Phonological Rules by ewghwehws

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									                Chapter 2
• The Basis for the transcription of speech
  sounds
• Different Types of Transcription
• Transcription Practice
• Distinctive Features



                                              1
Some Sounds Differ according to
      their Environment
kip       keep       there is usually no puff
 of air              (aspiration) with the
 “p”

pik       peek       there is always
 aspiration                      with the “p”

Q: Is the difference between these two “p”s
                                                2
 significant?
    What are the basic or significant
          sounds of English?
• The significant sounds differentiate meaning:
      1. aI s D mAb
      2. aI s D mApH                   (p with
  aspiration)
      3. aI s D mAp                   (p without
  aspiration)
(1) and (2) differ in meaning;
(2) and (3) do not.
(1) and (2) are contrastive.
• So, p and b represent different phonemes in 3
  English
              The Phoneme

• A phoneme is a speech sound that is
  capable of differentiating meaning.
The sequence
      pill bill till dill kill gill
indicates that p,b,t,d,k,g are phonemes in
  English
                                             4
       Variation within a Phoneme
worksheet 1-4



Question: What about p and pH (aspirated
  “p”)?
  Do they represent different phonemes in English?
  ( Problem 4 shows that p and pH do represent different phonemes in Hindi)
Answer: They do not.
  p and pH are allophones of the phoneme p
  p and pH are in complementary distribution:
                 where pH occurs, p does not
                 where p occurs, pH does not                               5
    Complementary Distribution
• The distribution of allophones in their respective
  phonetic environments such that one never
  appears in the same phonetic context as the other.

• For example, the [p] and [pH] allophones of /p/
  are in complementary distribution in the word
  initial vs. post-[s] environments:
              [pHIn] and [spIn]
             *[pIn] and *[spHIn]
                                                       6
         Phonemic Notation
             /p/                phoneme

[pH]               [p]         [p|]
allophones



                         for [p|] lips remain
closed
                                                7
  How do we determine the significant
        sounds of a language?

     1. aI s D mAb
     2. aI s D mAp
• Significance is determined by contrast,
  as in
[mAb] versus [mAp]
• [mAb] and [mAp] are
  contrastive or minimal pairs
                                            8
 The significant sounds are found
     by testing minimal pairs
  [pHIl]                        1pHaIl       vaIl
  bIl dIl tHIl kHIl             2 pHIn       Tin
  gIl fIl *vIl 1                3pHaI        DaI
           mIl                  4pHA        zA
  wIl *Til2     *Dil3           5Ip             iN
           sIl
  *zIl4    nIl lIl              6No  contrast for [Z] vs.
           Il                  [p]
  Sil tSIl *Nil5                but [Z] and [p] are
        dzIl                    not phonetically similar so we
  *Zil 6 hIl                    assume they are separate
                                phonemes.
pHil contrasts with bil, and                                     9
pHil contrasts with dil, etc.
      The Need for an Alphabet


• We need to represent the contrasting sounds
  of any given language unambiguously

• We need an alphabet to do this



                                            10
 Transcription: Which Alphabet?
• We need unambiguous representation of sound
• How about the English spelling system?
  – Same sound, different symbols         to,too,two



  – Different sounds, one symbol      dad, father, call, sofa



  – One sound, sequence of symbols               tough, physics



  – One symbol, sequence of sounds               exit [EgzIt]



  – Symbols, but no sound pneumonia




                                                                  11
       Phonetic Transcription
• Conclusion: We need a phonetic alphabet
   with ONE SYMBOL for ONE SOUND

• Two systems used by linguists
  – American
  – IPA


                                            12
    American Transcription
   s&, z&, c&,
       j&, y
• arose from need to transcribe indigenous
  languages of North America
• a “practical” system for publication
      (typographically easy)
• aims at “phonemic” transcription
      with phonetic detail consigned to
      discussion notes
• intended for American languages only       13
        International Phonetic
        Association/Alphabet
• founded in France in 1886
• an organization for teachers of language
  originally
• aims at a system that will represent all
  languages



                                             14
 The International Phonetic Alphabet
        Principles of the IPA
• a separate letter for each distinctive sound
• universal use of one symbol for the same sound across
  languages
• use of ordinary letters of roman alphabet where possible
• alphabet should accord with phonemic principle and
  cardinal vowel system
• diacritic marks only for
   – suprasegmentals
   – non-meaningful distinctions
   – minute shades of sound for scientific purposes

                                                             15
     English Articulation of [b]
                        (Lab 3)


                                  lips

Silence
(no v. cord       [b]
vibration)


                                  v.cord
                                  vibration
        LABM030



                                         16
    English Articulation of [ph]
                      (Lab 3)


                                               lips

Silence
(no v. cord     [p]
vibration)


                                               v.cord
                                               vibration
      LABP030                   [h]
                                (aspiration)

                                                      17
      Hindi Articulation of [p]
                    (Lab 3)


                                            lips

Silence
(no v. cord   [p]
vibration)

                                            v.cord
                                            vibration
                              (no
                              aspiration)
                                                   18
IPA Non-roman Consonant Symbols

              N       eng
              T       theta
              D       eth
              S       esh
              Z            yogh
                     turned r
 Pullum & Ladusaw. Phonetic Symbol Guide. U of Chicago Press.

                                                                19
IPA non-Roman Vowel Symbols

     E      epsilon
     Q      ash
     U      upsilon
           open o
     A      script a
           turned v
           schwa
                              20
       Notational Conventions in
             Transcription
/ /   encloses phonemic transcriptions
[ ]   encloses phonetic (allophonic) transcriptions
 #    denotes a word boundary
 +    denotes a morpheme boundary
 V    stands for any vowel
 C    stands for any consonant
C0    stands for a sequence of zero or more
      consonants                                21
        Transcription Types
• Phonemic Transcription
      bEt pAt
• Broad Phonetic Transcription
      bER pHAt
• Narrow Phonetic Transcription
        bER pHAt
                                  WWW

                                        22
       Relations between Speech Sounds
                                                worksheet Free Var.




Relation           Element             Example
• contrast         phoneme             /p/ vs. /b/
• complementary    allophone           [p] vs. [pH] pin vs. spin
  distribution
• free variation   phoneme/allophone
                                       [p] vs. [pH] stop vs.
           stoph
                                       [E] vs. [i]
                                               economics


                                                                23
New Symbols to Capture Variation

Symbol   Name                Articulation
  R      fishhook r          flap
             glottal stop         glottal
  stop
        tilde l              velarized l
  l6     under-ring           devoicing
  n`            syllabicity mark    same     as
  [n]                                         24
     Doing Phonemic Analysis
• Determining the relationship of 2 sounds
  – Are there minimal pairs:   pQt vs. bQt
     if yes, then the relation is contrast
  – If no, do the sounds differ predictably:
                                  pHIn vs. spIn
       if yes, then the relation is complementary
             distribution. Determine the basic
    allophone.
  – If no, the sounds must be in free variation. 25
       The Trick of Phonemic Analysis:
     List all environments of the sound in question

Burmese
Voiced nasals occur:                     Voiceless nasals occur :
 # ___ i                                     h ___ i
 # ___ w                                     h ___ w
 e ___ #                                     h ___ y
 # ___e                                      h ___ e
 # ___ w                                     h ___ w

The voiceless nasal occurs after . . .
The voiced nasal occurs . . .                                       26
     The Elsewhere Condition
• a principle governing two overlapping rules
   which dictates that the more specific rule
   should be tried first followed by the more
   general rule:
EXAMPLE: In Burmese,
- nasals are voiceless after /h/,
- elsewhere they are voiced.

                                            27
  The Notion of a Natural Class
• Speech sounds can be described by
  articulatory features
      t - a voiceless alveolar stop
      m - a voiced bilabial nasal
• Sounds can be grouped by features
     Voiced stops: b,d,g
     Labials: p,f,b,v,m,w
• We call such a grouping a natural class of sounds
                                                  28
      Natural Classes of Sounds
Capture generalizations about
• the sound systems of a language
       e.g. English plural [s] vs. [z] relies on voicing
•   dialect variation
•   the pronunciation of borrowed words
•   first language acquisition
•   processes of sound change
                                       worksheet: Natural Classes
                                                                    29
           Background on
         Distinctive Features
• Until the 1960’s, the phoneme prevailed as
  the basic unit of the analysis of sound
• The system that treated the phoneme as the
  basic unit was called Taxonomic Phonemics
• in the ‘60s, linguists (in particular Noam
  Chomsky and Morris Halle) pointed out
  difficulties with the rigid system of T.P.
• we will now look at one of these difficulties
                                              30
       Taxonomic Phonemics
• developed by American linguistics
• divorced sound from meaning
• assumed certain principles that would lend a
  “scientific precision” to phonemics




                                             31
                 The Phoneme
• A phoneme is a family of similar sounds
  which language treats as being “the same.”
• If there is a contrast between two sounds in
  one environment, then these two sounds
  must be considered different phonemes in
  all environments.

Bernard Bloch. Phonemic overlap.
                                                 32
 In most environments, the presence
  of [A] and [A] is predictable
• The long/short distribution in
pAt         pAd
lAk              lAg
mAp              mAb
indicates that [A] and [A]are allophones
 in complementary distribution

                                        33
But in some words, [A] vs. [A] is
       the only contrasting sound
• The contrast of /A/ and /A/ in
bomb [bAm]             balm [bAm]
indicates that /A/ and /A/ are phonemes in contrast

Contrast also in
sorry starry
bother father


                                                       34
      Asymmetry in Phonemic
         Representations
To account for the phonemic contrast of
  bomb b[A]m balm b[A]m
Taxonomists had to claim that the distinction
  in [pAt] ~ [pAd]
was also phonemic even though the variation
  is predictable from context


                                                35
                                Features
• Chomsky pointed out that we could have
  both the predictability of [pAt]
  [pAd] and the contrast of [bAm]
  [bAm] by describing the sound
  variation with
• a unit smaller than the phoneme (the feature)
• a lexicon that contained underlying features
• rules to describe the variation
Chomsky, N. 1964.                            36
Chomsky, N. & M. Halle. 1967.
A Feature Account of the A ~ A
          Distinction
Lexicon   Phonological Rule   Pronunciation
/bAm/
  [bAm]
/bAm/
  [bAm]
/pAt/ V-long/__-voiced        [pAt]
/pAd/
  [pAd]
                                          37
 A Feature Matrix in the Lexicon
• A word is represented as a Feature Matrix

                 b      A       m
     consonant    +     -        +
     labial       +     -        +
     long         -     +        +
     ....        ...   ...      ...
                                              38
         Distinctive Features
• Many features are based on articulation
     +labial     +coronal   +dorsal
• Some are based on acoustics
     +strident   +high      +sonorant
• Most are based on a combination of
  articulation and acoustics
     +round      +lateral   +continuant
                                            39
       Advantages of Distinctive
              Features
• Features allow the statement of generalizations
         V          V     / _________ C V
      +tense       tense               -stress

    divine        divinity       [aI] 
  [I]
    profane       profanity      [eI] 
  [Q]
    serene        serenity       [i]  [E]

                                               40
       Advantages of Features
• Features represent allophonic variation as a
  systematic rather than a random process

      English:   V  V         / _____ -Voiced
                    -long

• Features directly reflect the articulatory and
  acoustic activity involved in each sound

                                                 41
        Features as Universals
• Currently about 24 are used

• they constitute a claim about what is
  possible in human phonological behavior

• the binary (+/-) nature of the features
  plays into claims of universality
                                            42
          Feature Oppositions
                  Roman Jakobson, 1941


              Silence
     -consonantal         +consonantal
  +high -high        +oral          -oral
-back +back      +labial -labial +labial -labial

• apply in language acquisition
• apply in language dissolution
• correspond to the frequency of sounds in the world’s
  languages                          _
                                                  43
         Feature Oppositions

Stage 1: +/-consonant   papa or baba
Stage 2: +/-oral        papa, mama
Stage 3: +/-labial      mama/nana, papa/tata
Stage 4: +/-high        papa, pipi
Stage 5: +/-back        pipi, pupu

                                           44
                        References
Chomsky, N. 1964. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory.
Chomsky, N. & M. Halle. 1967. The Sound Pattern of English.
Jakobson, Roman. 1941. Child’s Speech, Aphasia, and Linguistic
   Universals.




                                                                 45

								
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