Deotirth Sahu Director Presentations Presentation Skills “The mind is a wonderful thing……… It starts working the moment you are born, and never stops ………. Until you get up to speak in public!!” Presentation: Definition Something presented : as a : a symbol or image that represents something b : something offered or given c: an immediate object of perception, cognition, or memory What is Communication? z Nonverbal Communication -body language -eye contact Importance of Communication z Class Presentations z Field Research z Business Communications z Public Speaking Fear of Public Speaking z Population xNo.1 fear=Public Speaking xFear No.2=Death z Stage fright -In spotlight -unprepared -inexperienced Effective Communication z Preparation z Practice z Presence Effective Communication z Preparation y research -non-research y format -speak on what you know -Notes- outline main points -note cards vs. full sized paper Making Notes z Use Cards - tie/number z Use headings/subheadings z Bullet points z Colour code/shorthand z Underline/indent z Write out first/last sentence in full z Memorise introduction z Rehearse z Use large visible printing Sample Speech Outline I. Introduction x Thesis II. Body x support arguments III. Conclusion x review Effective Communication z Practice - practice makes perfect - revision - get time right Preparation & Practice Thorough preparation Plenty of practice Effective Communication z Presence -nervousness- fright is common -Body language -voice tone -gestures -eye contact -positive attitude Appearance Confident ? Warmth ? Stance ? Mannerisms ? Eye contact ? Body Language Dress Posture Facial Expression Voice Movement Gesture Eye Contact Voice Volume Mumbling Voice drop Too high Pitch Too low Monotonous Hesitancy Speed Gabbling Voice Voice Control Pause and pace use pause to add emphasis and drama pace should be slower than normal, but vary according to mood Emphasis say adjectives as they sound Volume louder than normal larger audiences, more modulation required Movement Movement - why does it improve the effectiveness of your delivery? Relaxes the speaker and the audience Gains attention Involves the audience Improves emphasis and eye contact Movement Movement - it is crucial to your delivery that you choreograph it as every part of the room has a different relationship with the speaker - examples….. Start your presentation close to the audience 1st slide/ overhead - stand still Move to the screen to emphasise side/ overhead Change energy level to match/ control mood Controlled movement stop talking - stop eye contact start talking/ start eye contact Gestures Gestures - why use them? Emphasise a point Involve the audience Visual expression Animation Demonstrates comfort How much to use? depends on the audience size and makeup A little for conservative audiences A lot for large, dynamic audiences Eye Contact Eye contact - communicates the following Honesty Trust Confidence Individualism Interest Sincerity Credibility Direct relationship Eye Contact EYE CONTACT STRATEGIES Less than the other = Humility Same as the other = We are the same Constructive = Builds relationship (same then increasing) More than the other = Dominate other/ strength of conviction Eye Contact Eye Contact - Directing It Decision maker receives most eye contact - 60% share the remainder equally Key influencer share the majority of eye contact By role allocate by job function/ status Everyone is equal proportion eye contact equally Things You Shouldn’t Do Read directly from notes Read directly from screen Turn back on audience Slouch, hands in pockets No um, ah, you know’s No nervous gestures Talk too fast, Talk too quietly Things You Should Do Eye contact Can glance at notes Appropriate gestures Rhetorical questions to involve audience Controlling Nerves Dry mouth: bite side of the tongue, sip water Too much saliva: breath through mouth Tight throat: yawn with your mouth closed Short of breath: apply pressure on lower abdomen Butterflies: tense & relax muscles of abdomen Drying Up: look at your note, repeat what you have just said Gestures Practice Ten Successful Tips Control the “Butterflies” Know the room- become familiar with the place of presentation Know the audience- greet or chat with the audience before hand. It’s easier to speak to friends than to strangers Know your material-increased nervousness is due to un- preparedness Control the “Butterflies” Relaxation- relax entire body by stretching and breathing so as to ease the tension Visualize giving your speech- Visualize yourself giving your speech from start to finish. By visualizing yourself successful, you will be successful Control the “Butterflies” People want you to succeed-the audience is there to see you succeed not to fail Don’t apologize-by mentioning your nervousness or apologizing, you’ll only be calling the audience’s attention to mistakes Control the “Butterflies” Concentrate on your message-not the medium. Focus on the message you are trying to convey and not on your anxieties Turn nervousness into positive energy-nervousness increases adrenaline, transform it into vitality and enthusiasm Control the “Butterflies” Gain experience-experience builds confidence, which is key to effective public speaking Presentation Skills “The key to effective presentations is to manage the relationship between yourself and the audience so that a good rapport is developed with them” Presentation Skills Short sharp paragraphs Simple words Repeat key phrases for effect Repeat key phrases for effect Avoid catch phrases Humour Anecdotes: real-life examples Rhetorical questions: don’t require answers YOU Do not use the media to hide you The audience came to see you The media should enhance the presentation, not BE the presentation If all you are going to do is read from the slides or overheads, then just send them the slides Remember, only you can prevent “Death by PowerPoint” Questions?? End your presentation with a simple question slide to: Invite your audience to ask questions Provide a visual aid during question period Avoid ending a presentation abruptly Use of Questions Questioning - Effectively Used Achieves.. Engages audience attention Establishes better 2 way communication Obtains required information Checks for understanding Checks for agreement How to Prepare Questions …… ? Prepare key questions ahead of time Plan the timing of questions Be alert to situations that require unplanned questions Initiate A Discussion ASK QUESTIONS Open ended - to find out information Closed - to gain commitment Redirected - to involve group Rhetorical - to control group Leading - to give alternative choice Tips For Enhancing Discussion Switch off the overhead or light projector Turn flipcharts to a blank page Erase any unwanted writing from the blackboard or whiteboard Show any objects referred to and then cover them up Participants Four Types: Dr Quiet Dr Disagreeable Dr Side Conversation Dr Talkative Keep Control - Tactics Side Conversations Quiet/Shy Talkative Disagreeable WHY? Keep Control - Tactics SIDE CONVERSATION Ask to “share” their idea Restate a point & ask for their opinion Check if there is a problem “Should we include your point in the discussion?” BE DIPLOMATIC & ASSERTIVE Keep Control - Tactics QUIET/SHY PARTICIPANT Simple questions Eye contact Recognise & encourage any contributions Ask a question & invite everyone's opinion in turn Keep Control - Tactics TALKATIVE Remind everyone of time limits Summarise point & ask for comments from group Address questions to other participants Refocus on objectives/agenda Keep Control - Tactics DISAGREEABLE Paraphrase comments, and recap their position in objective terms Find merit in one of their remarks Respond to their comment, not the attack Throw their opinion out to the group Answer their questions simply and factually Scientific Presentations: Do’s and Don’ts Scientific Presentation 1) Prepare your material carefully and logically. Tell a story. The story should have four parts: (a) Introduction (b) Method (c) Results (d) Conclusion/Summary. "Tell'em what you are going to tell'em. Tell'em. Then tell'em what you told'em." Scientific Presentation 2) Practice your talk 3) Don't put in too much material 4) Avoid equations 5) Have only a few conclusion points Scientific Presentation 6) Talk to the audience not to the screen 7) Avoid making distracting sounds like “ uuuhhh” and “mmm” 8) Polish your graphics 9) Use humor if possible, but don’t go overboard 10) Check your viewgraphs before you give the talk 11) Switch off your cell phones if possible. Scientific Presentation 12) Be personable in taking questions. First, repeat the question. If you don't know the answer then say "I don't know, I will have to look into that." If the questioner disagrees with you and it looks like there will be an argument then defuse the situation. Never insult the questioner ( S/he may have contacts you don’t know about! 13) Thank you Slide Presentation Checklist Check : Size of room Tables and chairs Sockets Lights Equipment Display table Entrance Presentation Day & Practice 30 minutes before Arrange table & chairs Set up equipment Catering Display Start Promptly Finish on Time Handouts: Few Tips Handouts Passing out Handouts: Can pass it out during presentation If flow interrupted, pass out before start If more than one, can give out “package” Avoid passing around objects (“I will walk around with it”) Summary: Dos and Don’ts of Presentation Don’t gesticulate wildly Do speak distinctly Do vary your speed and pitch Do look at your audience Don’t use jargon, slang and superfluous words Do pause after important points Do watch the time Do speak with conviction and enthusiasm Do be natural and sincere Do try to simile Don’t use jokes unless they are really funny and relevant Summary Know your audience Know the occasion Know your speaking environment Pin down your topic Brain storm Research Prepare a rough draft of your presentation Transfer your presentation to mental/ written notes Practice ...To overcome nervousness! Now is the time to deliver your whole presentation to the group using all of the delivery techniques we have discussed. Practice takes you from this.. To this…. Thank you; Any questions?
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