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Plant Diseases

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Plant Diseases Powered By Docstoc
					By: Garrett Guidinger
Questions to Answer
•   Name 3 of 5 plant diseases to be mentioned.
•   With those 3 of 5, list how to prevent them.
•   Name 2 garden pests, 2 beneficial insects, and 1 fungicide/insecticide/pesticide.
Powdery Mildew

 One of the most common and easily recognized diseases in arid areas.
 White talcum powder-like growth on the tops of lilac, rose, columbine or squash leaves,
  you've probably seen powdery mildew.
Leaf Rust
 There are in this world approximately 5,000 variations of rust.
 Symptoms you will notice readily are the numerous yellow spots developing on the
  surface of the leaves.
 When you inspect the underside of the leaves there you will find bright orange brown
  spots which are the indicators of a rust infection.
 The spots also have the capability of forming on the upper side of the leaves.
 Hollyhock rust increases in intensity as the summer wears on and by fall has killed most
  of the leaves on the infected plants.
Blight
 Blight is a serious disease of both the tomato plant and potato.
 It can be carried on tomato seed and in potato tubers.
 Can happen very easily if an infected leaf or stem tissue survives in the soil.
 Can happen over a wide range of climate conditions and left to its own devices will
  completely defoliate the plants.
 Can develop with the speed of a plane in mid to late season and becomes more severe in
  plants plague by poor nutrition, drought or other pests.
 Can also occur with the on set of warm humid weather, heavy rains and dew
 Results: leaf spots (small irregular brown to black dead spots from tiny pinpoints to one
  half inch in diameter), fruit rot and stem lesion, blossom drop, spotting of fruit stems,
  stems become weak and break off early in the season, and also the ultimate loss of young
  fruit, older fruits have dark and leathery sunken spots just where the stem attaches to the
  fruit.
 When spots become numerous it is possible for them to grow together causing the leaves
  to turn yellow and drop from the plant.
Blight
Black Spot
 Black Spot is a curse of rose growers all over the world.
 Most significant infectious disease of roses.
 Results: black spots occur, leaf yellowing tends to develop around the black spots,
  defoliation of leaves.
 Repeated defoliation will surely put much stress on the plants and lead to very poor
  blooming and less resistant to other forms of plant stress.
Blossom End Rot
 Blossom End rot is a bothersome disease that gardeners have to contend with during the
  gardening season.
 It derives its name because the symptoms only develop at the blossom end of the fruit;
  doesn’t spread from plant to plant.
 Results: from insufficient supply of water and calcium in the growing fruits (there maybe
  enough calcium in the soil but it is not reaching the plant), appears as a water soaked
  spot, begins to enlarge and darken at a rapid pace as the fruit enlarges, the spot continues
  to grow until it covers up to one half of the entire surface of the fruit, the spot can remain
  small but large lesions dry out, become flattened, black and take on a leather-like
  texture.
 Can be worse in hot and dry weather if plants are growing at a rapid rate.
Powdery Mildew
 Avoid overhead watering to reduce relative humidity.
 Clean up and dispose of all leaves and vegetable debris that falls to the ground in
  autumn.
 Increase air circulation. If plantings are dense, selectively prune to open the area up
  and reduce relative humidity.
 Consider using a fungicide labeled for powdery mildew, but use in conjunction with
  the above-described practices. Follow exactly instructions on fungicide label. Several
  "alternative" pesticides work well to help prevent the disease.
   ***None of these products have great eradicative properties. So don't expect to take a severely
    infected plant, spray it and find that all mildew disappears. The products are meant to protect leaves
    from infection rather than to eradicate infections.
Rust
 Be vigilant in cutting all your hollyhock stalks to the ground and be especially attentive to
  the collection of all leaves and plants parts lying on the surface at fall clean up time, and
  then removed/destroyed.
 Avoid crowding the plants, remembering that two word instruction "air circulation".
 Water the plants at the ground level early in the day and avoid wetting the surface of the
  plant leaves.
 Pick the infected leaves to avoid the disease progress.
 For max protection you may have to resort to fungicide treatments in the early spring
  when the leaves are growing.
 It is best to consult your local experts or garden shops for precise information on
  fungicide treatment.
Blight
 Apply fungicide sprays to completely protect your plants from early blight.
 Application of fungicide sprays should begin on the tomato 2-3 weeks after emergence
  from the soil or soon after transplanting from greenhouse or indoor starter garden. The
  application of potato fungicide as soon as the flowers appear.
 Consult garden shop for recommendations as to the appropriate fungicide to purchase to
  battle these plant diseases.
 You maybe able to find a "big book of everything" usually displayed in the garden shop
  that will provide you with information on almost every subject.
   Ask your garden shop if they have one of these reference books available for your
    viewing.
Black Spot
 This is another of these plant diseases where the foliage must be indeed kept dry.
 Always important to plant roses in full sun and avoid other vegetation around or near the
  roses (this will produce good air movement around the plants).
 It is best to consult publications or books along with your local garden center for
  observations that may have been made of the impact of this disease.
Blossom End Rot
 Cannot be cured by the use of insecticides and fungicides.
 Control of this disease is directly related to adequate ingredients of water and calcium.
 It is advisable to plant in warm soil.
 If you have not used lime in your home garden over the past 2 to 3 years it will require at
  least two cups of lime per plant.
 It is important that you use a fertilizer that is low in nitrogen which will do much to ease.
Grasshoppers
 Description: many species feed on crops, highly variable in size and color, long straight
  wings lay tent-like over the back.
 Signs: eat the foliage, and may completely strip the foliage.
Flea Beetles
 Description: adults are approximately 1/16 inch long, some are entirely black, others
  brown-black with faint lighter markings, larvae are small, slender and white with a black
  band and 3 pairs of legs.
 Signs: plant foliage has numerous, very small, rounded or irregular holes eaten through
  or into the leaf, leaves may wilt and turn brown may kill or stunt the plant.
Aphids
 Description: small, sluggish, soft-bodied insects, often called plant lice, winged and
  wingless forms of adults, immatures are smaller and wingless, most species give birth to
  living young and build up very rapidly.
 Signs: several species attack various crops, suck plant sap, causes stunting, and leaf
  curling, leave honeydew deposits.
Leafminer
 Description: adults are small flies which are 1/8 inch long, yellow and black thorax and a
  black head, adults fly quickly for short distances when disturbed, maggot is 1/8 inch long
  white, legless and wedge-shaped, pupae are light brown, oval and ringed with ridges.
 Signs: maggots eat leaf tissue between the upper and lower surfaces, leave slender white
  winding trails through the leaf's interior.
Tomato Pinworm
 Description: adults are gray moths 1/4 inch long, larvae are light orange at first, become
  purplish black with maturity.
 Signs: larval feeding is similar to leafminer damage to plants, larvae later invade stems
  and fruits.
Definitions
 Fungicides- a substance or preparation, as a spray or dust, used for destroying fungi.
 Insecticides- a substance or preparation used for killing insects.
 Pesticides- a chemical preparation for destroying plant and fungal pests.
 3-in-1 Garden Spray Provides three garden solutions in one: fungicide, insecticide, and
  pesticide. Kills pests and creates an environment where damaging fungi cannot live.
  Controls powdery mildew, black spot, leaf spot, and rust. Kills aphids, beetles (leaf-
  feeding), caterpillars (leaf-feeding), crickets, earwigs, lace bugs, leafhoppers, mealybugs,
  mites, whiteflies
 Organic Rose Defense An effective 3-in-1 organic pest control, safely eliminates aphids,
  mealybugs, scale, spider mites, and many other pests often found on roses. Also, controls
  common fungal diseases, such as black spot, powdery mildew and rust.
 Safer Garden Fungicide Available as a ready to use spray, Safer Garden Fungicide
  controls fungal diseases on fruits, vegetables and flowers. Effective against powdery
  mildew, rust, scab, brown rot, rose black spot and more. Works great on roses!
 Natural Disease Control Ideal for organic gardening! All Natural Disease Control is a
  ready-to-use blend of naturally occurring ingredients that control plant foliar diseases.
  All stages of the disease is controlled, but applying before infestation gives the best
  results. May be applied any time during the growing season up to the day of harvest on
  crops. Non-phytotoxic -- will not burn plants when used as directed. This product meets
  the Program Standards set forth by the National Organic Program (NOP). Ready to use
  on vegetables, grapes, fruit & nut trees, and ornamentals against powdery mildew, black
  spot, rusts, leaf blight, leaf spot, brown rot, anthracnose, dollar spot, and many others.
Honey Bee
 Description: orange and black, well known insect, about 1/2 inch long.
 Benefits: feed on pollen and nectar, important as a pollinator rather than as predator.
Ladybird Beetles
 Description: well known insects, usually under 1/4 inch, hemispherical shaped beetles,
  often reddish with black spots or black with reddish spots, color varies within and
  between species, antennae are clubbed, larvae are elongate and flattened grubs, active
  and move about freely.
 Benefits: adults and larvae feed on aphids and other small insects.
Predatory Wasps
 Description: generally 1/4 inch or more in length, many species that vary in size color
  and shape, many are brightly colored, may be robust or have thread "waists,” all have four
  wings.
 Benefits: most are capable of stinging, may collect large numbers of insects to provision
  their nests, some aid in pollination.
Assassin Bug
 Description: often brightly colored, has sucking mouthparts.
 Benefits: feed on: body fluids (extracted by sucking mouthparts) of caterpillars and
  other insects.
Ground Beetles
 Description: typically black, sometimes brown or even metallic green to blue elytra,
  long legged beetles, thin antennae.
 Benefits: feed on many insect species, caterpillars are attacked by larger species.
Possibilities
 The wrong product was used.
 The application rate of a product was too high or product application overlapped.
 Fertilizer burn (product placed directly in hole with the seed, fertilizer was placed too
  close to the plant when side-dressed, especially when plants are under moisture stress.
Lawn and Garden Safety Tips
ACEP (American College of Emergency Physicians) offers the following safety guidelines to
  prevent yard injuries:
• Wear protective eyewear (glasses, goggles, face shield) when operating all gardening
  equipment.
 Wear earplugs.
 Wear protective clothing such as close-fitting clothes, gloves, long pants, long-sleeved
  shirts and slip-resistant shoes.
 Wear sunscreen and stay hydrated.
 Don't lift yard waste that is too heavy for you. Utilize a dolly or wheelbarrow to help
  transport heavy loads.
 Don't walk on slippery or uneven surfaces while carrying yard waste or operating
  equipment.
Lawn and Garden Safety Tips
 Follow the manufacturer's directions when using any chemicals on your lawn. Keep your
  child away from the lawn after chemicals are used.
 Store all gardening chemicals in a locked, ventilated area that is out of a child's reach.
 Hoses should be stored properly after use to avoid tripping. Lay ladders on their sides.
  Lay rakes with tines down.
 Never work with lawn and garden equipment in damp or wet conditions.
 Install a ground-fault circuit interrupter to avoid electrical shock.
 Before mowing, remove debris from the lawn such as rocks, metal, glass, sticks and
  branches.
 Keep a first-aid kit in your home and emergency medical numbers posted near your
  phone.
Works Cited- Plant Diseases
 http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/CoopExt/4DMG/Pests/Diseases/diseases.htm
 http://www.gardenersgardening.com/plantdiseases.html
Works Cited- Prevention
 http://www.ghorganics.com/page15.html
Works Cited- Garden Pests
•   http://vegipm.tamu.edu/chewing1/grasshopper.html
   http://vegipm.tamu.edu/chewing2/fleabeetle.html
   http://vegipm.tamu.edu/sucking/cabbageaphid.html
   http://vegipm.tamu.edu/chewing4/leafminer.html
   http://vegipm.tamu.edu/chewing4/tomatopinworm.html
Works Cited- Fungicides,
Insecticides, Pesticides
 http://www.planetnatural.com/site/xdpy/sgc/Natural%20Pest%20Control/Fungicides%2
  0&%20Plant%20Disease
 http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/about/
 http://www.google.com/#hl=en&source=hp&q=insecticides&aq=0&aqi=g10&aql=&oq=In
  secti&gs_rfai=&fp=2a0dbe5263c501d8
 http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Fungicide
 http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Insecticide
 http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Pesticide
 http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/CoopExt/4DMG/Pests/pests.htm
Works Cited- Beneficial Garden Insects
• http://vegipm.tamu.edu/beneficial1/honeybee.html
• http://vegipm.tamu.edu/beneficial1/ladybirdbeetles.html
• http://vegipm.tamu.edu/beneficial1/predatorywasp.html
• http://vegipm.tamu.edu/beneficial1/assassinbugs.html
 http://vegipm.tamu.edu/beneficial1/groundbeetle.html
Works Cited- Chemical Injury
 http://maizedoctor.cimmyt.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=153%3
  Achemical-injury&catid=124&lang=en
Works Cited- Safety Precautions
 http://www.doityourself.com/stry/lawnsafetytips

				
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posted:7/23/2012
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