xalxuri arqiteqtura da Tanamedroveoba

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					                       xalxuri arqiteqtura da Tanamedroveoba
                                        elene kalandaZe
                                          nino imnaZe
                               saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti
                                 kostavas 77, Tbilisi, saqarTvelo


       arqiteqtura, rogorc xelovneba Caisaxa im Soreul warsulSi, rodesac adamianma aago
pirveli sacxovrebeli saxli. `saxlidan gaizarda forumi, saxlidan gaizarda akropolisi...
sacxovreblidan iwyeba qalaqi~ aRniSnavs a. burovi Tavis wignSi `arqiteqturis Sesaxeb~ (1,
gv. 23). im droidan moyolebuli sacxovrebeli viTardeba drosa da sivrceSi. mravali faqtorebis
kompleqsuri zegavleniT Camoyalibda xalxuri sacxovreblis sxvadasxva tipebi. saukuneTa
manZilze    iqmneboda      optimaluri    gegmarebiTi    gadawyvetebi,    romlebic    asaxavdnen
adamianebis sivrcul azrovnebas da cxovrebis wes-Cveulebebs.
       Cvens mier Seswavlili iyo kavkasiis, xmelTaSuazRvispireTis, aziis, afrikis, indoneziis
xalxuri sacxovrebeli saxli. analizis safuZvelze SevarCieT xalxuri sacxovreblis ramodenime
damaxasiaTebeli tipi, SedarebiTi analiziT Cven SevecadeT konkretul magaliTebze
gveCvenebina, Tu rogor gamoiyeneba warsulis ideebi da gamocdileba TanamedroveobaSi:
       1. saxli wyalze
       2. Sida ezoiani saxli
       3. karvis tipis saxli
       4. iglu
       cnobilma iaponelma arqiteqtorma kenZo tangem SeimuSava tokios gafarToebis
gegma. qalaqi moiazreba, rogorc wyalSi mocurave akvapolisi. aseTi gadawyvetis aucilebloba
ganpirobebuli iyo rigi mizezebiT: teritoriis maRali simWidrove, seismuroba, proeqtis
mixedviT avtori akvapoliss hyofs sam jgufad: wyalze, wylis zeviT da wylis qveviT.
satransporto     komunikaciebi     diferencirebulia   sazogadoebrivi    da   sxva   daniSnulebis
obieqtebisgan, qalaqi dgas burjebze (mocurave qalaqis idea wamoayenes p. meimonma da b.
fulerma). i. fridmani 1963 wels daaproeqta qalaqi _ xidi la-manSze, proeqtSi avtorma
gamoiyena sivrculi arqiteqturis principi, ufro zustad ki qalaqi aRmarTulia ximinjebze. am
statiis farglebSi SeuZlebelia TiToeuli proeqtis srulyofila ganxilva. erTi ki cxadia:
warmodgenili proeqtebi miwisa da wylis udavo kavSirze migvaniSnavs. ganxiluli magaliTebi
SeiZleba warmoadgendes tradiciuli saxli-ximinjebze prototips. dasavleT afrikis teritoriaze
mcxovrebi dagomeis tomis miTebis mixedviT qveyana Seiqmna miwisa da wylis qorwinebiT,
dagomeis tomis sakmaod vrceli ximinjebiani dasaxlebisaTvis miwis mcneba TiTqmis aRar
arsebobs. aseTi xalxi ibadeba, cxovrobs da kvdeba wyalze, Tumca msgavsi tradiciebi
SesaZloa sxvaganc Segvxvdes. aq erTi daskvnis gakeTeba SeiZleba: kacobriobis
ganviTarebis pirvelive dReebidan, miuval tyeebSi da WaobebSi adamianis xeliT Seiqmna
iseTi nageboba, romlis funqciurma da ideurma analogiam asaxva hpova Tanamedrove
arqiteqturaSi.




                 kenZo tange                            dagomeis tomis saxli ximinjebze

       parteris olimpiuri kompleqsi miunhenSi da osakas 1970 wlis gamofenis erT-erTi
pavilioni. ra kavSirSia es ori alternatiuli arqiteqtura xalxuri sacxovreblis arqiteqturasTan?
miunhenis olimpiuri stadioni warmoadgens eqstraordinarul struqturas. haerSi afrenili msubuqi
akrilis panelebi obobis ablabudis asociacias iwvevs, Tumca sruliad gansxvavebuli asociaciaa,
rodesac am gigantur sxeuls zemodan davyurebT _ mbzvinvare, molaplape Tevzis qercli.
centri ikiTxeba, rogorc qolgebi, romelic es es aris moswydebian miwas. aseTi arqiteqturis
prototipad Cven miviCnieT saharas yvelaze dausaxlebel raionSi mcxovrebi momTabare tomis
tuageris e.w. mkvdari udabnos moCvenebebis sacxovrebeli felije. felije warmoadgens xis
koWebze gadaWimuli aqlemis an Txis tyavisgan Sekrul karavs. karvis sidide damokidebulia
xis koWebis raodenobaze. amrigad ra saerTo elementebia? es aris struqtura, romliTac orive
obieqtia agebuli iSleba da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba maTi erTi adgilidan meoreze
gadatana.




                                                                     felije
         parteris olimpiuri kompleqsi



                                             2
       aranakleb sainteresoa 1970 wlis osakas gamofenaze gamotanili fujis pavilioni. am
kolosalur gaberil sxeuls haeris arqiteqturas uwodeben. rkaliseburi formis calcalke gaberili
moculobebi warmoadgenen alternatiul teqnologias. igi iyenebs haers, rogorc energias da
materialur wyaros. am calkeuli baliSebis erTmaneTTan damakavSirebel sistemas SeiZleba
vuwodoT rbili sameurneo konstruqciuli karkasi. aseTi xasiaTis nagebobis prototipad
miviCnieT karkasuli tipis saxli-kalaTebi, romelic damaxasiaTebelia erayis samxreT Waobiani
adgilebisaTvis. aq gaTvaliswinebulia Waobiani yamiris Tavisebureba (es adgili Zalze rbilia)
da maqsimalurad Semsubuqebulia nagebobaTa wona. saSen masalad gamoiyeneba giganturi
lerwami, romelic TaRebiviT ekvris mTel moculobas. magrdeba rogorc sayrdeni kolonebi da
Sewyvilebulad qmnian TaRedis rigs. igi gadaxurulia daZenZili merqniT. aseTi tipis merqnis
karkasuli koWebi gamoiyeneba iaponiaSi, afrikaSi, sadac cvalebadi havaa, qari da
miwisZvrebi.




                  fujis pavilioni
                                                                 saxli kalaTa

       jon portmanma 1967 wels daaproeqta saxelganTqmuli `hait-oteli~ atlantaSi. es iyo
mravalsarTuliani atriumiani anu Siga ezoiani Senoba, romelmac safuZveli daudo am tipis
Senobebis ganviTarebas. atriumiani Senobis erT-erTi magaliTia frank loid raitis gugenheimis
muzeumi. SegviZlia moviyvanoT uamravi magaliTi Tanamedrove arqiteqturidan, romelic
awyobilia atriumian an naxevrad atriumiani saxlis principze. atriumis idea ganekuTvneba
2000 wlian periods. gamoTqma `atriumi~ gulisxmobs nagebobaSi Sesasvlels _ didebul
sivrces, centralur ezos da sazogadoebrivi daniSnulebis daxurul sivrceebs.
       arqtikis erT patara qalaqSi jukkaskarvi 1990-2003 wels Svedi arqiteqtori ake larseni
aproeqtebs yinulis sastumros. igi cnobilia mTels msoflioSi Tavisi uCveulo koncefciiT. es aris
fantastikuri xelovnebis nimuSi da eqstraordinaluri eqsperimenti. yinulis sastumro agebulia
eskimosTa saxlis _ `iglus~ principiT. uCveulo `igluSi~ ganTavsebulia saZile nomrebi 100
stumrisTvis, sagamofeno sivrce yinulis qandakebebisTvis, kinoTeatri, bari da yinulis eklesia.
yinulis sasaxleSi yovelwliurad ewyoba gamofenebi, filmebis Cveneba, samecniero
eqspediciebi.



                                              3
       frangma arqiteqtorebma fransua roSma, stefani lakom da Jan navarom Sveicariis qalaq
evolenisTvis daaproeqtes uCveulo yinulis muzeumi. es nageboba warmoadgens xelovnebis
muzeums da kvleviT cnetrs, romelic Seiswavlis alpebSi gamyinvarebis Taviseburebebs.
proeqtSi nagebobis kedlis plastika momwvane feris minebTan SeTavsebiT TiTqos karsruli
mRvimeebis asociacias iwvevs an yinulSi warmoqmnil haeris buStukebs. `yinulis muzeumis~
agebis teqnologia imdenad rTuli ar aris, magram misi forma Zalze uCveuloa. aseT
arqiteqturas SeiZleba vuwodoT `eqsperimentuli arqiteqtura~. saSen masalas warmoadgens
`yinulis~ agurebi. Tanamedrove teqnologiebis saSualebiT aseTi samSeneblo masaliT
SesaZlebelia nebismieri formis miReba, Tumca safuZvels warmoadgens wre an carieli sivrce,
romlis garSemoc lagdeba `yinulis~ agurebi. misi agebis principi mogvagonebs grenlandiis
eskimosTa sacxovrebels _ `iglus~, romelsac aSenebdnen Tovlis kubebisgan. kubebs isini
wreze awyobdnen spiralurad da saTavsos gumbaTis formas aZlevdnen, qoxi kargad
inarCunebda siTbosa da zedapiris TandaTanobiTi gayinva ki saxls kidev ufro mdgrads xdida.
`iglus~ asagebad gamoiyeneba Tovli, romelic forovani struqturis wyalobiT karg Tboizolacias
warmoadgens. misi mSeneblobisTvis gamodgeba mxolod is Tovli, romelzec rCeba adamianis
nakvalevi. `igluSi~ Sesasvleli mowyobilia qaris mimarTulebis paralelurad, ganaTebisTvis
WerSi keTdeba kvadratuli xvreli. Semdeg xdeba misi e.w. Seminva _ yinulis Txeli
gamWvirvale feniT (RiobSi moaTavseben Tovlis Txel fenas da asxamen wyals, wyali iyineba
da miiReba yinulis mina, romelic sinaTles atarebs. aseve xdeba yoveli RriWos amovseba)
gumbaTis TavSi iWreba naxvreti, romelic sakvamuris rols asrulebs. Tanamedrove `iglu~ _
yinulis sastumro zustad am principebis dacviT aris agebuli.




                                      yinulis sastumro                   yinulis eklesia
            iglu

       amrigad SedarebiTi analizis safuZvelze naTlad davinaxeT, rom xalxuri arqiteqtura
drois miRmaa, gadaadgilda sivrceSi da TanamedroveobaSi aisaxa. Cven ganvixileT
magaliTebis mcire nawili, Tumca araerTi xalxuri sacxovreblis da misi analogiis moZieba
SeiZleba, romelTa ganxilva am statiis formatSi SeuZlebelia Tumca msgavsi kvleva SeiZleba
gagrZedles. aq mxolod erTi ramis Tqma SeiZleba: xalxuri arqiteqtura aris `cocxali~
arqiteqtura, arqiteqtura arqiteqtoris gareSe, `gulubryvilo~ arqiteqtura, romelic aTaswleulebis
tradiciebs iTvlis kvebavs Tanamedrove arqiteqturas formadwarmomqmneli da struqturuli



                                              4
principebiT. moviyvan kidev erT sayovelTaod cnobil magaliTs: pavilioni `adamiani
sazogadoebaSi~, romelic warmodgenili iyo monrealis eqspo-1967-ze daproeqtda indielTa
uzarmazari xis hoganis msgavsad.
                                               da bolos davesesxebi a. gutnovs, romelic ambobs:
                                      `nabiji win gamodis konstruqciuli da saimedo maSin,
                                      rodesac is efuZneba warsulis tradiciebis logikas. gza
                                      awymodan momavlisken yovelTvis gadis warsulze~ (2,
                                      gv. 274).




                                              literatura:

        1. Буров А. «Об Архитектуре». М., 1960.
        2. Гутнов А. Мир Архитектуры. М., 1985.
        3. Гидион З. Пространство, время, архитектура. М., 1984.
        4. Рагон М. Города Будущего. М., 1969.




                            Народная архитектура и современность
                                        Е. Каландадзе
                                         Н. Имнадзе
                             Грузинский технический университет
                                 Грузия, Тбилиси, Костава 77

       Цель данной статьи анализ роли народной архитектуры в современной архитектуре. На
конкретных примерах показана как используют современные архитектуры прошлые идеи и
опыт.
       Так как народное архитектура эта «живая» архитектура, эта архитектура без
архитекторов, насчитывающей тысячелетние традиции и питает современную архитектуру
формообразующими и структурными принципами.




                              National architect and contemporaneity
                                           E. Kalandadze
                                            N. Imnadze
                                   Georgian Technical University
                                  Kostava str. 77, Tbilisi, Georgia

        The main aim of this article is analize the role of national architecter on the contemporary
architecter. On the base of comparative analize show how modern architects use the past ideas and
experiences. Because the national architecter is architecter without architect which count thousandth
anniversary traditions and feed modern architecter form and structural principles.




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