Docstoc

IEEE Projects 2012-2013 BioMedical

Document Sample
IEEE Projects 2012-2013 BioMedical Powered By Docstoc
					            Elysium Technologies Private Limited
            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
            Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
            http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com




        IEEE FINAL YEAR PROJECTS 2012 – 2013
                                Bio- Medical
Corporate Office: Madurai
    227-230, Church road, Anna nagar, Madurai – 625 020.
    0452 – 4390702, 4392702, +9199447933980
    Email: info@elysiumtechnologies.com, elysiumtechnologies@gmail.com
    Website: www.elysiumtechnologies.com

Branch Office: Trichy
    15, III Floor, SI Towers, Melapudur main road, Trichy – 620 001.
    0431 – 4002234, +919790464324.
    Email: trichy@elysiumtechnologies.com, elysium.trichy@gmail.com.
    Website: www.elysiumtechnologies.com

Branch Office: Coimbatore
    577/4, DB Road, RS Puram, Opp to KFC, Coimbatore – 641 002.
    +919677751577
    Website: Elysiumtechnologies.com, Email: info@elysiumtechnologies.com

Branch Office: Kollam
    Surya Complex, Vendor junction, Kollam – 691 010, Kerala.
    0474 – 2723622, +919446505482.
    Email: kerala@elysiumtechnologies.com.
    Website: www.elysiumtechnologies.com

Branch Office: Cochin
    4th Floor, Anjali Complex, near south over bridge, Valanjambalam,
    Cochin – 682 016, Kerala.
    0484 – 6006002, +917736004002.
    Email: kerala@elysiumtechnologies.com, Website: www.elysiumtechnologies.com
       IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Bio-Medical Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com




                                  BIO-MEDICAL                                                     2012 – 2013

EGC    A 64-Channel Transmitter for Investigating Parallel Transmit MRI
5201


       Multiple channel radiofrequency (RF) transmitters are being used in magnetic resonance imaging to investigate a
       number of active research topics, including transmit SENSE and B$_1$ shimming. Presently, the cost and availability of
       multiple channel transmitters restricts their use to relatively few sites. This paper describes the development and testing
       of a relatively inexpensive transmit system that can be easily duplicated by users with a reasonable level of RF hardware
       design experience. The system described here consists of 64 channels, each with 100 W peak output level. The
       hardware is modular at the level of four channels, easily accommodating larger or smaller channel counts. Unique
       aspects of the system include the use of vector modulators to replace more complex IQ direct digital modulators, 100 W
       MOSFET RF amplifiers with partial microstrip matching networks, and the use of digital potentiometers to replace more
       complex and costly digital-to-analog converters to control the amplitude and phase of each channel. Although mainly
       designed for B $_1$ shimming, the system is capable of dynamic modulation necessary for transmit SENSE by replacing
       the digital potentiometers controlling the vector modulators with commercially available analog output boards. The
       system design is discussed in detail and bench and imaging data are shown, demonstrating the ability to perform phase
       and amplitude control for B$_1$ shimming as well as dynamic modulation for transmitting complex RF pulses



EGC     A Minimal Model of Tumor Growth Inhibition in Combination Regimens Under the
5202
        Hypothesis of No Interaction Between Drugs

       One important issue in the preclinical development of an anticancer drug is the assessment of the compound under
       investigation when administered in combination with other drugs. Several experiments are routinely conducted in
       xenograft mice to evaluate if drugs interact or not. Experimental data are generally qualitatively analyzed on empirical
       basis. The ability of deriving from single drug experiments a reference response to the joint administrations, assuming
       no interaction, and comparing it to real responses would be key to recognize synergic and antagonist compounds.
       Therefore, in this paper, the minimal model of tumor growth inhibition (TGI), previously developed for a single drug, is
       reformulated to account for the effects of noninteracting drugs and simulate, under this hypothesis, combination
       regimens. The model is derived from a minimal set of basic assumptions that include and extend those formulated at
       cellular level for the single drug administration. The tumor growth dynamics is well approximated by the deterministic
       evolution of its expected value that is obtained through the solution of an ordinary and several partial differential



                    IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Bio-Medical Projects
                            Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                            Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                            http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com



        equations. Under suitable assumptions on the cell death process, the model reduces to a lumped parameter model that
        represents the extension of the very popular Simeoni TGI model to the combined administration of noninteracting drugs.




 EGC     A Robust and Sensitive Metric for Quantifying Movement Smoothness
 5203


        The need for movement smoothness quantification to assess motor learning and recovery has resulted in various
        measures that look at different aspects of a movement’s profile. This paper first shows that most of the previously
        published smoothness measures lack validity, consistency, sensitivity, or robustness. It then introduces and evaluates
        the spectral arc-length metric that uses a movement speed profile’s Fourier magnitude spectrum to quantify movement
        smoothness. This new metric is systematically tested and compared to other smoothness metrics, using experimental
        data from stroke and healthy subjects as well as simulated movement data. The results indicate that the spectral arc-
        length metric is a valid and consistent measure of movement smoothness, which is both sensitive to modifications in
        motor behavior and robust to measurement noise. We hope that the systematic analysis of this paper is a step toward
        the standardization of the quantitative assessment of movement smoothness.




EGC     A Stable and Real-Time Nonlinear Elastic Approach to Simulating Guidewire and Catheter
5204
        Insertions Based on Cosserat Rod

        Interventional Radiology procedures (e.g., angioplasty, embolization, stent graft placement) provide minimally invasive
        therapy to treat a wide range of conditions. These procedures involve the use of flexible tipped guidewires to advance
        diagnostic or therapeutic catheters into a patient’s vascular or visceral anatomy. This paper presents a real-time
        physically based hybrid modeling approach to simulating guidewire insertions. The long, slender body of the guidewire
        shaft is simulated using nonlinear elastic Cosserat rods, and the shorter flexible tip composed of a straight, curved, or
        angled design is modeled using a more efficient generalized bending model. Therefore, the proposed approach
        efficiently computes intrinsic dynamic behaviors of guidewire interactions within vascular structures. The efficacy of the
        proposed method is demonstrated using detailed numerical simulations inside 3-D blood vessel structures derived from
        preprocedural volumetric data. A validation study compares positions of four physical guidewires deployed within a
        vascular phantom, with the co-ordinates of the corresponding simulated guidewires within a virtual model of the
        phantom. An optimization algorithm is also implemented to further improve the accuracy of the simulation. The
        presented simulation model is suitable for interactive virtual reality-based training and for treatment planning.


EGC     Accelerating Cardiac Bidomain Simulations Using Graphics Processing Units
5205




                     IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Bio-Medical Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com



       Anatomically realistic and biophysically detailed multiscale computer models of the heart are playing an increasingly
       important role in advancing our understanding of integrated cardiac function in health and disease. Such detailed
       simulations, however, are computationally vastly demanding, which is a limiting factor for a wider adoption of in-silico
       modeling. While current trends in high-performance computing (HPC) hardware promise to alleviate this problem,
       exploiting the potential of such architectures remains challenging since strongly scalable algorithms are necessitated to
       reduce execution times. Alternatively, acceleration technologies such as graphics processing units (GPUs) are being
       considered. While the potential of GPUs has been demonstrated in various applications, benefits in the context of
       bidomain simulations where large sparse linear systems have to be solved in parallel with advanced numerical
       techniques are less clear. In this study, the feasibility of multi-GPU bidomain simulations is demonstrated by running
       strong scalability benchmarks using a state-of-the-art model of rabbit ventricles. The model is spatially discretized using
       the finite element methods (FEM) on fully unstructured grids. The GPU code is directly derived from a large pre-existing
       code, the Cardiac Arrhythmia Research Package (CARP), with very minor perturbation of the code base. Overall,
       bidomain simulations were sped up by a factor of 11.8 to 16.3 in benchmarks running on 6–20 GPUs compared to the
       same number of CPU cores. To match the fastest GPU simulation which engaged 20 GPUs, 476 CPU cores were required
       on a national supercomputing facility.




EGC    An Implantable RF Solenoid for Magnetic Resonance Microscopy and
5206
       Microspectroscopy

       Miniature solenoids routinely enhance small volume nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy; however,
       no such techniques exist for patients. We present an implantable microcoil for diverse clinical applications, with a
       microliter coil volume. The design is loosely based on implantable depth electrodes, in which a flexible tube serves as
       the substrate, and a metal stylet is inserted into the tube during implantation. The goal is to provide enhanced signal-to-
       noise ratio (SNR) of structures that are not easily accessed by surface coils. The first-generation prototype was
       designed for implantation up to 2 cm, and provided initial proof-of-concept for microscopy. Subsequently, we optimized
       the design to minimize the influence of lead inductances, and to thereby double the length of the implantable depth (4
       cm). The second-generation design represents an estimated SNR improvement of over 30% as compared to the original
       design when extended to 4 cm. Impedance measurements indicate that the device is stable for up to 24 h in body
       temperature saline. We evaluated the SNR and MR-related heating.




EGC     An Optimization-Based Study of Equivalent Circuit Models for Representing Recordings
5207
        at the Neuron–Electrode Interface

       Extracellular neuroelectronic interfacing is an emerging field with important applications in the fields of neural
       prosthetics, biological computation, and biosensors. Traditionally, neuron–electrode interfaces have been modeled as
       linear point or area contact equivalent circuits but it is now being increasingly realized that such models cannot explain


                    IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Bio-Medical Projects
                            Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                            Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                            http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com



        the shapes and magnitudes of the observed extracellular signals. Here, results were compared and contrasted from an
        unprecedented optimization-based study of the point contact models for an extracellular ―on-cell‖ neuron–patch
        electrode and a planar neuron–microelectrode interface. Concurrent electrophysiological recordings from a single
        neuron simultaneously interfaced to three distinct electrodes (intracellular, ―on-cell‖ patch, and planar microelectrode)
        allowed novel insights into the mechanism of signal transduction at the neuron–electrode interface. After a systematic
        isolation of the nonlinear neuronal contribution to the extracellular signal, a consistent underestimation of the simulated
        suprathreshold extracellular signals compared to the experimentally recorded signals was observed. This conclusively
        demonstrated that the dynamics of the interfacial medium contribute nonlinearly to the process of signal transduction at
        the neuron–electrode interface. Further, an examination of the optimized model parameters for the experimental
        extracellular recordings from sub- and suprathreshold stimulations of the neuron–electrode junctions revealed that ionic
        transport at the ―on-cell‖ neuron–patch electrode is dominated by diffusion whereas at the neuron–microelectrode
        interface the electric double layer (EDL) effects dominate. Based on this study, the limitations of the equivalent circuit
        models in their failure to account for the nonlinear EDL and ionic electrodiffusion effects occurring during signal trans-
        uction at the neuron–electrode interfaces are discussed.




EGC      Automated Fiducial Localization in CT Images Based on Surface Processing and
5208
         Geometrical Prior Knowledge for Radiotherapy Applications

        We propose a novel method for radio-opaque external marker localization in CT scans for infrared (IR) patient set-up in
        radiotherapy. Efforts were focused on the quantification of uncertainties in marker localization in the CT dataset as a
        function of algorithm performance. We implemented a 3-D approach to fiducial localization based on surface extraction
        and marker recognition according to geometrical prior knowledge. The algorithm parameters were optimized on a
        clinical CT dataset coming from 35 cranial and extra-cranial patients; the localization accuracy was benchmarked at
        variable image resolution versus laser tracker measurements. The applicability of conventional IR optical tracking
        systems for localizing external surrogates in daily patient set-up procedures was also investigated in 121 proton therapy
        treatment sessions. Our study shows that the implemented algorithm features surrogates localization with uncertainties
        lower than 0.3 mm and with a true positive rate of 90.1%, being this latter mainly influenced by fiducial homogeneity in
        the CT images. The reported clinical validation in proton therapy confirmed the submillimetric accuracy and the
        expected algorithm sensitivity. Geometrical prior knowledge allows judging the reliability of the extracted fiducial
        coordinates, ensuring the highest accuracy in patient set-up.



 EGC      Automatic Segmentation of Polyps in Colonoscopic Narrow-Band Imaging Data
 5209

        Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer worldwide. However, this disease can be prevented by
        detection and removal of precursor adenomatous polyps during optical colonoscopy (OC). During OC, the endoscopist


                     IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Bio-Medical Projects
                            Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                             Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                            Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                            http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com



        looks for colon polyps. While hyperplastic polyps are benign lesions, adenomatous polyps are likely to become
        cancerous. Hence, it is a common practice to remove all identified polyps and send them to subsequent histological
        analysis. But removal of hyperplastic polyps poses unnecessary risk to patients and incurs unnecessary costs for
        histological analysis. In this paper, we develop the first part of a novel optical biopsy application based on narrow-band
        imaging (NBI). A barrier to an automatic system is that polyp classification algorithms require manual segmentations of
        the polyps, so we automatically segment polyps in colonoscopic NBI data. We propose an algorithm, Shape-UCM, which
        is an extension of the gPb-OWT-UCM algorithm, a state-of-the-art algorithm for boundary detection and segmentation.
        Shape-UCM solves the intrinsic scale selection problem of gPb-OWT-UCM by including prior knowledge about the shape
        of the polyps. Shape-UCM outperforms previous methods with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 71%, and an accuracy
        of 88% for automatic segmentation of a test set of 87 images.




 EGC     Bioimpedance Analysis for the Characterization of Breast Cancer Cells in Suspension
 5210


        The bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) technique is potentially a useful tool to differentiate malignancy based on the
        variation of electrical properties presented by different tissues and cells. The different tissues and cells present variant
        electrical resistance and reactance when excited at different frequencies. The main purpose of this area of research is to
        use impedance measurements over a low-frequency bandwidth ranging from 1 kHz to 3 MHz to 1) differentiate the
        pathological stages of cancer cells under laboratory conditions and 2) permit the extraction of electrical parameters
        related to cellular information for further analysis. This provides evidence to form the basis of bioimpedance
        measurement at the cellular level and aids the potential future development of rapid diagnostics from biopsy materials.
        Three cell lines, representing normal breast epithelia and different pathological stages of breast cancer, have been
        measured using a standard impedance analyzer driving a four-electrode chamber filled with different cell suspensions.
        We identify the specific BIS profile for each cell type and determine whether these can be differentiated. In addition, the
        electrical parameters, e.g., the intracellular conductivity, membrane capacitance/capacity, characteristic frequency, are
        extracted by the use of equivalent circuit models and physical models to provide details of the cell electric signatures
        for further analysis of cancer cell pathology.


EGC     Biopsy Needle Localization Using Magnetic Induction Imaging Principles: A Feasibility
5211    Study

        The accurate navigation and location of a biopsy needle is of main clinical interest in cases of image-guided biopsies for
        patients with suspected cancerous lesions. Magnetic induction (MI) imaging is a relatively new simple and low-cost
        noninvasive imaging modality that can be used for measuring the changes of electrical conductivity distribution inside a
        biological tissue. The feasibility of using MI principles for measuring and imaging the location of a biopsy needle in a
        tissue with suspected lesion was studied in simulations and with an experimental system. A contactless
        excitation/sensing unit was designed, and raster scan was performed on a thin tissue slab with an inserted standard 22

                     IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Bio-Medical Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com



       gauge stainless steel biopsy needle. A 30-mA, 50-kHz excitation field was employed, and the secondary-induced
       electromotive force (emf$_s$ ) was measured and plotted on a 2-D plane in order to yield an image of the needle
       location. The simulations demonstrated the significance of utilizing a ferrimagnetic core for the excitation coil in order to
       increase induced currents magnitude and scanning resolution. The experimental reconstructed images of the emf $_s$
       spatial distribution revealed the needle position and orientation, with an accuracy of 0.1 mm and a signal-to-background
       ratio of ∼30 dB. High correlation (R$^2$ = 0.89) between the experimental and simulation results was observed. We
       conclude that MI principles exhibit a potential alternative to existing imaging modalities for needle biopsy procedures.




EGC    Ex Vivo Measurement of Postmortem Tissue Changes in the Crystalline Lens by
5212   Brillouin Spectroscopy and Confocal Reflectance Microscopy


       Use of Brillouin spectroscopy in ophthalmology enables noninvasive, spatially resolved determination of the rheological
       properties of crystalline lens tissue. Furthermore, the Brillouin shift correlates with the protein concentration inside the
       lens. In vitro measurements on extracted porcine lenses demonstrate that results obtained with Brillouin spectroscopy
       depend strongly on time after death. The intensity of the Brillouin signal decreases significantly as early as 5 h
       postmortem. Moreover, the fluctuation of the Brillouin frequency shift inside the lens increases with postmortem time.
       Images of lens tissue taken with a confocal reflectance microscope between measurements reveal a degenerative aging
       process. These tissue changes correlate with our results from Brillouin spectroscopy. It is concluded that only in vivo
       measurements appropriately reflect the rheological properties of the eye lens and its protein concentration.


EGC    Fractional-Order Time Series Models for Extracting the Haemodynamic Response From
5213
       Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data

       The postprocessing of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to study the brain functions deals mainly with
       two objectives: signal detection and extraction of the haemodynamic response. Signal detection consists of exploring
       and detecting those areas of the brain that are triggered due to an external stimulus. Extraction of the haemodynamic
       response deals with describing and measuring the physiological process of activated regions in the brain due to
       stimulus. The haemodynamic response represents the change in oxygen levels since the brain functions require more
       glucose and oxygen upon stimulus that implies a change in blood flow. In the literature, different approaches to estimate
       and model the haemodynamic response have been proposed. These approaches can be discriminated in model
       structures that either provide a proper representation of the obtained measurements but provide no or a limited amount
       of physiological information, or provide physiological insight but lacks a proper fit to the data. In this paper, a novel
       model structure is studied for describing the haemodynamics in fMRI measurements: fractional models. We show that


                    IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Bio-Medical Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com



       these models are flexible enough to describe the gathered data with the additional merit of providing physiological
       information.



EGC
5214
       Gaze Estimation Interpolation Methods Based on Binocular Data


       In this paper, we study periodic query scheduling for data aggregation with minimum delay under various wireless
       Video oculography (VOG) is one of the most commonly used techniques for gaze tracking because it enables
       nonintrusive eye detection and tracking. Improving the eye tracking’s accuracy and tolerance to user head movements
       is a common task in the field of gaze tracking; thus, a thorough study of how binocular information can improve a gaze
       tracking system’s accuracy and tolerance to user head movements has been carried out. The analysis is focused on
       interpolation-based methods and systems with one and two infrared lights. New mapping features are proposed based
       on the commonly used pupil-glint vector using different distances as the normalization factor. For this study, an
       experimental procedure with six users based on a real VOG gaze tracking system was performed, and the results were
       contrasted with an eye simulator. Important conclusions have been obtained in terms of configuration, equation, and
       mapping features, such as the outperformance of the interglint distance as the normalization factor. Furthermore, the
       binocular gaze tracking system was found to have a similar or improved level of accuracy compared to that of the
       monocular gaze tracking system.



EGC     Heterogeneity of Intrinsic Repolarization Properties Within the Human Heart: New
5215
        Insights From Simulated Three-Dimensional Current Surfaces

       Heterogeneity of repolarization properties is pivotal for both physiology and pathology of the heart and mathematical
       models of different cardiac cell types that are tuned to experimental data in order to reproduce it in silico. Repolarization
       heterogeneity is described most of the times with reference to one or the other of the many repolarization parameters,
       like action potential (AP) form and duration, or the maximum conductance of a given ion current, which are nonlinearly
       connected and frequently overdetermined. A compact representation of models dynamics would help their
       standardization, their use, and the understanding of the underlying physiology. A 3-D representation of cardiac AP
       derived from the measure of instantaneous current–voltage relationships during repolarization has been previously
       described. Here, it is shown that such a representation compactly summarizes important features of repolarization
       which are relevant particularly for what concerns its electrotonic modulation within the human heart. It is found that,
       according to the tested models, late phase of AP repolarization displays autoregenerativity only within the ventricle, and
       that this property is heterogeneously distributed across the wall. Three-dimensional current representations of the AP
       also provide precise estimation of the time course of membrane resistance, which changes throughout the heart, and
       can be used to predict entrainment of repolarization during AP propagation.



EGC
         Intention-Based EMG Control for Powered Exoskeletons
5216
                      IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Bio-Medical Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com




       Electromyographical (EMG) signals have been frequently used to estimate human muscular torques. In the field of
       human-assistive robotics, these methods provide valuable information to provide effectively support to the user.
       However, their usability is strongly limited by the necessity of complex user-dependent and session-dependent
       calibration procedures, which confine their use to the laboratory environment. Nonetheless, an accurate estimate of
       muscle torque could be unnecessary to provide effective movement assistance to users. The natural ability of human
       central nervous system of adapting to external disturbances could compensate for a lower accuracy of the torque
       provided by the robot and maintain the movement accuracy unaltered, while the effort is reduced. In order to explore
       this possibility, in this paper we study the reaction of ten healthy subjects to the assistance provided through a
       proportional EMG control applied by an elbow powered exoskeleton. This system gives only a rough estimate of the
       user muscular torque but does not require any specific calibration. Experimental results clearly show that subjects
       adapt almost instantaneously to the assistance provided by the robot and can reduce their effort while keeping full
       control of the movement under different dynamic conditions (i.e., no alterations of movement accuracy are observed).


EGC
       Mapping Infected Cell Phenotype
5217



       Quantitative modeling of the phenotypic changes in the host cell during the bacterial infection makes it possible to
       explore an empirical relation between the infection stages and the quantifiable host-cell phenotype. A statistically
       reliable model of this relation can facilitate therapeutic defense against threats due to natural and genetically engineered
       bacterium. In the preliminary experiment, we have collected several thousand cell images over a period of 72 h of
       infection with a 2-h sampling frequency that covers various stages of infection by Francisella tularenesis (Ft).
       Segmentation of macrophages in images was accomplished using a fully automatic, parallel region growing technique.
       Over two thousand feature descriptors for the host cell were calculated. Multidimensional scaling, followed by
       hierarchical clustering, was used to group the cells. Preliminary results show that the host-cell phenotype, as defined by
       the set of measureable features, groups into different classes that can be mapped to the stages of infection.




EGC    Multilead Measurement System for the Time-Domain Analysis of Bioimpedance
5218   Magnitude

       Bioimpedance measurement applications range from the characterization of organic matter to the monitoring of
       biological signals and physiological parameters. Occasionally, multiple bioimpedances measured in different locations
       are combined in order to solve complex problems or produce enhanced physiological measures. The present multilead
       bioimpedance measurement methods are mainly focused on electrical impedance tomography. Systems designed to
       suit other multilead applications are lacking. In this study, a novel multilead bioimpedance measurement system was


                    IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Bio-Medical Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com



       designed. This was particularly aimed at the time-domain analysis of bioimpedance magnitude. Frequency division
       multiplexing was used to avoid overlapping between excitation signals; undersampling, to reduce the hardware
       requirements; and power isolated active current sources, to reduce the electrical interactions between leads. These
       theoretical concepts were implemented on a prototype device. The prototype was tested on equivalent circuits and a
       saline tank in order to assess excitation signal interferences and electrical interactions between leads. The results
       showed that the proposed techniques are functional and the system’s validity was demonstrated on a real application,
       multilead impedance pneumography. Potential applications and further improvements were discussed. It was concluded
       that the novel approach potentially enables accurate and relatively low-power multilead bioimpedance measurements
       systems.




EGC      Noninvasive Measurement of Physiological Signals on a Modified Home Bathroom Scale
5219


       A commercial bathroom scale with both handlebar and footpad electrodes was modified to enable measurement of four
       physiological signals: the ballistocardiogram (BCG), electrocardiogram (ECG), lower body impedance plethysmogram
       (IPG), and lower body electromyogram (EMG). The BCG, which describes the reaction of the body to cardiac ejection of
       blood, was measured using the strain gauges in the scale. The ECG was detected using handlebar electrodes with a two-
       electrode amplifier. For the lower body IPG, the two electrodes under the subject's toes were driven with an ac current
       stimulus, and the resulting differential voltage across the heels was measured and demodulated synchronously with the
       source. The voltage signal from the same two footpad electrodes under the heels was passed through a passive low-
       pass filter network into another amplifier, and the output was the lower body EMG signal. The signals were measured
       from nine healthy subjects, and the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) while the subjects were standing still was
       estimated for the four signals as follows: BCG, 7.6 dB; ECG, 15.8 dB; IPG, 10.7 dB. During periods of motion, the
       decrease in SNR for the BCG signal was found to be correlated to the increase in rms power for the lower body EMG (r =
       0.89, p < 0.01). The EMG could, thus, be used to flag noise-corrupted segments of the BCG, increasing the measurement
       robustness. This setup could be used for monitoring the cardiovascular health of patients at home.


EGC     Novel Passive Element Circuits for Microdosimetry of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields
5220


       Microdosimetric models for biological cells have assumed increasing significance in the development of nanosecond
       pulsed electric field technology for medical applications. In this paper, novel passive element circuits, able to take into
       account the dielectric dispersion of the cell, are provided. The circuital analyses are performed on a set of input pulses
       classified in accordance with the current literature. Accurate data in terms of transmembrane potential are obtained in
       both time and frequency domains for different cell models. In addition, a sensitivity study of the transfer function for the

                    IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Bio-Medical Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com



       cell geometrical and dielectric parameters has been carried out. This analysis offers a new, simple, and efficient tool to
       characterize the nsPEFs’ action at the cellular level.


EGC    Online Removal of Eye Movement and Blink EEG Artifacts Using a High-Speed Eye
5221
       Tracker

       Route A novel approach is presented for using an eye tracker-based reference instead of EOG for methods that require
       an EOG reference to remove ocular artifacts (OA) from EEG. It uses a high-speed eye tracker and a new online algorithm
       for extracting the time course of a blink from eye tracker images to remove both eye movement and blink artifacts. It
       eliminates the need for EOG electrodes attached to the face, which is critical for practical daily applications. The ability
       of two adaptive filters (RLS and H$^infty$ ) to remove OA is measured using: 1) EOG; 2) frontal EEG only (fEEG); and 3)
       the eye tracker with frontal EEG (ET + fEEG) as reference inputs. The results are compared for different eye movements
       and blinks of varying amplitudes at electrodes across the scalp. Both the RLS and H$^infty$ methods were shown to
       benefit from using the proposed eye tracker-based reference (ET + fEEG) instead of either an EOG reference or a
       reference based on frontal EEG alone.




EGC    Phase Synchronization Analysis of EEG Signals: An Evaluation Based on Surrogate
5222
       Tests

       Phase synchronization (PS) analysis has been demonstrated to be a useful method to infer functional connectivity with
       multichannel neural signals, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG). Methodological problems on quantifying functional
       connectivity with PS analysis have been investigated extensively, but some of them have not been fully solved yet. For
       example, how long a segment of EEG signal should be used in estimating PS index? Which methods are more suitable
       to infer the significant level of estimated PS index? To address these questions, this paper performs an intensive
       computation study on PS analysis based on surrogate tests with 1) artificial surrogate data generated by shuffling the
       rank order, the phase spectra, or the instantaneous frequency of original EEG signals, and 2) intersubject EEG pairs
       under the assumption that the EEG signals of different subjects are independent. Results show that 1) the phase-
       shuffled surrogate method is workable for significance test of estimated PS index and yields results similar to those by
       intersubject EEG surrogate test; 2) generally, a duration of EEG waves covering about $3sim 16$ cycles is suitable for
       PS analysis; and 3) the PS index based on mean phase coherence is more suitable for PS analysis of EEG signals
       recorded at relatively low sampling rate.



EGC    Points of Interest and Visual Dictionaries for Automatic Retinal Lesion Detection
5223




                    IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Bio-Medical Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com



       The In this paper, we present an algorithm to detect the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR)-related lesions from
       fundus images based on a common analytical approach that is capable of identifying both red and bright lesions without
       requiring specific pre- or postprocessing. Our solution constructs a visual word dictionary representing points of
       interest (PoIs) located within regions marked by specialists that contain lesions associated with DR and classifies the
       fundus images based on the presence or absence of these PoIs as normal or DR-related pathology. The novelty of our
       approach is in locating DR lesions in the optic fundus images using visual words that combines feature information
       contained within the images in a framework easily extendible to different types of retinal lesions or pathologies and
       builds a specific projection space for each class of interest (e.g., white lesions such as exudates or normal regions)
       instead of a common dictionary for all classes. The visual words dictionary was applied to classifying bright and red
       lesions with classical cross validation and cross dataset validation to indicate the robustness of this approach. We
       obtained an area under the curve (AUC) of 95.3% for white lesion detection and an AUC of 93.3% for red lesion detection
       using fivefold cross validation and our own data consisting of 687 images of normal retinae, 245 images with bright
       lesions, 191 with red lesions, and 109 with signs of both bright and red lesions. For cross dataset analysis, the visual
       dictionary also achieves compelling results using our images as the training set and the RetiDB and Messidor images as
       test sets. In this case, the image classification resulted in an AUC of 88.1% when classifying the RetiDB dataset and in
       an AUC of 89.3% when classifying the Messidor dataset, both cases for bright lesion detection. The results indicate the
       potential for training with different acquisition images under different setup con- itions with a high accuracy of referral
       based on the presence of either red or bright lesions or both. The robustness of the visual dictionary against image
       quality (blurring), resolution, and retinal background, makes it a strong candidate for DR screening of large, diverse
       communities with varying cameras and settings and levels of expertise for image capture.


EGC
5224
       Robust Closed-Loop Minimal Sampling Method for HIV Therapy Switching Strategies


       Abstract— The emergence of drug-resistant strains of human immunodeficiency virus during antiretroviral therapy is a
       major cause of treatment failure and disease progression. Development of a resistant strain necessitates switching to a
       new antiretroviral regimen composed of novel drugs. Recent work has shown that current methods of switching antiviral
       therapies carry significant unnecessary risk of subsequent failures, and optimal switching schedules to minimize this
       risk have been proposed. These switching schedules require frequent sampling of viral load during an induced phase of
       transient viral load reduction, with the goal of switching to the new antiviral regimen at an induced viral load minimum.
       The proposed frequent sampling carries an unacceptable level of cost both in terms of measurement expense and
       inconvenience to the patient. In this paper, we propose a closed-loop sampling algorithm to reduce the number of
       samples required to achieve the desired reduction in risk. We demonstrate through the Monte-Carlo analysis that the
       proposed method is able to robustly achieve an average 50% reduction in the number of required samples while
       maintaining a reduction in the risk of subsequent failure to under 3%, despite experimentally verified levels of model and
       measurement uncertainty




                    IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Bio-Medical Projects
                            Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                            Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                            http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com


 EGC     Points of Interest and Visual Dictionaries for Automatic Retinal Lesion Detection
 5225

        In this paper, we present an algorithm to detect the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR)-related lesions from fundus
        images based on a common analytical approach that is capable of identifying both red and bright lesions without
        requiring specific pre- or postprocessing. Our solution constructs a visual word dictionary representing points of
        interest (PoIs) located within regions marked by specialists that contain lesions associated with DR and classifies the
        fundus images based on the presence or absence of these PoIs as normal or DR-related pathology. The novelty of our
        approach is in locating DR lesions in the optic fundus images using visual words that combines feature information
        contained within the images in a framework easily extendible to different types of retinal lesions or pathologies and
        builds a specific projection space for each class of interest (e.g., white lesions such as exudates or normal regions)
        instead of a common dictionary for all classes. The visual words dictionary was applied to classifying bright and red
        lesions with classical cross validation and cross dataset validation to indicate the robustness of this approach. We
        obtained an area under the curve (AUC) of 95.3% for white lesion detection and an AUC of 93.3% for red lesion detection
        using fivefold cross validation and our own data consisting of 687 images of normal retinae, 245 images with bright
        lesions, 191 with red lesions, and 109 with signs of both bright and red lesions. For cross dataset analysis, the visual
        dictionary also achieves compelling results using our images as the training set and the RetiDB and Messidor images as
        test sets. In this case, the image classification resulted in an AUC of 88.1% when classifying the RetiDB dataset and in
        an AUC of 89.3% when classifying the Messidor dataset, both cases for bright lesion detection. The results indicate the
        potential for training with different acquisition images under different setup con- itions with a high accuracy of referral
        based on the presence of either red or bright lesions or both. The robustness of the visual dictionary against image
        quality (blurring), resolution, and retinal background, makes it a strong candidate for DR screening of large, diverse
        communities with varying cameras and settings and levels of expertise for image capture.



EGC     Slip Speed Feedback for Grip Force Control
5226


        Grasp stability in the human hand has been resolved by means of an intricate network of mechanoreceptors integrating
        numerous cues about mechanical events, through an ontogenetic grasp practice. An engineered prosthetic interface
        introduces considerable perturbation risks in grasping, calling for feedback modalities that address the underlying slip
        phenomenon. In this study, we propose an enhanced slip feedback modality, with potential for myoelectric-based
        prosthetic applications that relays information regarding slip events, particularly slip occurrence and slip speed. The
        proposed feedback modality, implemented using electrotactile stimulation, was evaluated in psychophysical studies of
        slip control in a simplified setup. The obtained results were compared with vision and a binary slip feedback that
        transmits on–off information about slip detection. The slip control efficiency of the slip speed display is comparable to
        that obtained with vision feedback, and it clearly outperforms the efficiency of the on–off slip modality in such tasks.
        These results suggest that the proposed tactile feedback is a promising sensory method for the restoration of stable
        grasp in prosthetic applications.



                     IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Bio-Medical Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com




EGC
5227
        Uncertainty Analysis of Ventricular Mechanics Using the Probabilistic Collocation Method


       Uncertainty and variability in material parameters are fundamental challenges in computational biomechanics. Analyzing
       and quantifying the resulting uncertainty in computed results with parameter sweeps or Monte Carlo methods has
       become very computationally demanding. In this paper, we consider a stochastic method named the probabilistic
       collocation method, and investigate its applicability for uncertainty analysis in computing the passive mechanical
       behavior of the left ventricle. Specifically, we study the effect of uncertainties in material input parameters upon
       response properties such as the increase in cavity volume, the elongation of the ventricle, the increase in inner radius,
       the decrease in wall thickness, and the rotation at apex. The numerical simulations conducted herein indicate that the
       method is well suited for the problem of consideration, and is far more efficient than the Monte Carlo simulation method
       for obtaining a detailed uncertainty quantification. The numerical experiments also give interesting indications on which
       material parameters are most critical for accurately determining various global responses.




EGC     Variation of Respiratory Resistance Suggests Optimization of Airway Caliber
5228



       Physiologically optimized processes, such as respiration, walking, and cardiac function, usually show a range of
       variability about the optimized value. Airway resistance has, in the past, been noted as variable, and this variability has
       been connected to pulmonary disease (e.g., asthma). A hypothesis was presented many years ago that postulated
       airway resistance as an optimized parameter in healthy individuals, and we have noticed that respiratory measurements
       made with the airflow perturbation device (APD) tend to be variable in nature. It was posited that this variability indicates
       that respiratory resistance is optimized similarly to other physiological processes. Fifty subjects with a wide range of
       demographics volunteered to have 100 measurements made of their respiratory resistances. Resistances were
       separated into inhalation and exhalation phases. These were plotted and shown to have frequency distributions that
       were consistent with expectations for an optimized process. The frequency distributions were not quite symmetrical,
       being skewed slightly toward upper resistances. Comparison between subject data and data from a mechanical
       respiratory analog showed that subject resistance variation is overwhelmingly from the respiratory system and not from
       the APD.


EGC      Vibro- and Electrotactile User Feedback on Hand Opening for Myoelectric Forearm
5229     Prostheses



                    IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Bio-Medical Projects
                           Elysium Technologies Private Limited
                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training
                           Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai
                           http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com



       Many of the currently available myoelectric forearm prostheses stay unused because of the lack of sensory feedback.
       Vibrotactile and electrotactile stimulation have high potential to provide this feedback. In this study, performance of a
       grasping task is investigated for different hand opening feedback conditions on 15 healthy subjects and validated on
       three patients. The opening of a virtual hand was controlled by a scroll wheel. Feedback about hand opening was given
       via an array of eight vibrotactile or electrotactile stimulators placed on the forearm, relating to eight hand opening
       positions. A longitudinal and transversal orientation of the array and four feedback conditions were investigated: no
       feedback, visual feedback, feedback through vibrotactile or electrotactile stimulation, and addition of an extra stimulator
       for touch feedback. No influence of array orientation was shown for all outcome parameters (duration of the task, the
       percentage of correct hand openings, the mean position error, and the percentage deviations up to one position).
       Vibrotactile stimulation enhances the performance compared to the nonfeedback conditions. The addition of touch
       feedback further increases the performance, but at the cost of an increased duration. The same effects were found for
       the patient group, but the task duration was around 25% larger.


EGC
       Vision-Based Proximity Detection in Retinal Surgery
5230


       In retinal surgery, surgeons face difficulties such as indirect visualization of surgical targets, physiological tremor, and
       lack of tactile feedback, which increase the risk of retinal damage caused by incorrect surgical gestures. In this context,
       intraocular proximity sensing has the potential to overcome current technical limitations and increase surgical safety. In
       this paper, we present a system for detecting unintentional collisions between surgical tools and the retina using the
       visual feedback provided by the opthalmic stereo microscope. Using stereo images, proximity between surgical tools
       and the retinal surface can be detected when their relative stereo disparity is small. For this purpose, we developed a
       system comprised of two modules. The first is a module for tracking the surgical tool position on both stereo images.
       The second is a disparity tracking module for estimating a stereo disparity map of the retinal surface. Both modules
       were specially tailored for coping with the challenging visualization conditions in retinal surgery. The potential clinical
       value of the proposed method is demonstrated by extensive testing using a silicon phantom eye and recorded rabbit in
       vivo data.




       .




                    IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Bio-Medical Projects

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: ieee projects download, base paper for ieee projects, ieee projects list, ieee projects titles, ieee projects for cse, ieee projects on networking,ieee projects 2012, ieee projects 2013, final year project, computer science final year projects, final year projects for information technology, ieee final year projects, final year students projects, students projects in java, students projects download, students projects in java with source code, students projects architecture, free ieee papers