated minimal spanning trees, and show significant improvement in scheduling
         performance over different deployment densities. Lastly, we evaluate the impact of different interference and channel
         models on the schedule length.




  EGC      Error Resilient Estimation and Adaptive Binary Selection for Fast and Reliable
  4334
           Identification of RFID Tags in Error-Prone Channel

         In RFID systems, far field passive tags send information using back scattering. The signal level is typically very small, so
         channel error during transmission may occur frequently. Due to channel error, performance of RFID tag identification
         under error-prone channel is degraded compared to that under error-free channel. In this paper, we propose a novel
         error resilient estimation and adaptive binary selection to overcome the problem of channel errors. Our proposed error
         resilient estimation algorithm can estimate the number of tags and the channel state accurately regardless of frame
         errors. And our proposed adaptive binary selection reduces the idle slots caused by frame errors. Performance analysis
         and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm consumes up to 20% less time slots than the binary tree
         protocol and dynamic framed slotted ALOHA (DFSA) in various bit error rate (BER) conditions.




 EGC      Fast Capture—Recapture Approach for Mitigating the Problem of Missing RFID Tags
 4335



         The technology of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) enables many applications that rely on passive, battery-less
         wireless devices. If a RFID reader needs to gather the ID from multiple tags in its range, then it needs to run an
         anticollision protocol. Due to errors on the wireless link, a single reader session, which contains one full execution of
         the anticollision protocol, may not be sufficient to retrieve the ID of all tags. This problem can be mitigated by running
         multiple, redundant reader sessions and use the statistical relationship between these sessions. On the other hand,
         each session is time consuming and therefore the number of sessions should be kept minimal. We optimize the process
         of running multiple reader sessions, by allowing only some of the tags already discovered to reply in subsequent reader
         sessions. The estimation procedure is integrated with an actual tree-based anticollision protocol, and numerical results
         show that the reliable tag resolution algorithm attain high speed of protocol execution, while not sacrificing the
         reliability of the estimators used to assess the probability of missing tags.



EGC      Geometry and Motion-Based Positioning Algorithms for Mobile Tracking in NLOS
4336     Environments


         In This paper presents positioning algorithms for cellular network-based mobile tracking in severe non-line-of-sight
         (NLOS) propagation scenarios. The aim of the algorithms is to enhance positional accuracy of network-based

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                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


       positioning systems when the GPS receiver does not perform well due to the hostile environment. Two positioning
       methods with NLOS mitigation are proposed. Constrained optimization is utilized to minimize the cost function which
       takes account of the NLOS error. Mobile velocity and heading angle information is exploited to greatly enhance position
       accuracy. It is observed through simulation that the proposed methods significantly outperform other cellular network
       based positioning algorithms. Further, the exact expressions of the CRLB are derived when the distance measurement
       error is the sum of an exponential and a Gaussian variable. RFID systems, far field passive tags send information using
       back scattering. The signal level is typically very small, so channel error during transmission may occur frequently. Due
       to channel error, performance of RFID tag identification under error-prone channel is degraded compared to that under
       error-free channel. In this paper, we propose a novel error resilient estimation and adaptive binary selection to overcome
       the problem of channel errors. Our proposed error resilient estimation algorithm can estimate the number of tags and
       the channel state accurately regardless of frame errors. And our proposed adaptive binary selection reduces the idle
       slots caused by frame errors. Performance analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm consumes
       up to 20% less time slots than the binary tree protocol and dynamic framed slotted ALOHA (DFSA) in various bit error
       rate (BER) conditions.



EGC     Local Broadcast Algorithms in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: Reducing the Number of
4337    Transmissions


       This paper presents positioning algorithms for cellular network-based mobile tracking in severe non-line-of-sight (NLOS)
       propagation scenarios. The aim of the algorithms is to enhance positional accuracy of network-based positioning
       systems when the GPS receiver does not perform well due to the hostile environment. Two positioning methods with
       NLOS mitigation are proposed. Constrained optimization is utilized to minimize the cost function which takes account of
       the NLOS error. Mobile velocity and heading angle information is exploited to greatly enhance position accuracy. It is
       observed through simulation that the proposed methods significantly outperform other cellular network based
       positioning algorithms. Further, the exact expressions of the CRLB are derived when the distance measurement error is
       the sum of an exponential and a Gaussian variable.



EGC     Leveraging the Algebraic Connectivity of a Cognitive Network for Routing Design
4338




       In this paper, we consider the implications of spectrum heterogeneity on connectivity and routing in a Cognitive Radio
       Ad Hoc Network (CRAHN). We study the Laplacian spectrum of the CRAHN graph when the activity of primary users is
       considered. We introduce the cognitive algebraic connectivity, i.e., the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian of a
       graph, in a cognitive scenario. Throughout this notion we provide a methodology to evaluate the connectivity of
       CRAHNs and consequently introduce a utility function that is shown to be effective in capturing key characteristics of
       CRAHN paths. This model provides a unique metric that captures network connectivity, path length, and impact of


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       primary users. Moreover, the proposed metric penalizes paths where spectrum band switchings are highly probable. We
       design all the components of our routing framework, named Gymkhana, and we present a twofold performance
       verification: one from a topological perspective to show all the potentialities of the proposed routing approach, and the
       other considering network traffic to evaluate the performance in terms of end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio.


EGC
       Local Construction of Spanners in the 3D Space
4339




       In this paper, we present local distributed algorithms for constructing spanners in wireless sensor networks modeled as
       unit ball graphs (shortly UBGs) and quasi-unit ball graphs (shortly quasi-UBGs), in the 3D euclidean space. Our first
       contribution is a local distributed algorithm that, given a UBG U and a parameter alpha < pi/3, constructs a sparse
       spanner of U with stretch factor 1/(1-2sin {(alpha/2)}), improving the previous upper bound of 1/(1-alpha ) by Althöfer et
       al. which is applicable only when alpha < 1/(1+2sqrt{2}) < pi/3. The second contribution of this paper is in presenting the
       first local distributed algorithm for the construction of bounded-degree lightweight spanners of UBGs and quasi-UBGs.
       The simulation results we obtained show that, empirically, the weight and the stretch factor of the spanners, and the
       locality of the algorithms, are much better than the theoretical upper bounds proved in this paper.




EGC     Investigation of Context Prediction Accuracy for Different Context Abstraction Levels
4340




       Context prediction is the task of inferring information about the progression of an observed context time series based
       on its previous behavior. Prediction methods can be applied at several abstraction levels in the context processing
       chain. In a theoretical analysis as well as by means of experiments we show that the nature of the input data, the quality
       of the output, and finally the flow of processing operations used to make a prediction, are correlated. A comprehensive
       discussion of basic concepts in context prediction domains and a study on the effects of the context abstraction level
       on the context prediction accuracy in context prediction scenarios is provided. We develop a set of formulae that link
       scenario-dependent parameters to a probability for the context prediction accuracy. It is demonstrated that the results
       achieved in our theoretical analysis can also be confirmed in simulations as well as in experimental studies.


EGC    Hop-by-Hop Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks with Bandwidth Guarantees
4341




       Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) has become an important edge network to provide Internet access to remote areas and
       wireless connections in a metropolitan scale. In this paper, we study the problem of identifying the maximum available


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                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
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       bandwidth path, a fundamental issue in supporting quality-of-service in WMNs. Due to interference among links,
       bandwidth, a well-known bottleneck metric in wired networks, is neither concave nor additive in wireless networks. We
       propose a new path weight which captures the available path bandwidth information. We formally prove that our hop-by-
       hop routing protocol based on the new path weight satisfies the consistency and loop-freeness requirements. The
       consistency property guarantees that each node makes a proper packet forwarding decision, so that a data packet does
       traverse over the intended path. Our extensive simulation experiments also show that our proposed path weight
       outperforms existing path metrics in identifying high-throughput paths.


EGC     Investigation of Context Prediction Accuracy for Different Context Abstraction Levels
4342



       Context prediction is the task of inferring information about the progression of an observed context time series based
       on its previous behavior. Prediction methods can be applied at several abstraction levels in the context processing
       chain. In a theoretical analysis as well as by means of experiments we show that the nature of the input data, the quality
       of the output, and finally the flow of processing operations used to make a prediction, are correlated. A comprehensive
       discussion of basic concepts in context prediction domains and a study on the effects of the context abstraction level
       on the context prediction accuracy in context prediction scenarios is provided. We develop a set of formulae that link
       scenario-dependent parameters to a probability for the context prediction accuracy. It is demonstrated that the results
       achieved in our theoretical analysis can also be confirmed in simulations as well as in experimental studies.



EGC      Link Positions Matter: A Non-commutative Routing Metric for Wireless Mesh Networks
4343



       We revisit the problem of computing the path with the minimum cost in terms of the expected number of link layer
       transmissions (including retransmissions) in wireless mesh networks. Unlike previous efforts, such as the popular ETX,
       we account for the fact that MAC protocols (including the IEEE 802.11 MAC) incorporate a finite number of transmission
       attempts per packet. This in turn leads to our key observation: the performance of a path depends not only on the
       number of the links on the path and the quality of its links, but also, on the relative positions of the links on the path.
       Based on this observation, we propose ETOP, a path metric that accurately captures the expected number of link layer
       transmissions required for reliable end-to-end packet delivery. We analytically compute ETOP, which is not trivial, since
       ETOP is a noncommutative function of the link success probabilities. Although ETOP is a more involved metric, we
       show that the problem of computing paths with the minimum ETOP cost can be solved by a greedy algorithm. We
       implement and evaluate a routing approach based on ETOP on a 25-node indoor mesh network. Our experiments show
       that the path selection with ETOP consistently results in superior TCP goodput (by over 50 percent in many cases)
       compared to path selection based on ETX. We also perform an in-depth analysis of the measurements to better
       understand why the paths selected by ETOP improve the TCP performance.


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                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
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                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com




EGC     Local Greedy Approximation for Scheduling in Multihop Wireless Networks
4344



       In recent years, there has been a significant amount of work done in developing low-complexity scheduling schemes to
       achieve high performance in multihop wireless networks. A centralized suboptimal scheduling policy, called Greedy
       Maximal Scheduling (GMS) is a good candidate because its empirically observed performance is close to optimal in a
       variety of network settings. However, its distributed realization requires high complexity, which becomes a major
       obstacle for practical implementation. In this paper, we develop simple distributed greedy algorithms for scheduling in
       multihop wireless networks. We reduce the complexity by relaxing the global ordering requirement of GMS, up to near
       zero. Simulation results show that the new algorithms approximate the performance of GMS, and outperform the state-
       of-the-art distributed scheduling policies.


EGC     Improving QoS in High-Speed Mobility Using Bandwidth Maps
4345




       It is widely evidenced that location has a significant influence on the actual bandwidth that can be expected from
       Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs), e.g., 3G. Because a fast-moving vehicle continuously changes its location,
       vehicular mobile computing is confronted with the possibility of significant variations in available network bandwidth.
       While it is difficult for providers to eliminate bandwidth disparity over a large service area, it may be possible to map
       network bandwidth to the road network through repeated measurements. In this paper, we report results of an extensive
       measurement campaign to demonstrate the viability of such bandwidth maps. We show how bandwidth maps can be
       interfaced with adaptive multimedia servers and the emerging vehicular communication systems that use on-board
       mobile routers to deliver Internet services to the passengers. Using simulation experiments driven by our measurement
       data, we quantify the improvement in Quality of Service (QoS) that can be achieved by taking advantage of the
       geographical knowledge of bandwidth provided by the bandwidth maps. We find that our approach reduces the
       frequency of disruptions in perceived QoS for both audio and video applications in high-speed vehicular mobility by
       several orders of magnitude.


EGC     Jointly Optimal Source-Flow, Transmit-Power, and Sending-Rate Control for Maximum-
4346    Throughput Delivery of VBR Traffic over Faded Links


       Emerging media overlay networks for wireless applications aim at delivering Variable Bit Rate (VBR) encoded media
       contents to nomadic end users by exploiting the (fading-impaired and time-varying) access capacity offered by the "last-
       hop” wireless channel. In this application scenario, a still open question concerns the closed-form design of control


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       policies that maximize the average throughput sent over the wireless last hop, under constraints on the maximum
       connection bandwidth available at the Application (APP) layer, the queue capacity available at the Data Link (DL) layer,
       and the average and peak energies sustained by the Physical (PHY) layer. The approach we follow relies on the
       maximization on a per-slot basis of the throughput averaged over the fading statistic and conditioned on the queue
       state, without resorting to cumbersome iterative algorithms. The resulting optimal controller operates in a cross-layer
       fashion that involves the APP, DL, and PHY layers of the underlying protocol stack. Finally, we develop the operating
       conditions allowing the proposed controller also to maximize the unconditional average throughput (i.e., the throughput
       averaged over both queue and channel-state statistics). The carried out numerical tests give insight into the connection
       bandwidth-versus-queue delay trade-off achieved by the optimal controller.



EGC     Low Power Consumption Solutions for Mobile Instant Messaging
4347




       Instant messaging (IM) services enable real-time text and multimedia exchange and online presence awareness. Users
       typically log onto instant messaging services persistently to discover available friends and also to be discovered.
       However, our analysis shows that the frequency exchange of presence information incurs massive power consumption
       to mobile devices over cellular or wireless local area networks. Such power consumption penalty can render persistent-
       instant messaging infeasible for battery-powered mobile devices. In this paper, we propose several solutions to mitigate
       the power consumption problem. By reducing the network access and keeping mobile devices in the sleep mode as
       much as possible, these solutions achieve significant power saving. The power consumption of the proposed solutions
       is derived analytically in this paper and the proposed solutions are implemented using a Jabber-based architecture.
       Actual power measurement results show that the power consumption of the proposed solutions agrees well with our
       analysis, and significant power saving can be achieved on mobile handsets with our low power consumption solutions
       implemented.


EGC    Heuristic Burst Construction Algorithm for Improving Downlink Capacity in IEEE
4348
       802.16 OFDMA Systems


       IEEE 802.16 OFDMA systems have gained much attention for their ability to support high transmission rates and
       broadband access services. For multiuser environments, IEEE 802.16 OFDMA systems require a resource allocation
       algorithm to use the limited downlink resource efficiently. The IEEE 802.16 standard defines that resource allocation
       should be performed with a rectangle region of slots, called a burst. However, the standard does not specify how to
       construct bursts. In this paper, we propose a heuristic burst construction algorithm, called HuB, to improve the
       downlink capacity in IEEE 802.16 OFDMA systems. To increase the downlink capacity, during burst constructions HuB
       reduces resource wastage by considering padded slots and unused slots and reduces resource usage by considering
       the power boosting possibility. For simple burst constructions, HuB makes a HuB-tree, in which a node represents an


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       available downlink resource and edges of a node represent a burst rectangle region. Thus, making child nodes of a
       parent node is the same as constructing a burst in a given downlink resource. We analyzed the proposed algorithm and
       performed simulations to compare the performance of the proposed algorithm with existing algorithms. Our simulation
       study results show that HuB shows improved downlink capacity over existing algorithms.




EGC     Investigation of Context Prediction Accuracy for Different Context Abstraction Levels
4349




       Context prediction is the task of inferring information about the progression of an observed context time series based
       on its previous behavior. Prediction methods can be applied at several abstraction levels in the context processing
       chain. In a theoretical analysis as well as by means of experiments we show that the nature of the input data, the quality
       of the output, and finally the flow of processing operations used to make a prediction, are correlated. A comprehensive
       discussion of basic concepts in context prediction domains and a study on the effects of the context abstraction level
       on the context prediction accuracy in context prediction scenarios is provided. We develop a set of formulae that link
       scenario-dependent parameters to a probability for the context prediction accuracy. It is demonstrated that the results
       achieved in our theoretical analysis can also be confirmed in simulations as well as in experimental studies.

EGC    Measurement-Based Bandwidth Scavenging in Wireless Networks
4350


       Dynamic Spectrum Access can enable a secondary user in a cognitive network to access unused spectrum, or
       whitespace, found between primary user transmissions in a wireless network. The key design objective for a secondary
       user access strategy is to "scavenge” the maximum amount of spatio-temporally fragmented whitespace while limiting
       the amount of disruption caused to the primary users. In this paper, we first measure and analyze the whitespace
       profiles of an 802.11 network (using ns-2 simulation) and a non-802.11 (CSMA)-based network (developed on TelosB
       Motes). Then we propose two novel secondary user access strategies, which are based on measurement and statistical
       modeling of the whitespace as perceived by the secondary users. Afterward, we perform simulation experiments to
       validate the effectiveness of the proposed access strategies under single and multiple secondary user scenarios, and
       evaluate their performance numerically using the developed analytical expressions. The results show that the proposed
       access strategies are able to consistently scavenge between 90 and 96 percent of the available whitespace capacity,
       while keeping the primary users disruption less than 5 percent.


EGC
        Mobile Ad Hoc Nanonetworks with Collision-Based Molecular Communication
4351




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       Context   Recent developments in nanotechnology have enabled the fabrication of nanomachines with very limited
       sensing, computation, communication, and action capabilities. The network of communicating nanomachines is
       envisaged as nanonetworks that are designed to accomplish complex tasks such as drug delivery and health
       monitoring. For the realization of future nanonetworks, it is essential to develop novel and efficient communication and
       networking paradigms. In this paper, the first step toward designing a mobile ad hoc molecular nanonetwork (MAMNET)
       with electrochemical communication is taken. MAMNET consists of mobile nanomachines and infostations that share
       nanoscale information using electrochemical communication whenever they have a physical contact with each other. In
       MAMNET, the intermittent connectivity introduced by the mobility of nanomachines and infostations is a critical issue to
       be addressed. An analytical framework that incorporates the effect of mobility into the performance of electrochemical
       communication among nanomachines is presented. Using the analytical model, numerical analysis for the performance
       evaluation of MAMNET is obtained. Results reveal that MAMNET achieves adequately high throughput to enable frontier
       nanonetwork applications with acceptable communication latency.




EGC    Modeling and Performance Analysis for Duty-Cycled MAC Protocols with Applications
4352   to S-MAC and X-MAC


       Wireless sensor networks are often battery-powered, and hence extending the network lifetime is one of the primary
       concerns in the ubiquitous deployment of wireless sensor networks. One approach to efficiently utilize the limited
       energy supplies of the sensors is to have the medium access control (MAC) protocol duty-cycle the sensors,
       periodically putting the sensors to sleep and waking them up to reduce idle listening, which is energy intensive. Among
       duty-cycled MAC protocols, some protocols are synchronized so that nodes wake up at the same time in each cycle, and
       other protocols are asynchronous, where nodes have arbitrary offsets to start their cycles. For protocol designers, it is
       important to understand which type of duty-cycled MAC protocol should be chosen (synchronized or asynchronous), as
       well as what values should be assigned to the protocol parameters under a given network scenario in order to achieve a
       desirable performance for throughput, delay, or energy consumption. However, previous work to analyze the
       performance of different duty-cycled MAC protocols is either protocol-specific, or limited to one aspect of the
       performance metric. In this paper, we propose a Markov queuing model to analyze the throughput, delay, and energy
       consumption of both synchronized and asynchronous duty-cycled MAC protocols with applications to S-MAC and X-
       MAC. Our contributions include: 1) proposing a Markov queuing model to describe the queuing behavior of both
       synchronous and asynchronous duty-cycled nodes, 2) modeling the queue dynamics and the stationary probability of
       packet transmissions for S-MAC, a synchronized duty-cycled MAC protocol, to analyze its performance, 3) modeling the
       queue dynamics and the stationary probability of packet transmissions for X-MAC, an asynchronous duty-cycled MAC
       protocol, to analyze its performance, 4) providing comprehensive performance estimation and comparison for different
       duty-cycled MAC protocols, and 5) providing flexibility to - radeoff different performance metrics by optimizing the
       protocol parameters. Our model results are validated by comparing with NS-2 and Matlab simulations.



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EGC     Mining Spectrum Usage Data: A Large-Scale Spectrum Measurement Study
4353




       Context Dynamic spectrum access has been a subject of extensive study in recent years. The increasing volume of
       literatures calls for a deeper understanding of the characteristics of current spectrum utilization. In this paper, we
       present a detailed spectrum measurement study, with data collected in the 20 MHz to 3 GHz spectrum band and at four
       locations concurrently in Guangdong province of China. We examine the statistics of the collected data, including
       channel vacancy statistics, channel utilization within each individual wireless service, and the spectral and spatial
       correlation of these measures. Main findings include that the channel vacancy durations follow an exponential-like
       distribution, but are not independently distributed over time, and that significant spectral and spatial correlations are
       found between channels of the same service. We then exploit such spectrum correlation to develop a 2D frequent
       pattern mining algorithm that can predict channel availability based on past observations with considerable accuracy.



EGC    Maximum Entropy Principle-Based Algorithm for Simultaneous Resource Location and
       This paper presents a framework that develops algorithms for solving combined locational and multihop routing
4354
       Multihop Routing in Multiagent Networks
       optimization problems. The objective is to determine resource node locations in a multiagent network and to specify the
       multihop routes from each agent to a common destination through a network of resource nodes that minimize total
       communication cost. These problems are computationally complex (NP-hard) where the cost functions are riddled with
       multiple minima. Algorithms based on Maximum Entropy Principle, which guarantee local minima and are heuristically
       designed to seek the global minimum are presented. These algorithms accommodate practical constraints on resource
       nodes as well as on the routing network architectures. Simulation results show that the multihop routes and resource
       locations allocated by these algorithms achieve lower costs (as low as 47 percent) than those algorithms where
       resource locational optimization is done without multihop routing or where the locational and routing optimization
       objectives are separated. The enabling feature of these algorithms is accommodating problems with resource
       constraints which is demonstrated through simulations. .


EGC
4355    MAC in Motion: Impact of Mobility on the MAC of Drive-Thru Internet



       The pervasive adoption of IEEE 802.11 radios in the past decade has made possible for the easy Internet access from a
       vehicle, notably drive-thru Internet. Originally designed for the static indoor applications, the throughput performance of
       IEEE 802.11 in the outdoor vehicular environment is, however, still unclear especially when a large number of fast-
       moving users transmitting simultaneously. In this paper, we investigate the performance of IEEE 802.11 DCF in the
       highly mobile vehicular networks. We first propose a simple yet accurate analytical model to evaluate the throughput of
       DCF in the large scale drive-thru Internet scenario. Our model incorporates the high-node mobility with the modeling of


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       DCF and unveils the impacts of mobility (characterized by node velocity and moving directions) on the resultant
       throughput. Based on the model, we show that the throughput of DCF will be reduced with increasing node velocity due
       to the mismatch between the MAC and the transient high-throughput connectivity of vehicles. We then propose several
       enhancement schemes to adaptively adjust the MAC in tune with the node mobility. Extensive simulations are carried
       out to validate the accuracy of the developed analytical model and the effectiveness of the proposed enhancement
       schemes.



EGC    Mobile Data Offloading through Opportunistic Communications and Social
4356   Participation


       3G networks are currently overloaded, due to the increasing popularity of various applications for smartphones.
       Offloading mobile data traffic through opportunistic communications is a promising solution to partially solve this
       problem, because there is almost no monetary cost for it. We propose to exploit opportunistic communications to
       facilitate information dissemination in the emerging Mobile Social Networks (MoSoNets) and thus reduce the amount of
       mobile data traffic. As a case study, we investigate the target-set selection problem for information delivery. In
       particular, we study how to select the target set with only k users, such that we can minimize the mobile data traffic over
       cellular networks. We propose three algorithms, called Greedy, Heuristic, and Random, for this problem and evaluate
       their performance through an extensive trace-driven simulation study. Our simulation results verify the efficiency of
       these algorithms for both synthetic and real-world mobility traces. For example, the Heuristic algorithm can offload
       mobile data traffic by up to 73.66 percent for a real-world mobility trace. Moreover, to investigate the feasibility of
       opportunistic communications for mobile phones, we implement a proof-of-concept prototype, called Opp-off, on Nokia
       N900 smartphones, which utilizes their Bluetooth interface for device/service discovery and content transfer.



EGC    Moderated Group Authoring System for Campus-Wide Workgroups
4357



       This paper describes the design and implementation of a file system-based distributed authoring system for campus-
       wide workgroups. We focus on documents for which changes by different group members are harder to automatically
       reconcile into a single version. Prior approaches relied on using group-aware editors. Others built collaborative
       middleware that allowed the group members to use traditional authoring tools. These approaches relied on an ability to
       automatically detect conflicting updates. They also operated on specific document types. Instead, our system relies on
       users to moderate and reconcile updates by other group members. Our file system-based approach also allows group
       members to modify any document type. We maintain one updateable copy of the shared content on each group
       member's node. We also hoard read-only copies of each of these updateable copies in any interested group member's
       node. All these copies are propagated to other group members at a rate that is solely dictated by the wireless user
       availability. The various copies are reconciled using the moderation operation; each group member manually
       incorporates updates from all the other group members into their own copy. The various document versions eventually

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       converge into a single version through successive moderation operations. The system assists with this convergence
       process by using the made-with knowledge of all causal file system reads of contents from other replicas. An analysis
       using a long-term wireless user availability traces from a university shows the strength of our asynchronous and
       distributed update propagation mechanism. Our user space file system prototype exhibits acceptable file system
       performance. A subjective evaluation showed that the moderation operation was intuitive for students.



EGC
4358
        On the Cost of Knowledge of Mobility in Dynamic Networks:An Information-Theoretic
        Approach


       This In this paper, we extend an information-theoretic approach for characterizing the minimum cost of tracking the
       motion state information, such as locations and velocities, of nodes in dynamic networks. A rate-distortion formulation
       is proposed to solve this minimum-cost motion-tracking problem, where the minimum cost is the minimum information
       rate required to identify the network state at a sequence of tracking time instants within a certain distortion bound. The
       formulation is applicable to various mobility models, distortion criteria, and stochastic sequences of tracking time
       instants and hence is general. Under Brownian motion and Gauss-Markov mobility models, we evaluate lower bounds on
       the information rate of tracking the motion state information of nodes, where the motion state of a node is 1) the node's
       locations only, or 2) both its locations and velocities. We apply the obtained results to analyze the geographic routing
       overhead in mobile ad hoc networks. We present the minimum overhead incurred by maintaining the geographic
       information of nodes in terms of node mobility, packet arrival process, and distortion bounds. This leads to precise
       characterizations of the observation that given certain state-distortion allowance, protocols aimed at tracking motion
       state information may not scale beyond a certain level of node mobility.


EGC
        On Reliable Broadcast in Low Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks
4359




       Broadcast is one of the most fundamental services in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It facilitates sensor nodes to
       propagate messages across the whole network, serving a wide range of higher level operations and thus being critical to
       the overall network design. A distinct feature of WSNs is that many nodes alternate between active and dormant states,
       so as to conserve energy and extend the network lifetime. Unfortunately, the impact of such cycles has been largely
       ignored in existing broadcast implementations that adopt the common assumption of all nodes being active all over the
       time. In this paper, we revisit the broadcast problem with active/dormant cycles. We show strong evidence that
       conventional broadcast approaches will suffer from severe performance degradation, and, under low duty cycles, they
       could easily fail to cover the whole network in an acceptable time frame. To this end, we remodel the broadcast problem
       in this new context, seeking a balance between efficiency and latency with coverage guarantees. We demonstrate that
       this problem can be translated into a graph equivalence, and develop a centralized optimal solution. It provides a
       valuable benchmark for assessing diverse duty-cycle-aware broadcast strategies. We then extend it to an efficient and


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       scalable distributed implementation, which relies on local information and operations only, with built-in loss
       compensation mechanisms. The performance of our solution is evaluated under diverse network configurations. The
       results suggest that our distributed solution is close to the lower bounds of both time and forwarding costs, and it well
       resists to the wireless loss with good scalability on the network size and density. In addition, it enables flexible control
       toward the quality of broadcast coverage.



EGC     Network Connectivity with a Family of Group Mobility Models
4360



       We investigate the communication range of the nodes necessary for network connectivity, which we call bidirectional
       connectivity, in a simple setting. Unlike in most of existing studies, however, the locations or mobilities of the nodes
       may be correlated through group mobility: nodes are broken into groups, with each group comprising the same number
       of nodes, and lie on a unit circle. The locations of the nodes in the same group are not mutually independent, but are
       instead conditionally independent given the location of the group. We examine the distribution of the smallest
       communication range needed for bidirectional connectivity, called the critical transmission range (CTR), when both the
       number of groups and the number of nodes in a group are large. We first demonstrate that the CTR exhibits a parametric
       sensitivity with respect to the space each group occupies on the unit circle. Then, we offer an explanation for the
       observed sensitivity by identifying what is known as a very strong threshold and asymptotic bounds for CTR.



EGC     OMAN: A Mobile Ad Hoc Network Design System
4361



       We present a software library that aids in the design of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). The OMAN design engine
       works by taking a specification of network requirements and objectives, and allocates resources which satisfy the input
       constraints and maximize the communication performance objective. The tool is used to explore networking design
       options and challenges, including: power control, adaptive modulation, flow control, scheduling, mobility, uncertainty in
       channel models, and cross-layer design. The unaddressed niche which OMAN seeks to fill is the general framework for
       optimization of any network resource, under arbitrary constraints, and with any selection of multiple objectives. While
       simulation is an important part of measuring the effectiveness of implemented optimization techniques, the novelty and
       focus of OMAN is on proposing novel network design algorithms, aggregating existing approaches, and providing a
       general framework for a network designer to test out new proposed resource allocation methods. In this paper, we
       present a high-level view of the OMAN architecture, review specific mathematical models used in the network
       representation, and show how OMAN is used to evaluate tradeoffs in MANET design. Specifically, we cover three case
       studies of optimization. The first case is robust power control under uncertain channel information for a single physical
       layer snapshot. The second case is scheduling with the availability of directional radiation patterns. The third case is
       optimizing topology through movement planning of relay nodes.


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EGC
4362    OLM: Opportunistic Layered Multicasting for Scalable IPTV over Mobile WiMAX



       We propose Opportunistic Layered Multicasting (OLM), a joint user scheduling and resource allocation algorithm that
       provides enhanced quality and efficiency for layered video multicast over Mobile WiMAX. This work is a lead off and
       complete synergy of layered video multicasting with opportunistic concept. The target application is characterized by
       groups of users acquiring popular video programs over a fading channel. To accommodate various bandwidth
       requirements and device capability, video streams are coded into base and enhancement layers using scalable video
       coding technology. Correspondingly, the optimization problems, which select the best subset of users to receive a
       specific video layer and assign the most appropriate modulation and coding scheme for this video layer, are specifically
       formulated for both video layer types. We also design fast and effective algorithms to bridge the gap between theoretical
       throughput capacity and implementation concerns. Thus, the basic video quality can be efficiently guaranteed to all
       subscribers while creating most utility out of limited resources on enhancement information. To overcome the inevitable
       packet loss in a multicast session, an FEC rate adaptation scheme to approach theoretical performance is also
       presented. Favorable performance of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated by simulations utilizing realistic Mobile
       WiMAX parameters

EGC     Nature-Inspired Self-Organization, Control, and Optimization in Heterogeneous
4363
        Wireless Networks
       In this paper, we present new models and algorithms for control and optimization of a class of next generation

       communication networks: hierarchical heterogeneous wireless networks (HHWNs), under real world physical
       constraints. Two biology-inspired techniques, a flocking algorithm (FA) and a particle swarm optimizer (PSO), are
       investigated in this context. Our model is based on the control framework at the physical layer presented previously by
       the authors. We first develop a non-convex mathematical model for HHWNs. Second, we propose a new FA for self-
       organization and control of the backbone nodes in an HHWN by collecting local information from end users. Third, we
       employ PSO, a widely used artificial intelligence algorithm, to directly optimize the HHWN by collecting global
       information from the entire system. A comprehensive evaluation measurement during the optimization process is
       developed. In addition, the relationship between HHWN and FA and the comparison of FA and PSO are discussed,
       respectively. Our novel framework is examined in various dynamic scenarios. Experimental results demonstrate that FA
       and PSO both outperform current algorithms for the self-organization and optimization of HHWN, while showing different
       characteristics with respect to convergence speed and quality of solutions.



EGC     On the Origins of Heavy-Tailed Delay in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks
4364




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       This paper provides an asymptotic analysis of the transmission delay experienced by SUs for dynamic spectrum access
       (DSA) networks. It is shown that DSA induces only light-tailed delay if both the busy time of PU channels and the
       message size of SUs are light tailed. On the contrary, if either the busy time or the message size is heavy tailed, then the
       SUs' transmission delay is heavy tailed. For this latter case, it is proven that if one of either the busy time or the
       message size is light tailed and the other is regularly varying with index α, the transmission delay is regularly varying
       with the same index. As a consequence, the delay has an infinite mean provided α <; 1 and an infinite variance provided
       α <; 2. Furthermore, if both the busy time and the message size are regularly varying with different indices, then the
       delay tail distribution is as heavy as the one with the smaller index. Moreover, the impact of spectrum mobility and
       multiradio diversity on the delay performance of SUs is studied. It is shown that both spectrum mobility and multiradio
       diversity can greatly mitigate the heavy-tailed delay by increasing the orders of its finite moments.



EGC     Network Coding in Cooperative Communications: Friend or Foe?
4365



       A major benefit of employing network coding (NC) in cooperative communications (CCs) is its ability to reduce time-slot
       overhead. Such approach is called network-coded CC (or NC-CC). Most of the existing works have mainly focused on
       exploiting this benefit without considering its potential adverse effect. In this paper, we show that NC may not always
       benefit CC. We substantiate this important finding with two important scenarios: employing analog network coding
       (ANC) in amplify-and-forward (AF) CC, and digital network coding (DNC) in decode-and-forward (DF) CC. For both
       scenarios, we introduce the important concept of network coding noise (NC noise). We analyze the origin of this noise
       via a careful study of signal aggregation at a relay node and signal extraction at a destination node. We derive a closed-
       form expression for NC noise at each destination node and show that the existence of NC noise could diminish the
       advantage of NC in CC. Our results shed new light on how to use NC in CC most effectively.



EGC     Positional Accuracy Measurement and Error Modeling for Mobile Tracking
4366



       This paper presents a method of determining the statistical positional accuracy of a moving object being tracked by any
       2D (but particularly radiolocation) positioning system without requiring a more accurate reference system. Commonly
       for testing performance only static positional errors are measured, but typically for radiolocation systems the positional
       performance is significantly different for moving objects compared with stationary objects. When only the overall
       statistical performance is required, the paper describes a measurement technique based on determining 1D cross-track
       errors from a nominal path, and then using this data set to determine the overall 2D positional error statistics.
       Comparison with simulated data shows that the method has good accuracy. The method is also tested with vehicle
       tracking in a city and people tracking within a building. For the indoor case, static and dynamic measurements allowed
       the degrading effect of body-worn devices due to signal blockage to be determined. Error modeling is also performed


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       and a Rayleigh-Gamma model is proposed to describe the radial positional errors. It is shown that this model has a good
       match with both indoor and outdoor field measurements.



EGC     Radio Resource Management of Composite Wireless Networks: Predictive and
4367
        Reactive Approaches

       Recently, the IEEE 1900.4 standard specified a policy-based radio resource management (RRM) framework in which the
       decision making process is distributed between network-terminal entities. The standard facilitates the optimization of
       radio resource usage to improve the overall composite capacity and quality of service (QoS) of heterogeneous wireless
       access networks within a composite wireless network (CWN). Hence, the study of different RRM techniques to maintain
       either a load- or QoS-balanced system through dynamic load distribution across a CWN is pivotal. In this paper, we
       present and evaluate three primary RRM techniques from different aspects, spanning across predictive versus reactive
       to model-based versus measurement-based approaches. The first technique is a measurement-based predictive
       approach, known as predictive load balancing (PLB), commonly employed in the network-distributed RRM framework.
       The second technique is a model-based predictive approach, known as predictive QoS balancing (PQB), typically
       implemented in the network-centralized RRM framework. The third technique is a measurement-based reactive
       approach, known as reactive QoS balancing (RQB), anchored in the IEEE 1900.4 network-terminal distributed RRM
       framework. Comprehensive performance analysis between these three techniques shows that the IEEE 1900.4-based
       RQB algorithm yields the best improvement in QoS fairness and aggregate end-user throughput while preserving an
       attractive baseline QoS property.



EGC      Risk-Aware Distributed Beacon Scheduling for Tree-Based ZigBee Wireless Networks
4368




       In a tree-based ZigBee network, ZigBee routers (ZRs) must schedule their beacon transmission time to avoid beacon
       collisions. The beacon schedule determines packet delivery latency from the end devices to the ZigBee coordinator at
       the root of the tree. Traditionally, beacon schedules are chosen such that a ZR does not reuse the beacon slots already
       claimed by its neighbors, or the neighbors of its neighbors. We observe, however, that beacon slots can be reused
       judiciously, especially when the risk of beacon collision caused by such reuse is low. The advantage of such reuse is
       that packet delivery latency can be reduced. We formalize our observation by proposing a node-pair classification
       scheme. Based on this scheme, we can easily assess the risk of slot reuse by a node pair. If the risk is high, slot reuse is
       disallowed; otherwise, slot reuse is allowed. This forms the essence of our ZigBee-compatible, distributed, risk-aware,
       probabilistic beacon scheduling algorithm. Simulation results show that on average the proposed algorithm produces a
       latency only 24 percent of that with conventional method, at the cost of 12 percent reduction in the fraction of associated
       nodes.



EGC     Resource-Optimized Quality-Assured Ambiguous Context Mediation Framework in
4369         IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
        Pervasive Environments
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       We Pervasive computing applications often involve sensor-rich networking environments that capture various types of
       user contexts such as locations, activities, vital signs, and so on. Such context information is useful in a variety of
       applications, for example, monitoring health information to promote independent living in "aging-in-place” scenarios, or
       providing safety and security of people and infrastructures. In reality, both sensed and interpreted contexts are often
       ambiguous, thus leading to potentially dangerous decisions if not properly handled. Therefore, a significant challenge in
       the design and development of realistic and deployable context-aware services for pervasive computing applications
       lies in the ability to deal with ambiguous contexts. In this paper, we propose a resource-optimized, quality-assured
       context mediation framework for sensor networks. The underlying approach is based on efficient context-aware data
       fusion, information-theoretic reasoning, and selection of sensor parameters, leading to an optimal state estimation. In
       particular, we apply dynamic Bayesian networks to derive context and deal with context ambiguity or error in a
       probabilistic manner. Experimental results using SunSPOT sensors demonstrate the promise of this approach.



EGC     Relay-Assisted Transmission with Fairness Constraint for Cellular Networks
4370



       We consider the problem of relay-assisted transmission for cellular networks. In the considered system, a source node
       together with n relay nodes are selected in a proportionally fair (PF) manner to transmit to the base station (BS), which
       uses the maximal ratio combining (MRC) to combine the signals received from the source node in the first half slot and
       the n relay nodes in the second half slot for successful reception. The proposed algorithm incorporates the PF criterion
       and cooperative diversity, and is called proportionally fair cooperation (PFC). Compared with the proportional fair
       scheduling (PFS) algorithm, PFC provides improved efficiency and fairness. The ordinary differential equation (ODE)
       analysis used to study PFS cannot be used for PFC; otherwise, one has to solve a large number of nonlinear and
       interrelated ODE equations which is time prohibited. In this paper, we present a mathematical framework for the
       performance of PFC. The cornerstone of our framework is a realistic yet simple model that captures node cooperation,
       fading, and fair resource allocation-induced dependencies. We obtain analytical expressions for the throughput gain of
       PFC over traditional PFS without node cooperation. Compared with the highly time-consuming ordinary differential
       equation analysis, our formulae are intuitive yet easy to evaluate numerically. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a
       closed-form expression is obtained for the throughput of relay-assisted transmission in a cellular network with the PF
       constraint.


EGC
         RAM: Rate Adaptation in Mobile Environments
4371




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        Channel asymmetry and high fluctuation of channel conditions are two salient characteristics of wireless channels in
        mobile environments. Therefore, when using IEEE 802.11 devices in mobile environments, it is critical to have an
        effective rate adaptation scheme that can deal with these issues. In this paper, we propose a practical rate adaptation
        scheme called Rate Adaptation in Mobile environments (RAM) and implement it in the MadWifi device driver. RAM uses a
        receiver-based approach to handle channel asymmetry and a conservative SNR prediction algorithm to deal with high
        channel fluctuation. More importantly, RAM allows the receiver to convey the feedback information to the transmitter in
        a creative manner via ACK transmission rate variation, which does not require changes to the device firmware and
        hence is implementable at the device driver level. In addition, RAM adopts an effective scheme to guarantee that RAM-
        based and legacy IEEE 802.11 devices can interoperate with each other. The effectiveness of RAM is demonstrated via
        in-depth experimental evaluation in indoor static and mobile environments as well as outdoor vehicular environments.



 EGC     ProSpect: A Proactive Spectrum Handoff Framework for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc
 4372
         Networks without Common Control Channel

        We Cognitive Radio (CR) technology is a promising solution to enhance the spectrum utilization by enabling unlicensed
        users to exploit the spectrum in an opportunistic manner. Since unlicensed users are temporary visitors to the licensed
        spectrum, they are required to vacate the spectrum when a licensed user reclaims it. Due to the randomness of the
        appearance of licensed users, disruptions to both licensed and unlicensed communications are often difficult to
        prevent, which may lead to low throughput of both licensed and unlicensed communications. In this paper, a proactive
        spectrum handoff framework for CR ad hoc networks, ProSpect, is proposed to address these concerns. In the proposed
        framework, Channel-Switching (CW) policies and a proactive spectrum handoff protocol are proposed to let unlicensed
        users vacate a channel before a licensed user utilizes it to avoid unwanted interference. Network coordination schemes
        for unlicensed users are also incorporated into the spectrum handoff protocol design. Moreover, a distributed channel
        selection scheme to eliminate collisions among unlicensed users in a multiuser spectrum handoff scenario is proposed.
        In our proposed framework, unlicensed users coordinate with each other without using a Common Control Channel
        (CCC), which is highly adaptable in a spectrum-varying environment. We compare our proposed proactive spectrum
        handoff protocol with a reactive spectrum handoff protocol, under which unlicensed users switch channels after
        collisions with licensed transmissions occur. Simulation results show that our proactive spectrum handoff outperforms
        the reactive spectrum handoff approach in terms of higher throughput and fewer collisions to licensed users.
        Furthermore, our distributed channel selection can achieve higher packet delivery rate in a multiuser spectrum handoff
        scenario, compared with existing channel selection schemes
EGC     Protecting Location Privacy in Sensor Networks against a Global Eavesdropper
4373



        While many protocols for sensor network security provide confidentiality for the content of messages, contextual
        information usually remains exposed. Such contextual information can be exploited by an adversary to derive sensitive
        information such as the locations of monitored objects and data sinks in the field. Attacks on these components can


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                             Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                             Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                             Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                             http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


       significantly undermine any network application. Existing techniques defend the leakage of location information from a
       limited adversary who can only observe network traffic in a small region. However, a stronger adversary, the global
       eavesdropper, is realistic and can defeat these existing techniques. This paper first formalizes the location privacy
       issues in sensor networks under this strong adversary model and computes a lower bound on the communication
       overhead needed for achieving a given level of location privacy. The paper then proposes two techniques to provide
       location privacy to monitored objects (source-location privacy)-periodic collection and source simulation-and two
       techniques to provide location privacy to data sinks (sink-location privacy)-sink simulation and backbone flooding.
       These techniques provide trade-offs between privacy, communication cost, and latency. Through analysis and
       simulation, we demonstrate that the proposed techniques are efficient and effective for source and sink-location privacy
       in sensor networks.


EGC
         Principal Component Localization in Indoor WLAN Environments
4374




        This paper presents a novel approach to building a WLAN-based location fingerprinting system. Our algorithm
       intelligently transforms received signal strength (RSS) into principal components (PCs) such that the information of all
       access points (APs) is more efficiently utilized. Instead of selecting APs, the proposed technique replaces the elements
       with a subset of PCs to simultaneously improve the accuracy and reduce the online computation. Our experiments are
       conducted in a realistic WLAN environment. The results show that the mean error is reduced by 33.75 percent, and the
       complexity by 40 percent, as compared to the existing methods. Moreover, several benefits of our algorithm are
       demonstrated, such as requiring fewer training samples and enhancing the robustness to RSS anomalies.




EGC     Soft-TDMAC: A Software-Based802.11 Overlay TDMA MAC with Microsecond
4375
        Synchronization


       We implement a new software-based multihop TDMA MAC protocol (Soft-TDMAC) with microsecond synchronization
       using a novel system interface for development of 802.11 overlay TDMA MAC protocols (SySI-MAC). SySI-MAC provides
       a kernel independent message-based interface for scheduling transmissions and sending and receiving 802.11 packets.
       The key feature of SySI-MAC is that it provides near deterministic timers and transmission times, which allows for
       implementation of highly synchronized TDMA MAC protocols. Building on SySI-MAC's predictable transmission times,
       we implement Soft-TDMAC, a software-based 802.11 overlay multihop TDMA MAC protocol. Soft-TDMAC has a
       synchronization mechanism, which synchronizes all pairs of network clocks to within microseconds of each other.
       Building on pairwise synchronization, Soft-TDMAC achieves tight network-wide synchronization. With network-wide
       synchronization independent of data transmissions, Soft-TDMAC can schedule arbitrary TDMA transmission patterns.


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                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


       For example, Soft-TDMAC allows schedules that decrease end-to-end delay and take end-to-end rate demands into
       account. We summarize hundreds of hours of testing Soft-TDMAC on a multihop testbed, showing the synchronization
       capabilities of the protocol and the benefits of flexible scheduling.


EGC      Robust Relative Location Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks with Inexact
4376
         Position Problems


       In this paper, the relative location estimation problem, a prominent issue faced by several applications in wireless
       sensor networks (WSNs), is considered. Sensors are classified into two categories: location-aware and location-unaware
       sensors. To estimate the positions of location-unaware sensors, exact positions are often assumed for location-aware
       sensors. However, in practice, such precise data may not be available. Therefore, determining the positions of location-
       unaware sensors in the presence of inexact positions of location-aware sensors is the primary focus of this study. A
       robust min-max optimization method is proposed for the relative location estimation problem by minimizing the worst-
       case estimation error. The corresponding optimization problem is originally nonconvex, but after it is transformed into a
       convex semidefinite program (SDP), it can be solved by existing numerical techniques. In the presence of inexact
       positions of location-aware sensors, the robustness of the proposed approach is validated by simulations under
       different WSN topologies. Modified maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation and second-order cone programming (SOCP)
       relaxation methods have been used for localization in comparison with the proposed approach.




EGC     Smooth Trade-Offs between Throughput and Delay in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
4377



       Throughput capacity in mobile ad hoc networks has been studied extensively under many different mobility models.
       However, most previous research assumes global mobility, and the results show that a constant per-node throughput
       can be achieved at the cost of very high delay. Thus, we are having a very big gap here, i.e., either low throughput and
       low delay in static networks or high throughput and high delay in mobile networks. In this paper, employing a practical
       restricted random mobility model, we try to fill this gap. Specifically, we assume that a network of unit area with n nodes
       is evenly divided into cells with an area of n -2α, each of which is further evenly divided into squares with an area of n-
       2β(0≤ α ≤ β ≤1/2). All nodes can only move inside the cell which they are initially distributed in, and at the beginning of
       each time slot, every node moves from its current square to a uniformly chosen point in a uniformly chosen adjacent
       square. By proposing a new multihop relay scheme, we present smooth trade-offs between throughput and delay by
       controlling nodes' mobility. We also consider a network of area nγ (0 ≤ γ ≤ 1) and find that network size does not affect
       the results obtained before.



EGC      Scalable Activity-Travel Pattern Monitoring Framework for Large-Scale City
4378
             IEEE Final
         Environment Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com




       In this paper, we introduce Activity Travel Pattern (ATP) monitoring in a large-scale city environment. ATP represents
       where city residents and vehicles stay and how they travel around in a complex megacity. Monitoring ATP will incubate
       new types of value-added services such as predictive mobile advertisement, demand forecasting for urban stores, and
       adaptive transportation scheduling. To enable ATP monitoring, we develop ActraMon, a high-performanceATP
       monitoring framework. As a first step, ActraMon provides a simple but effective computational model of ATP and a
       declarative query language facilitating effective specification of various ATP monitoring queries. More important,
       ActraMon employs the shared staging architecture and highly efficient processing techniques, which address the
       scalability challenges caused by massive location updates, a number of ATP monitoring queries and processing
       complexity of ATP monitoring. Finally, we demonstrate the extensive performance study of ActraMon using realistic city-
       wide ATP workloads.



EGC     Shaping Throughput Profiles in Multihop Wireless Networks:A Resource-Biasing
4379
        Approach

       A fundamental question in multihop wireless network protocol design is how to partition the network's transport
       capacity among contending flows. A classically "fair” allocation leads to poor throughput performance for all flows
       because connections that traverse a large number of hops (i.e., long connections) consume a disproportionate share of
       resources. However, naively biasing against longer connections can lead to poor network utilization, because a
       significantly high fraction of total connections are long in large networks with spatially uniform traffic. While
       proportional fair allocation provides a significant improvement, we show here that there is a much richer space of
       resource allocation strategies for introducing a controlled bias against resource-intensive long connections in order to
       significantly improve the performance of shorter connections. Specifically, mixing strongly biased allocations with fairer
       allocations leads to efficient network utilization as well as a superior trade-off between flow throughput and fairness. We
       present an analytical model that offers insight into the impact of a particular resource allocation strategy on network
       performance, taking into account finite network size and spatial traffic patterns. We point to protocol design options to
       implement our resource allocation strategies by invoking the connection with the well-studied network utility
       maximization framework. Our simulation evaluation serves to verify the analytical design prescriptions.


EGC
         Secure Initialization of Multiple Constrained Wireless Devices for an Unaided User
4380




       A fundamental question in multihop wireless network protocol design is how to partition the network's transport
       capacity among contending flows. A classically "fair” allocation leads to poor throughput performance for all flows


               IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


       because connections that traverse a large number of hops (i.e., long connections) consume a disproportionate share of
       resources. However, naively biasing against longer connections can lead to poor network utilization, because a
       significantly high fraction of total connections are long in large networks with spatially uniform traffic. While
       proportional fair allocation provides a significant improvement, we show here that there is a much richer space of
       resource allocation strategies for introducing a controlled bias against resource-intensive long connections in order to
       significantly improve the performance of shorter connections. Specifically, mixing strongly biased allocations with fairer
       allocations leads to efficient network utilization as well as a superior trade-off between flow throughput and fairness. We
       present an analytical model that offers insight into the impact of a particular resource allocation strategy on network
       performance, taking into account finite network size and spatial traffic patterns. We point to protocol design options to
       implement our resource allocation strategies by invoking the connection with the well-studied network utility
       maximization framework. Our simulation evaluation serves to verify the analytical design prescriptions.



EGC     Spectrum-Aware Mobility Management in Cognitive Radio Cellular Networks
4381



       Cognitive radio (CR) networks have been proposed as a solution to both spectrum inefficiency and spectrum scarcity
       problems. However, they face several challenges based on the fluctuating nature of the available spectrum, making it
       more difficult to support seamless communications, especially in CR cellular networks. In this paper, a spectrum-aware
       mobility management scheme is proposed for CR cellular networks. First, a novel network architecture is introduced to
       mitigate heterogeneous spectrum availability. Based on this architecture, a unified mobility management framework is
       developed to support diverse mobility events in CR networks, which consists of spectrum mobility management, user
       mobility management, and intercell resource allocation. The spectrum mobility management scheme determines a target
       cell and spectrum band for CR users adaptively dependent on time-varying spectrum opportunities, leading to increase
       in cell capacity. In the user mobility management scheme, a mobile user selects a proper handoff mechanism so as to
       minimize a switching latency at the cell boundary by considering spatially heterogeneous spectrum availability. Intercell
       resource allocation helps to improve the performance of both mobility management schemes by efficiently sharing
       spectrum resources with multiple cells. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve better
       performance than conventional handoff schemes in terms of both cell capacity as well as mobility support in
       communications.



EGC
         SenseLess: A Database-Driven White Spaces Network
4381




       The 2010 FCC ruling on white spaces proposes relying on a database of incumbents as the primary means of
       determining white space availability at any white space device (WSD). While the ruling provides broad guidelines for the
       database, the specifics of its design, features, implementation, and use are yet to be determined. Furthermore,


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                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


       architecting a network where all WSDs rely on the database raises several systems and networking challenges that have
       remained unexplored. Also, the ruling treats the database only as a storehouse for incumbents. We believe that the
       mandated use of the database has an additional opportunity: a means to dynamically manage the RF spectrum.
       Motivated by this opportunity, in this paper, we present SenseLess, a database-driven white spaces network. As
       suggested by its very name, in SenseLess, WSDs rely on a database service to determine white spaces availability as
       opposed to spectrum sensing. The service, using a combination of an up-to-date database of incumbents, sophisticated
       signal propagation modeling, and an efficient content dissemination mechanism to ensure efficient, scalable, and safe
       white space network operation. We build, deploy, and evaluate SenseLess and compare our results to ground truth
       spectrum measurements. We present the unique system design considerations that arise due to operating over the
       white spaces. We also evaluate its efficiency and scalability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that
       identifies and examines the systems and networking challenges that arise from operating a white space network, which
       is solely dependent on a channel occupancy database.



EGC     Stateless Multicast Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks
4383



       Multicast routing protocols typically rely on the a priori creation of a multicast tree (or mesh), which requires the
       individual nodes to maintain state information. In dynamic networks with bursty traffic, where long periods of silence are
       expected between the bursts of data, this multicast state maintenance adds a large amount of communication,
       processing, and memory overhead for no benefit to the application. Thus, we have developed a stateless receiver-based
       multicast (RBMulticast) protocol that simply uses a list of the multicast members' (e.g., sinks') addresses, embedded in
       packet headers, to enable receivers to decide the best way to forward the multicast traffic. This protocol, called
       Receiver-Based Multicast, exploits the knowledge of the geographic locations of the nodes to remove the need for costly
       state maintenance (e.g., tree/mesh/neighbor table maintenance), making it ideally suited for multicasting in dynamic
       networks. RBMulticast was implemented in the OPNET simulator and tested using a sensor network implementation.
       Both simulation and experimental results confirm that RBMulticast provides high success rates and low delay without
       the burden of state maintenance.



EGC      Understanding the Interaction between Packet Forwarding and Channel Access in
4384
         Multihop Wireless Networks


       We proposed an analytical model to study the interplay between medium access control (MAC) and packet forwarding
       disciplines in multihop wireless networks. The model jointly considers the channel access procedure and the active
       portions of the topology, which is determined by packet forwarding discipline. The model allows the computation of per-
       node performance metrics for any given network topology and the combination of specific MAC protocols and packet
       forwarding methods. As an example of the applicability of our modeling framework, the analytical model is used to study


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        the performance of multihop wireless networks using a contention-based MAC protocol (the IEEE 802.11 distributed
        coordination function) and a schedule-based MAC protocol (NAMA), together with different packet forwarding schemes
        in multihop networks. The analytical results derived from the model are validated with discrete-event simulations in
        Qualnet; the analytical results are shown to be very close to those attained by simulations.



EGC      Who, When, Where: Timeslot Assignment to Mobile Clients
4385



        We consider variations of a problem in which data must be delivered to mobile clients en-route, as they travel towards
        their destinations. The data can only be delivered to the mobile clients as they pass within range of wireless base
        stations. Example scenarios include the delivery of building maps to firefighters responding to multiple alarms, and the
        in-transit ldquoilluminationrdquo of simultaneous surface-to-air missiles. We cast this scenario as a parallel-machine
        scheduling problem with the little-studied property that jobs may have different release times and deadlines when
        assigned to different machines. We present new algorithms and also adapt existing algorithms, for both online and
        offline settings. We evaluate these algorithms on a variety of problem instance types, using both synthetic and real-
        world data, including several geographical scenarios, and show that our algorithms produce schedules achieving near-
        optimal throughput.

EGC       TV White Space in Europe
4386


        In this paper, we study the availability of TV white spaces in Europe. Specifically, we focus on the 470-790 MHz UHF
        band, which will predominantly remain in use for TV broadcasting after the analog-to-digital switch-over and the
        assignment of the 800 MHz band to licensed services have been completed. The expected number of unused, available
        TV channels in any location of the 11 countries we studied is 56 percent when we adopt the statistical channel model of
        the ITU-R. Similarly, a person residing in these countries can expect to enjoy 49 percent unused TV channels. If, in
        addition, restrictions apply to the use of adjacent TV channels, these numbers reduce to 25 and 18 percent, respectively.
        These figures are significantly smaller than those recently reported for the United States. We also study how these
        results change when we use the Longley-Rice irregular terrain model instead. We show that while the overall expected
        availability of white spaces is essentially the same, the local variability of the available spectrum shows significant
        changes. This underlines the importance of using appropriate system models before making far-reaching conclusions.



 EGC      Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on the Combination of KF and
 4387
          MLE Using Distance Measurements




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                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


       In A common technical difficulty in target tracking in a wireless sensor network is that individual homogeneous sensors
       only measure their distances to the target whereas the state of the target composes of its position and velocity in the
       Cartesian coordinates. That is, the senor measurements are nonlinear in the target state. Extended Kalman filtering is a
       commonly used method to deal with the nonlinearity, but this often leads to unsatisfactory or even unstable tracking
       performances. In this paper, we present a new target tracking approach which avoids the instability problem and offers
       superior tracking performances. We first propose an improved noise model which incorporates both additive noises and
       multiplicative noises in distance sensing. We then use a maximum likelihood estimator for prelocalization to remove the
       sensing nonlinearity before applying a standard Kalman filter. The advantages of the proposed approach are
       demonstrated via experimental and simulation results.



EGC      Toward Reliable Data Delivery for Highly Dynamic Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
4388



       This paper addresses the problem of delivering data packets for highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks in a reliable
       and timely manner. Most existing ad hoc routing protocols are susceptible to node mobility, especially for large-scale
       networks. Driven by this issue, we propose an efficient Position-based Opportunistic Routing (POR) protocol which
       takes advantage of the stateless property of geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless medium. When a
       data packet is sent out, some of the neighbor nodes that have overheard the transmission will serve as forwarding
       candidates, and take turn to forward the packet if it is not relayed by the specific best forwarder within a certain period
       of time. By utilizing such in-the-air backup, communication is maintained without being interrupted. The additional
       latency incurred by local route recovery is greatly reduced and the duplicate relaying caused by packet reroute is also
       decreased. In the case of communication hole, a Virtual Destination-based Void Handling (VDVH) scheme is further
       proposed to work together with POR. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results show that POR achieves excellent
       performance even under high node mobility with acceptable overhead and the new void handling scheme also works
       well.



EGC      The Digital Marauder's Map: A WiFi Forensic Positioning Tool
4389




       The Marauder's Map,” a magical map in J.K. Rowling's fantasy series Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban [CHECK
       END OF SENTENCE], can be used as a surveillance tool to show all moving objects within the boundary of "Hogwarts
       School of Witchcraft and Wizardry” at a spell. In this paper, we introduce a similar forensic surveillance tool for wireless
       networks. Our system, the digital Marauder's map, can reveal the locations of WiFi-enabled mobile devices within the
       coverage area of a high-gain antenna. The digital Marauder's map is built solely with off-the-shelf wireless equipments,
       and features a mobile design that can be quickly deployed to a new location for instant usage without training. We


               IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


       present a comprehensive set of theoretical analysis and experimental results which demonstrate the coverage and
       localization accuracy of the digital Marauder's map.



EGC      The Boomerang Protocol: Tying Data to Geographic Locations in Mobile Disconnected
4390
         Networks


       We present the boomerang protocol to efficiently retain information at a particular geographic location in a sparse
       network of highly mobile nodes without using infrastructure networks. To retain information around certain physical
       location, each mobile device passing that location will carry the information for a short while. This approach can become
       challenging for remote locations around which only few nodes pass by. To address this challenge, the boomerang
       protocol, similar to delay-tolerant communication, first allows a mobile node to carry packets away from their location of
       origin and periodically returns them to the anchor location. A unique feature of this protocol is that it records the
       geographical trajectory while moving away from the origin and exploits the recorded trajectory to optimize the return
       path. Simulations using automotive traffic traces for a southern New Jersey region show that the boomerang protocol
       improves packet return rate by 70 percent compared to a baseline shortest path routing protocol. This performance gain
       can become even more significant when the road map is less connected. Finally, we look at adaptive protocols that can
       return information within specified time limits.




                IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects

				
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