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The contributors to Kairaranga will all have different writing styles. The
important thing for this journal is to be consistent with the spelling,
capitalisation, heading levels, lay out and punctuation throughout the
Editing Tips
It is vital that the individual writer's voice comes across. This not only
supports the practitioners who write for and read Kairaranga but keeps the
material unique, varied and pertinent. Within this, there will be room for
`polishing' and maintaining consistency and Kairaranga editorial standards.
There are a number of points to consider for all articles.
1. Consistency of spelling, punctuation, capitalisation and heading levels.
2. Have one major point per paragraph and rather than a shift from idea to
idea, but do avoid one-sentence paragraphs.
3. Edit so the writing is in the active voice.
4. Get to the point quickly and keep to it by using relevant and important
5. Write for the audience, but don't overuse jargon and technical terms.
6. Spell out abbreviations at the first mention and use only if it is certain the
readers will understand them.
7. Spell out acronyms at first mention and only include if this term is used
again in the article.
8. Edit so tenses remain consistent throughout the articles.
9. Check that any illustrations or tables included do add information or clarity
to the articles.
10. Ensure the data in tables and illustrations is presented in the best possible
way for the reader to understand.
11. Check that figures and captions in tables and illustrations are correct and
that totals add up.
12. At the proofing stage, double-check all tables and illustrations for the
correct positioning of figures and layout, and the correct transfer of
New Zealand English.
Choose English spelling over American.
Use macrons when appropriate.
Kairaranga preference
acknowledgement                       interrelated
advisor                               judgement
after hours                           lifelong
at-risk (as in `at-risk child')       long-service
authority(ies)                        long-term
bicultural                            Māori
birth parents                         medium-term
broadband                             modelling
burn-out                           multicultural
caregiver                          multidisciplinary
cash flow                          multinational
casework                           nationwide
commitment                         non-alphabetical
coordinate/coordinator             non-referral
cooperate/cooperation              non-verbal
counselling                        no one
cross-cultural                     offshore
database                           ongoing
daycare                            online
decision-making                    organise/organisation
download                           out-of-family
e-government                       out-turn
e-strategy                         Pākehā
email                              part-time
et al. (roman type, not italics)   percent
etc (no full stop)                 playcentre
feedback                           postgraduate
fee-paying                         problem solving
first-time                         program (for computer program only)
first-year                         programme (for all else)
focused/focusing                   realise/realisation (use `ise' not `ize')
frontline                          recognise/recognisation
fulfil                             refit
full-time                          rollout
fundholder                         school-age
help desk                          school-wide
home-based                         self-esteem
homeschooling                      self-image
inquiry                            short-term
Internet                           socio-economic

speech-language therapist          website
stand-down                         well-being
targeted/targeting                 whānau
timeframe                          whole-school
timeline                           workload
underway                           workplace
upskill                                worldwide
uptake                                 write off
video-conference                       year 8 student
Place Names
Arthur's Pass
Hawke's Bay
Words that are Commonly Misused
Accept means receive.
Except means exclude.
Affect is a verb meaning to change or influence.
Effect is a noun meaning result or outcome, but can also be a verb meaning
to bring about.
Aggravate means to make an already troublesome matter or condition worse.
Irritate means to make it troublesome in the first place.
Compare to means to point out the similarities between different objects.
Compare with means to point out the differences between similar objects.
Comprise means all the objects, situations or factors referred to.
Include means there will be other objects, situations or factors not listed.
Continual means recurring frequently.
Continuous means without interruption.
Disinterested means impartial.
Uninterested means not interested.
Imply is to suggest.
Infer is to deduce from the evidence.
Less refers to quantity.
Fewer should be used with numbers.
Like means similar.
As means in the same way.
Non usually implies other than.
Un implies the opposite of.
Presently means soon.
At present means now.
Where implies the physical location.
When is a location in time.
Who is a substitute for he, she or they.
Whom is a substitute for him, her or them.
Note also that:
     o there are no degrees of uniqueness - something is either unique or it is
     o to utilise means more than to use - it is to make the full use of.
Ministry of Education Terms
Correct terms for teacher education:
   o teacher education providers rather than teacher training colleges
   o teacher education programmes rather than teacher training
   o student teachers rather than teacher trainees
   o initial teacher education or preparation rather then pre-service or
       teacher training.
Other Ministry terms include:
   o special education needs rather than special education
   o early childhood education rather than early childhood
   o Pasifika rather than pacific peoples or Pacific Island people.
See Appendices A and B for abbreviations, acronyms and other terms used by
the Ministry.
Note that Special Education should be referred as the Ministry of Education,
Special Education (GSE) on the first mention in each article and GSE in all
subsequent referrals.
Abbreviations and Acronyms
1. New Zealand rather than NZ.
2. `And' not `&' except in company names and references.
3. No full stops in abbreviations.
4. Write out `for example' rather than use `eg'.
5. Use `/' for `per' only in table and graphs.
6. Use `no' for `number only in table and graphs.
7. Write out in full any acronym the first time it is used in an article regardless
of whether it has also been used in other articles in the publication.
Capitals and Lower Case
Use capitals sparingly - modern usage favours lower case, which is easier for
Use initial capitals for:
   o individual organisation or proper names
   o specific job titles but note that generic non-specific job titles are lower
   o trade names
   o the Cabinet
   o the Crown
   o the Minister
   o Parliament
   o State/State-owned.
Use lower case for:
   o board of trustees
   o cabinet committees
   o equivalent full-time student
   o equal employment opportunity
   o government department.
Grammar Tips
(1) If one thing in a sentence is plural then everything should be.
(2) Organisations, companies, teams and groups etc are all singular, as in
`the organisation is ...'
Inclusive Language
(1) Avoid gender-specific words such as `man' the office.
(2) Avoid `he/she' or `h/she' by rewriting to make the sentence plural and
substituting `they'.
(3) Kairaranga reserves the right to amend language that can be regarded as
(4) When referring to ethnic groups, Kairaranga prefers writers to specify
ethnicity rather than use a general term, as in Tongan or Samoan not
(5) In most instances Kairaranga prefers "people-first" language, such as
people who are disabled, not disabled people. For further information, please
refer to the New Zealand Disability Strategy 2001.
(1) Numbers one to nine are written in full and 10 and over in digits.
However, there are exceptions to this. When numbers are at the start of a
sentence, write them in words. If a number below nine and one over ten are
used together, don't use a figure and a word but write either figures or
(2) When two series of numbers are given, one series can be expressed in
words and one in figures to improve clarity.
(3) If there are two sets of numbers together in an article, separate with a
comma and a space.
(4) Kairaranga preference is for the word `percent' to be sued in the text and
numbers written in letters. Numerals and `%' should be used in tables and
illustrations only.
Dates and Time
(1)   21 June 2005.
(2)   2004/05 not 2004-05.
(3)   1990s or mid-2000s (note: no apostrophe is needed).
(4)   12.00pm.
All titles of Acts must include the year they were passed on their first
All publication titles are italicised. Kairaranga doesn't italicise words in a
foreign language or technical terms. Avoid overuse for emphasis and
(1) There is no serial comma in a list unless it is needed for clarity.
(2) There should be a space before and after ellipses.
(3) Use only one space after full stops.
Use single quotation marks for a quote and double marks for speech, informal
language and emphasis. If the quote is longer than 50 words, use italics and
no quotation marks. Note that shorter quotations can be italicised and that
quotation marks are never used with an italicised quote.
When using direct quotations in the text, page numbers must be included.
If the quotation is the entire sentence then the full stop goes inside the
quotation marks, but if it is only part of the sentence then the full stop is
Brackets and Dashes
Use dashes or commas, or else rewrite, rather than have additional
information or ideas in brackets. Note that this doesn't apply to sources cited
in the article and references, which are always shown in brackets.
Use `en' dashes not hyphens for dashes. En dashes are found under symbols
in the insert menu on Microsoft Word.
Bullet Points
Kairaranga preference is for a bulleted list where the opening sentence is
incomplete, has a colon and carries on in the list. This bulleted list:
   o starts in lower case
   o has each pointing reading on form the opening sentence
   o ends with a full stop.
Longer and complex points will require bulleted lists where there may be an
opening sentence with a colon but it is not necessary for the points to follow
on from this:
   o Each bullet point begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop.
   o There may be more than one sentence in a point. Any further
       sentences must be a continuation of the same idea.
The third main type of bulleted list is similar to the one above, but there is no
opening sentence and colon.
   o The bullet points are complete sentences.
When numbers are mentioned, amend to a numbered list.
The different types of bulleted lists can be used throughout the publication,
but try to be consistent in each article.
Kairaranga Heading Levels
Initial capitals on first word in heading and any sub-heading
Initial capitals
Initial capitals
Smaller font than H3
Initial capitals on first words
Ministry of Education Guidelines on the Use of the Maori Language
Māori words and expressions in both English and Māori language documents
must be written following the guidelines from the Māori Language
Commission Te Taura Whiri I te Reo Māori.
He Puna Kupu Māori the Māori Wordnet is a database available through the
National Library. An online Māori/English and English / Māori dictionary is
available at The Kairaranga editing team
should consult Angus Macfarlane on (07) 838 4500 on all matters relating to
the Māori language.
General comments
There is no `s' added in the Māori language for plurals.
`Te' and `nga' are the same as `the' - te is singular (te tēpo - the table) and
nga is plural (nga tēp o- the tables).
Take care not to use `the' directly before `te' and `nga' - I can speak te reo
Māori not I can speak the te reo Māori.
`Māori' and `Pākehā' are capitalised.
Commonly used macrons in the Ministry
ānga                                    pukuātua
āwhina mātua                            pūtahitanga
hapū                                    pūtaiao
Hui Taumata Mātauranga                  rūnanga/rūnanganui
Kaupapa Ara Whakawhiti Mātauranga tāhuhu
Kōhungahunga                            tēnei
Kōhanga Reo                             Te Aho Mātua
kōkiri                                  Te Putahitanga Mātauranga
māia                                    Te Rūnanga ā Kiwa
Māori                                   Te Whāriki
Māpihi Pounamu                          tikanga-ā-iwi
mātātupu                                Tūhoe
mātauranga                              tukutuko kōrero
Ngā Haeata Mātauranga                   tutū te pueho
Ngā Kura o Aotearoa                     tūwharetoa
ngā toi                                 urunga-ā-kura
Ngāi Tahu                               wānanga
Ngāi Tuhoe                              whakāro
Ngāti Porou                             whānau
Appendix A: Acronyms commonly used in the Ministry of
Acronym              Meaning
A                    Applied Behaviour Analysis
ADD                  Attention Deficit Disorder
ADHD                 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
ACER                 Australian Council for Education Research
APNZ                 Association of Polytechnics in New Zealand
ASD                  Autistic Spectrum Disorder
ASTE                 Association of Staff in Tertiary Education
BOT                  board of trustees
BST                  Behaviour Support Team
COE                  College of Education
CoRE                 Centres of Research Excellence
CLASS                Community Learning Association through Schools
DCE                  Dunedin College of Education
ECE                  Early Childhood Education
EDI                  Educational Development Initiative
EFTS                 Equivalent Full Time Students
EMP                  Education Management Policy
EPF                  Enhanced Programme Fund
ERO                  Education Review Office
ESW                  Education Support Worker
ESOL                 English for Speakers of Other Languages
ETSA                 Education and Training Support Agency
FTE                  Full-time Equivalent
GSE                  Group Special Education
IEP                  Individual Education Programme
ITO                  Industry Training Organisation
ITAG                 Information Technology Advisory Group
KKM                  Kura Kaupapa Māori
KRA                  Key Result Areas
LEP                  Learning and Evaluation Policy
MOE         Ministry of Education
MOH         Ministry of Health
MPIA        Ministry of Pacific Island Affairs
MTS         Medium Term Strategy
MWA         Ministry of Women's Affairs
NAG         National Administration Guidelines
NARTAM      National Association of Resource Teachers of
NCEA        National Certificate of Educational Achievement
NEG         National Educational Guidelines
NEMP        National Education Monitoring Project
NESB        Non-English Speaking Background
NGO         Non-Government Organisation
NO          National Operations
NZCER       New Zealand Council of Educational Research
NZEI        New Zealand Educational Institute
NZPF        New Zealand Playcentre Federation
NZQA        New Zealand Qualifications Authority
OIA         Official Information Act
OSH         Occupational Safety and Health
PIRLS       Progress in Reading Literacy Study
PPTA        Post Primary Teachers Association
PTE         Private Training Establishment
QART        Quality Assurance Review Team
RFI         Request for Information
RFP         Request for Proposals
RTLB        Resource Teachers of Learning and Behaviour
RT R        Resource Teachers of Reading
RT Lit      Resource Teachers of Literacy
RT Vision   Resource Teachers of Vision
SBA         Standards Based Assessment
SCC         Schools Consultative Committee
SDR         Single Data Return
SEG         Special Education Grant
SEENCO      Special Education Needs Co-ordinator
SES         Specialist Education Services
SHHNF       School High Health Needs Fund
SIR         Strategic Information and Resources
 SSO                      Senior Support Officer
 SPANZ                    Secondary Principals' Association of New Zealand
 SRA                      Strategic Result Area
 SSC                      State Services Commission
 TAMU                     Tertiary Advisory Monitoring Unit
 TC                       Teachers College
 TCC                      Tertiary Consultative Committee
 TCS                      The Correspondence School
 TEAC                     Tertiary Education Advisory Commission
 TEC                      Tertiary Education Commission
 TIMMS                    Third International Maths and Science Study
 TIP                      Tertiary Information Project
 TKI                      Te Kete Ipurangi
 TKR                      Te Kōhanga Reo National Trust
 TPK                      Te Puni Kōkiri
 TRB                      Teacher Registration Board
 UNESCO                   United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural
Appendix B: Glossary of additional Ministry of Education terms
Activity centre: a centre for secondary students experiencing problems with
schooling and needing alternative options; activity centres are attached to
local secondary schools for administrative purposes.
Adult student: a student aged 19 years or over on 1 January of the year they
attend a school.
Alternative education student: a young person aged between thirteen and a
half and sixteen who has become "lost" or alienated from the education
system and who is either unwilling to attend a regular school or schools are
unwilling to enrol them in a mainstream setting.
Area school: (see Composite School).
Beginning teachers: teachers in their first year of teaching after graduation.
The Ministry of Education allocates a time allowance to beginning teachers
who have an appointment of at least 10 weeks and are being paid out of
teachers' salaries.
Bilingual class/es: classes in which some students in a school are involved in
Māori-medium education for 3 to 20 hours per week.
Bilingual school: a school where all students are involved in Māori medium
education for three to 20 hours per week.
Boards of trustees: locally elected boards that govern state and state-
integrated schools. Boards establish a charter, which sets out the aims and
objectives of the school.
Childcare centres: (see Education and care centres).
College of education: a public tertiary institution that provides teacher
education training.
Community and general education: mainly second chance education for adults
and also hobby classes provided through a variety of educational institutions,
organisations and community groups.
Composite schools: schools offering education to students at both the primary
and secondary levels (Years 1-15).
Contributing schools: schools offering education to students up to the
intermediate level of schooling (Years 1 - 6).
Correspondence school: national school providing off-campus learning for
students unable to attend regular schools, usually because of distance, but
also for medical or other reasons. Ranges from early childhood to adult
Domestic student: a New Zealand citizen (including those born in the Cook
Islands, Tokelau, or Niue) or permanent resident or a citizen of Australia
residing in New Zealand. Children of foreign nationals exempt from the
requirement to hold a New Zealand residence permit, such as the children of
diplomatic staff, overseas armed forces, or Operation Deep Freeze personnel,
may also be included.
Education and care centres: provide sessional, all-day, or flexible hour
programmes for children from birth to school age. They may be privately
owned, non-profit making, or operated as an adjunct to the main purpose of
a business or organisation.
Education Review Office (ERO): government agency responsible for reviewing
and reporting regularly on the performance of New Zealand schools and early
childhood education centres.
Equivalent Full-Time Students (EFTS): the EFTS system is a method of
counting tertiary student numbers. The basis of the EFTS system is that a
student taking a normal year's full-time study equals 1.0 EFTS unit and the
courses taken by part-time students are fractions of one EFTS unit.
Exchange student: an international student studying in New Zealand under an
exchange programme approved by the New Zealand Government.
First-year student: a student enrolled in the first year of their first formal
programme at a tertiary institution either in New Zealand or overseas.
Enrolments in STAR, community or other non-formal courses are not included
under this definition.
Foreign fee-paying student: an international student who meets full tuition
costs, sometimes provided to them by sponsors other than the New Zealand
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
Foreign research-based postgraduate students: any non-domestic
postgraduate student enrolled in a course whose supervised work results in
the production of a substantial research output, amounting to 100 percent of
the learning and assessment for that course.
Formal student (tertiary): for statistical purposes, a tertiary student is a
formal student when enrolled in a formal programme of study at a tertiary
education provider with an aggregated EFTS consumption value greater than
0.03 (ie, more than one week's full-time duration). STAR students are not
Full primary schools: schools offering education to children up to Year 8 (see
year of schooling).
Full-time Equivalent Student (FTE): at secondary schools an FTE is calculated
by adding together the class contact hours of each part-time student, dividing
by 20, and rounding to one decimal place.
Full-time Teacher Equivalent (FTTE): (in schools) calculated by adding
together class contact hours, dividing by 25, and rounding to two decimal
Home-based services: (early childhood education) a cluster of homes under
the supervision of a home-based coordinator. The coordinator places children
with caregivers in approved homes for an agreed number of hours per week.
Homeschooling: parents/guardians may choose to educate their children at
home, on the condition that a standard of education similar to that in a
regular school is provided.
Immersion class/es: classes in which some students in a school are involved
in Māori-medium education for more than 20 hours per week.
Immersion school: a school where all students are involved in Māori-medium
education for more than 20 hours per week
Industry Training Organisations (ITOs): organisations that develop high
quality, systematic training arrangements (through tertiary institutions,
private training establishments, and the workplace) for people employed in
the industry they represent.
Intermediate schools: schools offering education to Year 7 and 8 students.
International student: an overseas student who has come to New Zealand for
the purpose of education, and/or is currently studying on a student permit or
diplomatic passport.
International Standard of Classification of Education (ISCED): a system
designed by UNESCO so that statistics on education can be compiled and
presented on an internationally comparable basis. ISCED-1997 levels of
education are:
    o Level 0 Pre-primary education.
    o Level 1 Primary schooling up to Year 6.
    o Level 2 Year 7-10.
    o Level 3 Year 11-15 and post-secondary formal programmes that do not
        go beyond Year 15 level.
    o Level 4 Education beyond school level leading to an award not
        equivalent to a diploma.
    o Level 5 Includes diplomas, degrees and postgraduate programmes.
    o Level 6 Includes Doctorates.
Kindergarten: an early childhood education institution which provides
sessional programmes for mainly three and four-year-old children.
Kura Kaupapa Māori: state schools where teaching is in Te Reo Māori and is
based on Māori culture and values.
Licensed early childhood education centre: any premises used regularly for
the education or care of three or more children under the age of six must be
licensed except where specifically exempted by the Minister of Education.
Licence-exempt early childhood education services: some community-based
non-profit making centres operated by parents are exempt from licensing if
they operate for no more than three hours on any one day, have more than
half the parents attending each session and parents assume responsibility for
each child attending the group.
Māori-medium education: students are taught curriculum subjects in both
Māori and English (bilingual) or in Māori only (immersion) as well as learning
Te Reo Māori.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT) student: a student on a
scholarship from the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
Nature of attendance (Tertiary): a measure of the extent of attendance in a
programme, which indicates whether a student is currently studying full-time
or part- time. The calculation for this is based on the Loans Entry Threshold
(LET) indicator.
New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA): independent body responsible
for setting and regularly reviewing standards for qualifications including
administering national examinations.
Ongoing and Reviewable Resourcing Schemes (ORRS): The schemes, which
were introduced in 1997, assist individuals with very high or high special
education needs by providing funding for extra teaching, specialist
programming, therapy and education support.Other Vote Education: special
schools that are funded by the Ministry of Education but not owned by the
Pacific-medium education: students are taught curriculum subjects in both
Pacific languages and English (bilingual) or in Pacific languages only
Playcentre: an early childhood institution that is collectively supervised and
managed by parents for children aged between 0 and five years.
Polytechnic: a public tertiary education institution that is characterised by a
wide diversity of vocational and professional programmes.
Prior activity: the main activity of a first-year tertiary student at 1 October the
previous year. Categories include: attendance at a secondary school or other
form of education, paid employment, house-person, retired or other
beneficiary, and overseas. Private Tertiary Education Providers: consist of
private institutions registered with the NZQA and other tertiary education
providers on receipt of a Ministry of Education Grant (OTEP). Many private
tertiary education providers receive Ministry of Education tuition subsidies
and/or funding for Skill NZ programmes.
Public Tertiary Education Institutions: a university, college of education,
polytechnic or wānanga as defined by the Education Act 1989. The term
excludes other post-secondary institutions, such as private training
Restricted composite schools: schools offering education to Years 7 to 10
Skill New Zealand: a government agency responsible for providing training in
skill development within New Zealand. Programmes include Skill
Enhancement, Training Opportunities and Youth Training.
Socio-economic decile band: all schools are given a Targeted Funding
Educational Achievement decile number, depending on the socio-economic
status of the area they serve. Schools with lower decile numbers are allocated
higher funds to help children from low socio-economic areas to achieve
Supernumerary teachers: teachers identified as being above entitlement but
guaranteed employment for a set period of time. This occurs largely because
of falling rolls and school closures.
Suspensions and stand-downs (school): students may be suspended for gross
misconduct or continual disobedience, either where their behaviour is harmful
or dangerous to other students at the school, or where there is a likelihood of
serious harm either to themselves or to other students if they are not
suspended. A stand-down is the formal removal of a student from a school for
a specified period. A suspension is the formal removal of a student from
school until the board of trustees decides the outcome at a suspension
Te Kōhanga Reo: an early childhood institution administered by Te Kōhanga
Reo Trust. The programmes are based on the total immersion of children
from birth to school age in Māori language, culture, and values.
Tertiary Education Providers: post compulsory educational institutions that
provide formal programmes of study.
University: a public tertiary education institution that is primarily concerned
with advanced learning and knowledge, research, and teaching to a
postgraduate level.
Wānanga: a public tertiary institution that provides programmes with an
emphasis on the application of knowledge regarding ahuatanga Māori (Māori
tradition) according to tikanga Māori (Māori custom).
Year of schooling: measures the number of years of schooling a student has
received and provides the Ministry of Education with a method of counting
students for funding and staffing purposes.
Further Information
For further general information, see the Ministry of Education draft style
guide. For special queries and Kairaranga guidelines, contact the Editorial
AGPS Press and Lincoln University Press. Write Edit Print: Style manual for
Aotearoa New Zealand. (1997)
The Department of Child, Youth and Family Services. Written style guide.
The Ministry of Education. Draft style guide.

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