# Specific Heat of Iron by tutorvistateamteam

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Specific Heat of Iron

Specific heat is another physical property of matter. All matter has a temperature associated
with it. The temperature of matter is a direct measure of the motion of the molecules: The
greater the motion the higher the temperature:

Motion requires energy: The more energy matter has the higher temperature it will also have.
Typicall this energy is supplied by heat. Heat loss or gain by matter is equivalent energy loss
or gain.

With the observation above understood we con now ask the following question: by how much
will the temperature of an object increase or decrease by the gain or loss of heat energy? The
answer is given by the specific heat (S) of the object. The specific heat of an object is defined
in the following way: Take an object of mass m, put in x amount of heat and carefully note the
temperature rise, then S is given by

In this definition mass is usually in either grams or kilograms and temperatture is either in
kelvin or degres Celcius. Note that the specific heat is "per unit mass". Thus, the specific heat
of a gallon of milk is equal to the specific heat of a quart of milk. A related quantity is called the
heat capacity (C). of an object. The relation between S and C is C = (mass of obect) x
(specific heat of object).

Math.Tutorvista.com                                                        Page No. :- 1/4
Consider the specific heat of copper , 0.385 J/g 0C. What this means is that it takes 0.385
Joules of heat to raise 1 gram of copper 1 degree celcius. Thus, if we take 1 gram of copper at
25 0C and add 1 Joule of heat to it, we will find that the temperature of the copper will have
risen to 26 0C. We can then ask: How much heat wil it take to raise by 1 0C 2g of copper?.
Clearly the answer is 0.385 J for each gram or 2x0.385 J = 0.770 J. What about a pound of
copper? A simple way of dealing with different masses of matter is to dtermine the heat
capacity C as defined above. Note that C depends upon the size of the object as opposed to
S that does not.

We are not in position to do some calculations with S and C.

Specific Heat Capacity (C or S ) - The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a
substance by one degree Celsius is called the specific heat capacity of the substance. The
quantity of heat is frequently measured in units of Joules(J). Another property, the specific
heat, is the heat capacity of the substance per gram of the substance. The specific heat of
water is 4.18 J/g° C.

The specific heat of iron is the amount of heat it takes to raise iron one degree. The numeric
value of the specific heat of iron is 0.450 j/g. This means it takes 0.450 joules of heat in order
to raise 1 gram of iron by 1 degree. Basically heating a substance causes its atoms to become
more energetic and move faster. This motion requires energy and one of he basic forms of
energy is heat.

Heat capacity (usually denoted by a capital C, often with subscripts), or thermal capacity, is
the measurable physical quantity that characterizes the amount of heat required to change a
substance's temperature by a given amount. In the International System of Units (SI), heat
capacity is expressed in units of joule(s) (J) per kelvin (K).

Derived quantities that specify heat capacity as an intensive property, i.e., independent of the
size of a sample, are the molar heat capacity, which is the heat capacity per mole of a pure
substance, and the specific heat capacity, often simply called specific heat, which is the heat
capacity per unit mass of a material.

Math.Tutorvista.com                                                     Page No. :- 2/4
Occasionally, in engineering contexts, a volumetric heat capacity is used. Because heat
capacities of materials tend to mirror the number of atoms or particles they contain, when
intensive heat capacities of various substances are expressed directly or indirectly per particle
number, they tend to vary within a much more narrow range.

Temperature reflects the average kinetic energy of particles in matter while heat is the transfer
of thermal energy from high to low temperature regions. Thermal energy transmitted by heat is
stored as kinetic energy of atoms as they move, and in molecules as they rotate. Additionally,
some thermal energy may be stored as the potential energy associated with higher-energy
modes of vibration, whenever they occur in interatomic bonds in any substance. Translation,
rotation, and a combination of the two types of energy in vibration (kinetic and potential) of
atoms represent the degrees of freedom of motion which classically contribute to the heat
capacity of atomic matter (loosely bound electrons occasionally also participate). On a
microscopic scale, each system particle absorbs thermal energy among the few degrees of
freedom available to it, and at high enough temperatures, this process contributes to a specific
heat capacity that classically approaches a value per mole of particles that is set by the
Dulong-Petit law. This limit, which is about 25 joules per kelvin for each mole of atoms, is
achieved by many solid substances at room temperature (see table below).

For quantum mechanical reasons, at any given temperature, some of these degrees of
freedom may be unavailable, or only partially available, to store thermal energy. In such
cases, the specific heat capacity will be a fraction of the maximum. As the temperature
approaches absolute zero, the specific heat capacity of a system also approaches zero, due
to loss of available degrees of freedom. Quantum theory can be used to quantitatively predict
specific heat capacities in simple systems.

Math.Tutorvista.com                                                     Page No. :- 4/4
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