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Coal Towns of Harlan KY

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					                   Coal Towns in Harlan County
Ages - East Harlan Coal Co
Alva - Black Star Coal Corp - Alva No 1, 2 & Kellioka
Bardo - Bowling Coal Mining Co - Bowling
Benito - Benito Harlan Corporation
Brookside - Harlan Collieries Co - Duke Power
Benham - Wisconsin Steel Co>
Black Joe - Harlan Fox Coal Co - Harlan Fox
Cawood - Crummies Creek Coal Co - Crummies Creek 1 & 2
Chad - Meadows Harlan Coal Co - Chad
Chevrolet - Harlan Superior Coal Co - Superior
Closplint - Clover Splint Coal Co
Mary Helen Coal Co - Mine 1 & 2
Coxton - Melcroft Coal Co - Coxton & Kayn
Dayhoit - White Star Coal Co - Mine 1, 2, 3, & 4
Draper - Smith, J. L., Coal Co - Draper
Elcomb - McCombs Coal Co - McCombs
Evarts - Harlan Clover - Springton - Harlan Kellioka - Dartmont - Middleton
Coal Co - Middleton - Evarts Coal Co - Evarts - Darby Coal Co - Darby - Brown
R. L., - Brown
Grey Knob - Wilson Rogers Coal Co - Mill Creek & Grays Branch
Harcrow - Harcrow Mines, Inc
Harlan - Harlan Gas Coal Co - Malcolmson - Verda Harlan Coal Co - Verda
Harlan - Tway, R. C., Coal Co - Tway - Block Coal Co - Block
Highsplint - Highsplint Coal Co & Harlan
Insul - Southern Mining Co
Kentenia - Fordson Coal Co - Mine No 2 - Banner Fork Coal Corp
Kenvir - Black Mountain Corp - Mine 30 & 31
Kildav - King Harlan Coal Co - King
Kitts - Golden Ash Coal Co - Golden Ash - Clover Leaf Coal Co - Clover Leaf
Lenarue - Southern Harland Coal Co - Lenarue - Three Point Coal Co - Coalville
Lejunior - Model Coal Co - Darby & Harlan - Berger Coal Mining Co - Benito &
Berger - Cooke & Sharpe Coal Co - Cooke & Sharpe - Brown & Sharpe Coal Co
- Brown & Sharpe
Liggett - Perkins Harlan Coal Co - Perkins Harlan
Lisle - Good Coal Co
Louellen - Cornett-Lewis - Harlan & Highsplint
Lynch - U S Coal & Coke Co - Mine 31 & 32
Mary Alice - Mary Alice Coal Co
Molus - Harlan Wallins Coal Co - Molus
Nolansburg - Harlan-Splint Coal Co - Kellioka Coal Co
Pathfork - Willis Coal Co - Mill Creek No 1 & 2
Pee Vee - Looney Creek Coal Co - Mine 1 & 2
Putney - International Coal and Lumber Co
Ridgeway - Harlan-Ridgeway Mining Co - Harlan Coke & Coke Co
Rue - Southern Harlan Coal Co
Splint - Splint Coal Corp - Splint Coke & Coal Co
Stanfill - Mahan-Ellison Coal Corp
Three Point - Three Point Coal Corp
Totz - Harlan Ashless Coal Co - Harlan Ashless - Harlan Central
Twila - Creech Coal Co - Mine 1 & 2 - Clover Darby Mine Co
Verda - Harlan Wallins Coal Corp - Bear Branch
Yancy - Harlan Fuel Co
Wallins Creek - Utilities Coal Co - Kentucky King - Boone Wheeler Coal Co -
Boone Wheeler
Whipple - Dixie Bell Coal Co
White Star - Harlan Fuel Co



These were towns, the coal companies, and mine names listed by the Kentucky
Department of Mines & Minerals for the year 1925. The mining of coal in all of
Harlan County was accomplished by drift mining. It has also been noted that
Harlan County had the greatest number of coal miners [10,949] for the same
year. The vast majority were American White [8,295], American Negro [1,512],
and the greatest number of ethnics were Hungarians [163].

Other Harlan County Towns:

Loyall

The town of Loyall was developed as a coal shipping point, for the various coal mines
of Harlan County, around an L&N RR (Louisville & Nashville Railroad) switching yard
and maintenance facility. Established in 1920, the town was built and constructed on
land that was acquired from a local family.
The local post office was established on September 2, 1922, as SHONN, which was a
local name for a rail siding, and was renamed Loyall in 1932.
Loyall is a 5th class city and is located just below the joining of the Poor Fork and
Martins Fork of the Cumberland River and about a mile west by northwest of Harlan.
                                    Verda, KY
Harlan/Wallins Coal Corp - Jones Creek

The principal owners and supervisors of the Verda coal community was the Basham
family. Harlan/Wallins Coal Corp owned everything, store, restaurant, barbershop,
pool room, Doctors Office and the Doctor.

In the late 1930s and early 1940s there was approximately one thousand familes in the
Verda, Jones Creek, Kildav area.
During World War II the mines worked around the clock and some times the tipple
would process coal for sixteen to twenty hours. During this processing time coal dust
through out the community was so thick that it is no wonder that the kids who grew
up in the area do not have "Black Lung".
When a mine accident occured all the women of the miners would gather at the end of
the bridge leading to the mine opening and wait to learn if it was 'their man'. "I recall
the weeping and crying of the woman whose man it was, she cryed for him and most
of all for the children she would now have to raise alone, for there was no
compensation for death, there was only the stark reality that another man was gone
and the mining would go on."
Coal miners daughters and sons had several choices in life: They could remain in the
community and become coal miners, join the military and if an opportunity arose
could perhaps go on to college.

White frame company houses that once dotted the landscape has given way to brick
homes and double wide mobile homes. There is no longer a store, barber shop, Pool
Room, or Texaco Service Station. Gone is the Tipple, Railroad Bridge, and railroad
tracks that ran through town, no longer is there a town constable or company
approved 'boot legger' they too are gone like the coal dust that once covered and
stained the sheets hanging drying on the clothes lines.
"In a sense even the grave yard is gone because a logging chain across the road
leading up to it. Most of my family is burried there and I will soon be to old to walk
up the mountain. Not only are all these things gone: but a wild, wonderful, 'likker'
drinking, caring, sharing, loving people are gone with it too !! and that way of life will
never be again. It was hard but I miss it."

                         Submitted by: Bob Kirby, Verda, KY
                   Coal Monument ~ Baxter, Kentucky
The Coal Monument located in the town of Baxter, Kentucky, is a symbol for all
Harlan Countians. COAL, a source of fossil fuel energy, was used to construct
this monument. It is a symbol of all the coal miners who worked in the coal mines
and coal mining industry in the county and was placed here to commemorate the
lives of the Harlan County Coal miners who are loved, revered and respected.
Here the common tread, coal mining, has bridged generations of families of
Harlan Countys thirty five towns, fifty Coal Mine companies consisting of sixty
four mines. [Numbers are from the Kentucky Department of Mines and Minerals
- circa 1925.

Harlan County is an area that is located in the south eastern coal fields of
Kentucky, an extensive coal field stretching from the Appalachian Mountains
westward. Wages in the early days of coal mining were relatively low and the
mines were not safe. Mining in the middle years [1940's and 1950's] was being
organized by the UMWofA [United Mine Workers of America] and too often,
strikes interruped coal production. The economy was generally depressed.
Family gardens and odd jobs were the way of life during unemployemnt.

Miners lived in the company owned town and usually walked to their work at the
mines. There were many coal mines that operated in the county during the peak
years of 1917 - 1960. The use of coal declined in America following World War II
and the mines began a gradual closing in the 1960's.

Many Europeans migrated to Harlan County to work in the coal mines. Some
came because jobs were plentiful and they learned the skills to become miners,
some continued the mining skills they had used in Europe, and some probably
were recruited as strike breakers during the several union disagreements with
coal companies. They worked together with union members and some lived with
their own relatives and fellow countrymen as neighbors.

The coal mine families of Americans, Afro-Americans, Hungarians, Italians,
Russians, Polish, and Yougslavians are now gone just as the signs of the coal
mines. Flowers grow in yards now with never a hint of the passage ways that lie
underground. The 1960 Census list the population of Harlan County as 51,107 as
compared to the 1970 Census of 36,596 a loss of twenty five per cent of its people
over a decade

The unique mining history of Harlan County Towns and the rich cultural
contributions of its sons and daughters give the mine communities a character all
its own and a place in the history of the American Dream.
          Harlan County, Kentucky Coal Camps

     Compiled from Dodrill's 10,000 Coal Company Stores

                                             YEARS OF
    COMPANY           COMMUNITY COUNTY                EMPLOYEES
                                            OPERATION
 Ages Ridge Coal
                         Ages      Harlan   1914-1915    75
    Company
 East Harlan Coal
                         Ages      Harlan   1916-1932    100
    Company
 Harlan Collieries
                         Ages      Harlan   1920-1924    200
  Company, Inc.
  High Point Coal
                         Ages      Harlan   1917-1924    25
     Company
  Black Star Coal
                         Alva      Harlan   1923-1928    400
  Company, Inc.
  Black Star Coal
                         Alva      Harlan   1939-1958    900
    Corporation
Bardo Coal Mining
                        Bardo      Harlan   1927-1958    160
    Company
Bowling Coal Mining
                        Bardo      Harlan   1921-1926    85
     Company
   International
                       Benham      Harlan   1942-1958    685
Harvester Company
Looney Creek Coal
                       Benham      Harlan   1924-1924    50
    Company
  Wisconsin Steel
                       Benham      Harlan   1912-1941    600
    Company
   Benito Harlan
                        Benito     Harlan   1939-1940    100
    Corporation
 Harlan Fox Coal
                       Black Joe   Harlan   1918-1924    100
    Company
Harlan Fox Mining
                     Black Joe   Harlan   1925-1932   100
    Company
J B Blue Gem Coal
                     Black Joe   Harlan   1920-1922   100
     Company
 Harlan Collieries
                     Brookside   Harlan   1924-1926   200
    Company
 Harlan Collieries
                     Brookside   Harlan   1924-1958   200
  Company, Inc.
   Hoyt Mining
                      Cargo      Harlan   1919-1921   40
    Company
 Crummies Creek
                     Cawood      Harlan   1924-1931   350
  Coal Company
 Ellis Knob Coal
                     Cawood      Harlan   1923-1926   100
     Company
Blue Diamond Coal
                     Chevrolet   Harlan   1927-1958   350
     Company
Crown By-Product
                     Chevrolet   Harlan   1920-1923   200
 Coal Company
   Crown Coal
                     Chevrolet   Harlan   1923-1926   250
    Company
 Harlan Superior
                     Chevrolet   Harlan   1919-1929   50
 Coal Company
Clover Darby Coal
                     Closplint   Harlan   1943-1952   125
    Company
 Cloversplint Coal
                     Closplint   Harlan   1928-1946   350
    Company
 Mary Helen Coal
                     Coalgood    Harlan   1919-1958   490
  Corporation
   Pure D Coal
                     Coalgood    Harlan    1951-?     ?
  Company, Inc.
Elkhorn Piney Coal
                      Coxton     Harlan   1933-1935   200
 Mining Company
  Koppers Coal
                      Coxton     Harlan   1936-1941   220
   Company
 Lick Branch Coal
                      Coxton     Harlan   1914-1921   250
     Company
  Melcroft Coal
                      Coxton     Harlan   1917-1935   275
   Company
 Crummies Creek
                     Crummies    Harlan   1924-1931   350
  Coal Company
 J.L. Smith Coal
                      Draper     Harlan   1919-1928   125
    Company
  McComb Coal
                      Elcomb     Harlan   1917-1928   150
   Company
Bailey's Creek Coal
                         Evarts     Harlan   1917-1921   30
     Company
    Darby Coal
                         Evarts     Harlan   1927-1935   75
    Company
    Evarts Coal
                         Evarts     Harlan   1919-1929   58
     Company
   Fairview Coal
                         Evarts     Harlan   1933-1934   30
    Company
 Game Cock Coal
                         Evarts     Harlan   1933-1934   50
   Company
Harlan-Kellioka Coal
                         Evarts     Harlan   1926-1926   100
     Company
Harlan Clover Coal
                         Evarts     Harlan   1906-1928   90
    Company
Harlan Co-operative
                         Evarts     Harlan   1921-1925   60
  Coal Company
Harlan Kellioka Coal
                         Evarts     Harlan   1919-1926   100
     Company
Harlan Liberty Coal
                         Evarts     Harlan   1919-1926   250
     Company
Harlan Wallins Coal
                         Evarts     Harlan   1936-1953   200
  Company, Inc.
Harlan Wallins Coal
                         Evarts     Harlan   1936-1957   200
 Corporation, Inc.
   Peabody Coal
                         Evarts     Harlan   1919-1920   140
     Company
    River Ridge
                         Evarts     Harlan   1949-1952   80
   Collieries, Inc.
Sugar Camp Mining
                         Evarts     Harlan   1919-1924   15
    Company
Sugar Camp Mining
                         Evarts     Harlan   1927-1930   60
    Company
  Superior Harlan
                         Evarts     Harlan   1921-1928   125
  Coal Company
   Turner Fuel
                         Evarts     Harlan   1943-1945   85
  Company, Inc.
Yocum Creek Coal
                         Evarts     Harlan   1951-1958   275
  Company, Inc.
Wilson Berger Coal
                       Grays Knob   Harlan   1916-1934   100
    Company
Harcrow Mines, Inc.     Harcrow     Harlan   1938-1942   150
   Elcomb Coal
                         Harlan     Harlan   1931-1957   100
    Company
Green-Silvers Coal       Harlan     Harlan   1934-1942   150
   Corporation
 Harlan Gas Coal
                       Harlan      Harlan   1915-1934   150
    Company
Harlan Wallins Coal
                       Harlan      Harlan   1925-1932   250
 Corporation, Inc.
   Howard Coal
                       Harlan      Harlan   1926-1926   30
    Company
 Kitts Creek Coal
                       Harlan      Harlan   1921-1923   40
     Company
  R.C. Tway Coal
                       Harlan      Harlan   1919-1948   250
     Company
 R.C. Tway Mining
                       Harlan      Harlan   1914-1919   200
    Company
  Shawnee Coal
                       Harlan      Harlan   1917-1919   20
    Company
Shawnee Gas Coal
                       Harlan      Harlan   1919-1925   75
    Company
    Splint Coal
                       Harlan      Harlan   1933-1936   100
    Company
Wallins Creek Coal
                       Harlan      Harlan   1914-1919   275
 Company, Inc.
  Wallins Creek
                       Harlan      Harlan   1919-1924   250
Collieries Company
Williams By-Product
                       Harlan      Harlan   1917-1921   120
  Coal Company
Yocum Creek Coal
                       Harlan      Harlan   1943-1950   425
  Company, Inc.
Cornett-Lewis Coal
                      Highsplint   Harlan   1922-1923   100
  Company, Inc.
Harlow Coal & Coke
                      Highsplint   Harlan      ?        ?
     Company
  Highsplint Coal
                      Highsplint   Harlan   1919-1958   300
    Company
 Seagraves Coal
                      Highsplint   Harlan   1919-1958   300
   Company
 Southern Mining
                        Insul      Harlan   1927-1955   175
   Company
 Banner Fork Coal
                      Kentenia     Harlan   1916-1925   350
   Corporation
   Fordson Coal
                      Kentennia    Harlan   1924-1927   400
    Company
  Black Mountain
                       Kenvir      Harlan   1922-1952   841
 Corporation Mine
  Peabody Coal         Kenvir      Harlan   1953-1958   750
    Company
  Peabody Coal
                      Kenvir     Harlan   1921-1926   140
    Company
  J.L. Smith Coal
                      Kildav     Harlan   1919-1925   50
     Company
  Cloverfork Coal
                       Kitts     Harlan   1914-1958   200
     Company
 Golden Ash Coal
                       Kitts     Harlan   1914-1928   100
    Company
Rex Coal Company       Kitts     Harlan   1914-1923   60
 Rex Harlan Coal
                       Kitts     Harlan   1923-1925   100
    Company
Rex Red Ash Coal
                       Kitts     Harlan   1926-1930   75
    Company
    Benito Coal
                      Lejunior   Harlan   1921-1925   50
     Company
   Benito Mining
                      Lejunior   Harlan   1926-1938   100
    Company
Berger Coal Mining
                      Lejunior   Harlan   1921-1942   150
    Company
  Bowling Mining
                      Lejunior   Harlan   1917-1921   50
    Company
Brown & Sharp Coal
                      Lejunior   Harlan   1925-1928   45
    Company
Cook & Sharpe Coal
                      Lejunior   Harlan   1923-1929   45
    Company
 Dixie Darby Coal
                      Lejunior   Harlan   1932-1937   68
     Company
 Dixie Harlan Coal
                      Lejunior   Harlan   1931-1937   50
     Company
    Home Coal
                      Lejunior   Harlan   1919-1921   100
    Company
Miller & Sharp Coal
                      Lejunior   Harlan   1922-1924   35
     Company
   P V & K Coal
                      Lejunior   Harlan   1921-1949   130
    Company
Pennsylvania, Va. &
                      Lejunior   Harlan   1921-1949   130
Ky. Coal Company
Upper Harlan Coal
                      Lejunior   Harlan   1917-1923   75
   Company
Central Harlan Coal
                      Lenarue    Harlan   1926-1926   80
    Company
   Lenarue Coal
                      Lenarue    Harlan   1921-1925   50
     Company
  Southern Harlan
                        Lenarue     Harlan   1931-1951   125
  Coal Company
 Three Point Coal
                        Lenarue     Harlan   1923-1930   125
    Company
Mahan-Ellison Coal
                         Liggett    Harlan   1922-1932   50
   Corporation
Perkins-Harlan Coal
                         Liggett    Harlan   1920-1958   150
     Company
    Good Coal
                          Lisle     Harlan   1937-1939   225
    Company
Cornett-Lewis Coal
                        Louellen    Harlan   1931-1951   500
    Company
Cornett-Lewis Coal
                        Louellen    Harlan   1924-1958   500
  Company, Inc.
United States Coal &
                         Lynch      Harlan   1919-1950   1000
  Coke Company
United States Steel
                         Lynch      Harlan   1951-1958   1657
    Corporation
  Mary Alice Coal
                       Mary Alice   Harlan   1945-1957   85
    Company
Harlan Wallins Coal
                         Molus      Harlan   1926-1953   200
  Company, Inc.
Harlan Wallins Coal
                         Molus      Harlan   1925-1957   200
 Corporation, Inc.
  Wallins Creek
                         Molus      Harlan   1924-1924   100
Collieries Company
 Harlan-Splint Coal
                       Nolansburg   Harlan   1927-1932   80
     Company
   Kellioka Coal
                       Nolansburg   Harlan   1919-1924   40
    Company
Blue Diamond Coal
                        Pathfork    Harlan   1927-1947   50
     Company
 Willis-Harlan Coal
                        Pathfork    Harlan   1921-1930   125
      Company
Looney Creek Coal
                        Pee Vee     Harlan   1915-1934   150
    Company
Intermountain Coal
                        Putney      Harlan   1923-1941   25
& Lumber Company
 Harlan-Ridgeway
                       Ridgeway     Harlan      ?         ?
 Mining Company
Harlan Coal & Coke
                       Ridgeway     Harlan   1923-1933   125
  Company, Inc.
  Ridgeway Coal
                       Ridgeway     Harlan   1940-1941   125
   Corporation
 Southern Harlan
                          Rue         Harlan   1927-1951   125
 Coal Company
    Splint Coal
                         Splint       Harlan   1939-1942   100
    Corporation
Splint Coal & Coke
                         Splint       Harlan   1937-1938   100
     Company
Mahan-Ellison Coal
                         Stanfill     Harlan   1923-1951   200
   Corporation
 Three Point Coal
                       Three Point    Harlan   1931-1957   210
   Corporation
Harlan-Cumberland
    Coal Mining           Totz        Harlan   1921-1925   80
     Company
Harlan Ashless Coal
                          Totz        Harlan   1926-1928   80
     Company
Harlan Central Coal
                          Totz        Harlan   1932-1948   250
     Company
Clover Darby Coal
                          Twila       Harlan   1953-1958   185
    Company
   Creech Coal
                          Twila       Harlan   1916-1952   400
  Company, Inc.
Harlan Wallins Coal
                         Verda        Harlan   1936-1953   800
 Corporation, Inc.
Harlan Wallins Coal
                         Verda        Harlan   1925-1957   800
 Corporation, Inc.
  Wallins Creek
                         Verda        Harlan   1924-1924   100
Collieries Company
Wallins Creek Coal
                         Wallins      Harlan   1912-1919   135
 Company, Inc.
Cumberland Cannel
                  Wallins Creek       Harlan   1915-1919   20
  Coal Company
Cumberland Valley
  Fuel & Mining       Wallins Creek   Harlan   1917-1919   100
    Company
Harlan Wallins Coal
                    Wallins Creek     Harlan   1925-1932   225
 Corporation, Inc.
Kentucky King Coal
                   Wallins Creek      Harlan   1932-1936   160
    Company
Kentucky King Coal
                   Wallins Creek      Harlan   1918-1924   140
    Company
   Utlities Coal
                      Wallins Creek   Harlan   1925-1932   180
   Corporation
  Wallins Creek
                   Wallins Creek      Harlan   1919-1924   225
Collieries Company
Wheeler Boone Coal
                   Wallins Creek   Harlan   1917-1928   70
    Company
  Dixie Bell Coal
                      Whipple      Harlan   1938-1938   205
    Company
  Riverside Coal
                     White Star    Harlan   1919-1925   30
 Mining Company
  White Star Coal
                     White Star    Harlan   1916-1929   185
    Company
    Harlan Fuel
                      Yancey       Harlan   1927-1930   350
     Company
    Harlan Fuel
                      Yancey       Harlan   1925-1958   400
     Company

				
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Description: Harlan County Kentucky Coal Mining United Mine Workers of America Strike