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Powered Industrial Trucks
OSHA Standard
This training course will cover the OSHA 1910.178
  Powered Industrial Truck standard
Employer Responsibilities
The employer is responsible for providing employees
  who will be operating powered industrial trucks as
  function of their job the knowledge and skills to use
  the equipment in a safe and productive manner.
The employer must:
 Communicate hazards to employees

 Comply with North Carolina and Federal Safety
  Rules and Regulations
Operator Responsibilities
As an operator of a powered industrial truck, you
  have several responsibilities:
 Perform a daily inspection of the machine and
  document the condition of the equipment
 Safely operate the piece of equipment that you

  have been assigned to use
 Report any items that are in need of repair to your
  supervisor and do not operate the machine until the
  items have been corrected
Powered Industrial Truck
A mobile power-propelled truck used to carry, push,
  pull, lift, stack, or tier materials. Powered industrial
  trucks are classified by manufacturers according to
  their individual characteristics.
PIT Types
The most common powered industrial truck is the sit
  down rider type, but there are many different
  pieces of equipment that are classified as powered
  industrial trucks and are subject to the powered
  industrial truck standard. This may range from a
  motorized hand truck (class III) to a Bobcat type
  machine with a fork attachment.
Center of Gravity
The point at which the load of the powered industrial
   truck is concentrated.
If the center of gravity remains inside the triangle, the
   truck will not tip over.

Support points A, B & C form stability triangle
Load Capacity
Each powered industrial truck
  should have a name plate
  secured to it. The name plate
  will give the load capacity of
  the truck
Do not exceed the rated load
Exceeding the load capacity may
  cause the truck to tip causing
  harm to you and bystanders
Powered industrial trucks serve a variety
  of purposes and there are many
  different attachments that may be
  added on and used safely. Each
  attachment requires training specific
  to that piece of equipment
Attachments may require specific
  operating conditions and/or PPE
Only use attachments that are designed
  for that specific powered industrial
Authorized Operator
To become an authorized operator you must
  successfully complete a two section training program
  consisting of:
 Classroom – this course

 Practical – demonstration of a working knowledge

  of powered industrial trucks through safe operating
  practices and evaluation.
After successful completion of both courses EHS will
  issue you an Authorized Operator License
Authorized Operator, con’t.
As an authorized operator, you may only operate the
  Powered Industrial Truck(s) that you have been
  trained on and authorized to use. While many
  powered industrial trucks look similar and have
  similar controls, it is important to know the specifics
  of each piece of equipment.
Seven Classes of Powered Industrial
   Class I - Electric motor rider trucks
   Class II - Electric motor narrow aisle trucks
   Class III - Electric motor hand trucks or hand/rider trucks
   Class IV - Internal combustion engine trucks
    (solid/cushion tires)
   Class V - Internal combustion engine trucks (pneumatic
   Class VI - Electric and internal combustion engine
   Class VII - Rough terrain forklift trucks
Class One
Class I - Electric Powered Sit Down Rider
Class Two
Class II - Electric Motor Narrow Isle Truck
Class Three
Class III - Electric Motor Hand Trucks or Hand/Rider
Class Four
Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks
  (solid/cushion tires)
Class Five
Class V – Internal Combustion Trucks (pneumatic tires)
Class Six
Class VI - Electric and Internal Combustion Engine
Class Seven
Class VII - Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks
Components of a PIT
Controls and Instruments
Fuel Gauge
 Identifies how much fuel is currently on board the piece
  of equipment. The fuel gauge reading must be taken
  during the daily checks
Engine Temperature Gauge
 Identifies the running temperature of the engine on the
  piece of equipment. The C on the gauge refers to the
  engine being cold and the H refers to the engine being
Ampere Gauge
 Identifies the battery strength of the piece of
Controls and Instruments, con’t.
Oil Pressure Gauge
 Identifies the engine oil pressure

Engine Hour Meter
 This meter records the total amount of hours that the
  engine has been used. This reading must be recorded
  on the daily inspection forms because it is used to
  schedule maintenance on the piece of equipment
Rear View Mirror
 The mirror attached to the powered industrial truck that
  gives a visual representation of the area behind the
Safety Features
Seat Belt
 keeps you secured to the truck in the event of an

  accident. At UNC you are required to wear your
Overhead Guard
 prevents the powered industrial truck from crushing

  you in the event of a tip-over, but this guard is only
  effective with the combined used of a seatbelt
Safety Features, con’t.
The flashing strobe light and horn should be used to
  notify others when:
 driving around a corner

 visual obstruction is present

 poor lighting conditions

 lowering your load
Safety Features, con’t.
Auxiliary Seat Brake:
 acts as an emergency brake

 engage prior to stepping off the truck

 may be located in the front next to the steering

  column or in another position depending on piece of
Differences Between Powered
Industrial Trucks and Automobiles
There are several differences between driving a
  powered industrial truck and driving an automobile.
Differences Between Powered
Industrial Trucks and Automobiles
Powered industrial trucks can weigh several times more
  than an automobile. The steering of the vehicle is
  usually from the back wheels as opposed to an
  automobile turning from the front. This gives the
  powered industrial truck a tighter turning radius than an
  automobile from the front, but a wider turning radius
  from the rear.
Powered industrial trucks also have a three point
  suspension system as opposed to the four point
  suspension of an automobile. This factor makes the
  powered industrial truck easier to tip over than an
Before and After Each Use
Before and after each use you are responsible
  for checking:
 The overhead guard for any broken welds,
  missing bolts, or damaged areas
 Hydraulic cylinders and lines. Make sure they
  are free from leaks and lines are in good
  condition showing no signs of cracking
 The mast assembly for broken welds, cracks, or
 All lift chains and rollers for excessive wear,
  damage, kinks, rusting, need for lubrication,
  squeaks and bends
Before and After, con’t.
Before and after each use you are responsible for checking:
 Forks and carriage. Make sure that there are no cracks or
  bends in the metal. Make sure attachments being used are
  securely fastened
 Steering mechanism for excessive motion

 Brakes for proper function. If the pedal goes all the way to
  the floor when you apply the brake, that is an indication that
  the breaking system is not functioning properly. Make sure
  the emergency brake works. There should be no movement
  of the powered industrial truck when the emergency brake
  is engaged
 Lights and horn to make sure they are functioning properly

 The battery to make sure all caps are in place and that
  cables are free damage
If Any Problems Are Found
After completing the visual inspection, if any problems
  are found:
 Tag the equipment identifying that it is not to be
 Report the problem to your supervisor
Types of Fuels
Diesel or Gasoline Refueling
To properly refuel a powered industrial truck the
  following steps should be taken:
 All internal combustion engines must be turned off
  before refueling. Refueling should be in the open or
  in specifically designated areas, where adequate
  ventilation is provided
 Smoking is prohibited when refueling or operating
  a powered industrial truck and signs must be posted
  to that effect
 Proper PPE must be worn
Propane Refueling
Safely refueling a propane cylinder requires the following
 Turn the gas valve to the off position and let the engine run
  until it stalls
 Turn off the ignition and the lights and set the emergency
 Check the connections for damage

 Remove empty tank and store it or secure the tank in a
  vehicle and bring it to the service station to be filled
 Install the new or filled tank securely

 Check the connection for leaks and damage

 Proper PPE must be worn
Battery-charging installations must be located in
  areas designated for that purpose. They must be
  capable of flushing and neutralizing spilled
  electrolyte. The charging apparatus needs to be
  protected from damage by trucks, adequate
  ventilation for dispersal of gases or vapors from
  gassing batteries. An overhead hoist, or equivalent
  equipment, must be used for handling batteries.
  Reinstalled batteries must be properly positioned
  and secured in the truck.
Recharging, con’t.
   A carboy tilter or siphon must be used for handling electrolyte. Acid
    must always be poured into water. Water must NOT be poured into
    acid (it overheats and splatters)
   During charging operations, vent caps must be removed to avoid
    electrolyte spray. Make sure that vent caps are functioning. Battery
    or compartment cover or covers must be open to dissipate heat
   Precautions must be taken to prevent open flames, sparks, or electric
    arc in battery-charging areas and tools and other metallic objects
    must be kept away from the tops of uncovered batteries
   Employees charging and changing batteries shall be authorized to
    do the work, trained in the proper handling, and required to wear
    protective clothing, including face shields, long sleeves, rubber boots,
    aprons, and gloves
   Smoking is prohibited in the charging area. "No Smoking" signs must
    be posted
Transporting and Maneuvering
When maneuvering and transporting:
 Give pedestrians the right of way

 Activate strobe lights and utilize the horn when
  going around corners
 Always pay attention to the path of travel

 Never lift loads when the powered industrial truck is
 Approach any potential obstacle slowly and with
Transporting and Maneuvering
When maneuvering and transporting:
 Ensure that the loads are neatly stacked, stable, evenly
  distributed and secure
 Space the forks under the load as far as possible. This
  will ensure that the load is evenly distributed
 Approach the load with caution with the mast in a
  vertical position
 Lift the forks only as high as needed to move the load.
  (2 to 6 inches)
 Tilt the forks back for added stability
Transporting and Maneuvering
   If the powered industrial truck is not loaded, drive
    in reverse up the incline. Drive forward down the
   If the powered industrial truck is carrying a load
    Drive forward up the incline. Drive in reverse down
    the incline
Crossing Railway Tracks
There are areas where employees may
  need to cross railway tracks. This poses
  a unique hazard and caution must be
 Always cross railway tracks on a
 Park forklift at least 8 feet away from
  railway tracks
 Obey any warning signs or alert
Refresher Training
In General, refresher training is required every three (3)
   years. However, refresher training will be required
   more frequently if:
 An authorized operator is involved in an accident or
   near-miss incident
 An operator is using the powered industrial truck in an
   un-safe manner
 The written and/or practical evaluation is not
   completed successfully
 If workplace conditions change

 Different equipment will be used
The following are key points to remember as an authorized
 Operate only the equipment that you are authorized to use

 Familiarize yourself with the piece of equipment that you
  are going to use and follow all of its operating procedures
 Inspect equipment thoroughly prior to use

 Know your travel routes and overhead clearance levels

 Do not allow any passengers

 Stay within the safety cage of the powered industrial truck
  at all times
 No matter how short or long the distance always fasten your
  seat belt
Post Test
In order to successfully complete the classroom section
   of the powered industrial truck training you must
   pass the post test.
After passing you must contact your supervisor to
   arrange for the practical section of this training.

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