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Public Speaking

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Public Speaking Powered By Docstoc
					Deotirth Sahu
     Director
Presentations
        Presentation Skills

 “The mind is a wonderful thing………
It starts working the moment you are
      born, and never stops ……….
 Until you get up to speak in public!!”
Presentation: Definition


Something presented : as
a : a symbol or image that represents
  something
b : something offered or given
c: an immediate object of perception,
  cognition, or memory
What is Communication?

z Nonverbal Communication



  -body language
    -eye contact
        Importance of
       Communication

z Class Presentations

z Field Research

z Business Communications

z Public Speaking
  Fear of Public Speaking
z Population
     xNo.1 fear=Public Speaking
     xFear No.2=Death
z Stage fright
  -In spotlight
  -unprepared
  -inexperienced
 Effective Communication

z Preparation

z Practice

z Presence
 Effective Communication

z Preparation
  y research -non-research
  y format     -speak on what you know
     -Notes- outline main points
     -note cards vs. full sized paper
                  Making Notes
z   Use Cards - tie/number
z   Use headings/subheadings
z   Bullet points
z   Colour code/shorthand
z   Underline/indent
z   Write out first/last sentence in full
z   Memorise introduction
z   Rehearse
z   Use large visible printing
  Sample Speech Outline

I. Introduction
    x Thesis
II. Body
    x support arguments
III. Conclusion
    x review
 Effective Communication

z Practice
  - practice makes perfect
  - revision
  - get time right
 Preparation & Practice


     Thorough preparation


Plenty of practice
 Effective Communication
z Presence
  -nervousness- fright is common
  -Body language
     -voice tone
     -gestures
     -eye contact
  -positive attitude
     Appearance
Confident ?
Warmth ?
Stance ?
Mannerisms ?
Eye contact ?
          Body Language
Dress

Posture

Facial Expression

Voice

Movement

Gesture

Eye Contact
         Voice
        Volume    Mumbling
                  Voice drop
           Too high
Pitch      Too low
           Monotonous
                   Hesitancy
        Speed
                   Gabbling
                   Voice
Voice Control
   Pause and pace
      use pause to add emphasis and drama
      pace should be slower than normal, but vary
      according to mood
   Emphasis
      say adjectives as they sound
   Volume
      louder than normal
      larger audiences, more modulation required
              Movement
Movement - why does it improve the
effectiveness of your delivery?
  Relaxes the speaker and the audience
  Gains attention
  Involves the audience
  Improves emphasis and eye contact
                Movement
Movement - it is crucial to your delivery that
you choreograph it as every part of the room
has a different relationship with the speaker -
examples…..
  Start your presentation close to the audience
  1st slide/ overhead - stand still
  Move to the screen to emphasise side/ overhead
  Change energy level to match/ control mood
  Controlled movement
      stop talking - stop eye contact
      start talking/ start eye contact
                     Gestures
Gestures - why use them?
    Emphasise a point
    Involve the audience
    Visual expression
    Animation
    Demonstrates comfort
How much to use?
    depends on the audience size and makeup
        A little for conservative audiences
        A lot for large, dynamic audiences
              Eye Contact
Eye contact - communicates the
  following
    Honesty
    Trust
    Confidence
    Individualism
    Interest
    Sincerity
    Credibility
    Direct relationship
              Eye Contact
    EYE CONTACT STRATEGIES
Less than the other =    Humility

Same as the other =      We are the same

Constructive        =    Builds relationship
(same then increasing)
More than the other =    Dominate other/ strength
                         of conviction
            Eye Contact
Eye Contact - Directing It
  Decision maker
      receives most eye contact - 60%
      share the remainder equally
  Key influencer
      share the majority of eye contact
  By role
      allocate by job function/ status
  Everyone is equal
      proportion eye contact equally
Things You Shouldn’t Do
 Read directly from notes
 Read directly from screen
 Turn back on audience
 Slouch, hands in pockets
 No um, ah, you know’s
 No nervous gestures
 Talk too fast,
 Talk too quietly
Things You Should Do

             Eye contact
             Can glance at
             notes
             Appropriate
             gestures
             Rhetorical
             questions to
             involve audience
       Controlling Nerves
Dry mouth: bite side of the tongue, sip water
Too much saliva: breath through mouth
Tight throat: yawn with your mouth closed
Short of breath: apply pressure on lower
abdomen
Butterflies: tense & relax muscles of abdomen
Drying Up: look at your note, repeat what you
have just said
Gestures
Practice
     Ten Successful Tips
    Control the “Butterflies”

Know the room- become familiar
with the place of presentation
Know the audience- greet or chat
with the audience before hand. It’s
easier to speak to friends than to
strangers
Know your material-increased
nervousness is due to un-
preparedness
Control the “Butterflies”
Relaxation- relax entire body by
stretching and breathing so as to
ease the tension
Visualize giving your speech-
Visualize yourself giving your speech
from start to finish. By visualizing
yourself successful, you will be
successful
Control the “Butterflies”
People want you to succeed-the
audience is there to see you succeed
not to fail
Don’t apologize-by mentioning your
nervousness or apologizing, you’ll
only be calling the audience’s
attention to mistakes
Control the “Butterflies”

Concentrate on your message-not
the medium. Focus on the message
you are trying to convey and not on
your anxieties
Turn nervousness into positive
energy-nervousness increases
adrenaline, transform it into vitality
and enthusiasm
Control the “Butterflies”
Gain experience-experience builds
confidence, which is key to effective
public speaking
        Presentation Skills
“The key to effective presentations is
      to manage the relationship
  between yourself and the audience
       so that a good rapport is
         developed with them”
      Presentation Skills
Short sharp paragraphs
Simple words
Repeat key phrases for effect
Repeat key phrases for effect
Avoid catch phrases
Humour
Anecdotes: real-life examples
Rhetorical questions: don’t
require answers
YOU

Do not use the media to hide you
The audience came to see you
The media should enhance the presentation, not
BE the presentation
If all you are going to do is read from the slides
or overheads, then just send them the slides
Remember, only you can prevent
      “Death by PowerPoint”
Questions??

End your presentation with a simple question
slide to:
   Invite your audience to ask questions
   Provide a visual aid during question period
   Avoid ending a presentation abruptly
               Use of Questions

Questioning - Effectively Used Achieves..
  Engages audience attention
  Establishes better 2 way communication
  Obtains required information
  Checks for understanding
  Checks for agreement
How to Prepare Questions ……
                                              ?
  Prepare key questions ahead of time
  Plan the timing of questions
  Be alert to situations that require unplanned
  questions
   Initiate A Discussion


    ASK QUESTIONS
Open ended - to find out
information
Closed - to gain commitment
Redirected - to involve group
Rhetorical - to control group
Leading - to give alternative
choice
    Tips For Enhancing Discussion

Switch off the overhead or light projector
Turn flipcharts to a blank page
Erase any unwanted writing from the
blackboard or whiteboard
Show any objects referred to and then
cover them up
             Participants
Four Types:
    Dr   Quiet
    Dr   Disagreeable
    Dr   Side Conversation
    Dr   Talkative
Keep Control - Tactics

  Side Conversations
  Quiet/Shy
  Talkative
  Disagreeable

       WHY?
  Keep Control - Tactics

    SIDE CONVERSATION
Ask to “share” their idea
Restate a point & ask for their opinion
Check if there is a problem
“Should we include your point in the
discussion?”

 BE DIPLOMATIC & ASSERTIVE
  Keep Control - Tactics

QUIET/SHY PARTICIPANT
Simple questions
Eye contact
Recognise & encourage any
contributions
Ask a question & invite
everyone's opinion in turn
Keep Control - Tactics

       TALKATIVE
Remind everyone of time limits
Summarise point & ask for
comments from group
Address questions to other
participants
Refocus on objectives/agenda
 Keep Control - Tactics

     DISAGREEABLE
Paraphrase comments, and recap their
position in objective terms
Find merit in one of their remarks
Respond to their comment, not the
attack
Throw their opinion out to the group
Answer their questions simply and
factually
Scientific Presentations:
    Do’s and Don’ts
Scientific Presentation
1) Prepare your material carefully and logically. Tell a
 story. The story should have four parts:
 (a) Introduction (b) Method (c) Results
 (d) Conclusion/Summary.
 "Tell'em what you are going to tell'em.
 Tell'em. Then tell'em what you told'em."
Scientific Presentation
2)   Practice your talk
3)   Don't put in too much material
4)   Avoid equations
5)   Have only a few conclusion points
Scientific Presentation
6) Talk to the audience not to the screen
7) Avoid making distracting sounds like “
  uuuhhh” and “mmm”
8) Polish your graphics
9) Use humor if possible, but don’t go
  overboard
10) Check your viewgraphs before you give the
  talk
11) Switch off your cell phones if possible.
 Scientific Presentation
12) Be personable in taking questions.

     First, repeat the question.
     If you don't know the answer then say "I don't
  know, I will have to look into that."
    If the questioner disagrees with you and it looks
  like there will be an argument then defuse the
  situation.
     Never insult the questioner ( S/he may have
  contacts you don’t know about!

13) Thank you Slide
   Presentation Checklist
Check :
           Size of room
           Tables and
              chairs
             Sockets
             Lights
             Equipment
             Display table
             Entrance
   Presentation Day & Practice

30 minutes before
Arrange table & chairs
Set up equipment
Catering
Display
Start Promptly
Finish on Time
Handouts: Few Tips
Handouts
Passing out Handouts:
Can pass it out during presentation
If flow interrupted, pass out before start
 If more than one, can give out “package”
  Avoid passing around objects (“I will walk
  around with it”)
Summary: Dos and Don’ts of Presentation
 Don’t gesticulate wildly
 Do speak distinctly
 Do vary your speed and pitch
 Do look at your audience
 Don’t use jargon, slang and superfluous words
 Do pause after important points
 Do watch the time
 Do speak with conviction and enthusiasm
 Do be natural and sincere
 Do try to simile
 Don’t use jokes unless they are really funny and relevant
                Summary
Know your audience
Know the occasion
Know your speaking environment
Pin down your topic
Brain storm
Research
Prepare a rough draft of your presentation
Transfer your presentation to mental/ written notes
Practice ...To overcome nervousness!
Now is the time to deliver your
whole presentation to the group
using all of the delivery
techniques we have discussed.
Practice takes you from this..
To this….
Thank you;
Any questions?

				
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