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Research Proposal ETAP 778

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Research Proposal ETAP 778 Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                        Joy Quah
                             Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction



           ETAP778 Final Paper (Option 2)




              Title of Proposed Study:
Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction
in an Online Language, Literacy and Technology Course




                    Written by:
                      Joy Quah




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                                                                                                                 Joy Quah
                                                                      Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction



Contents
1.0 Introduction                                                                                         3
2.0 Purpose of the Study                                                                                 4
3.0 Research Questions                                                                                   4
4.0 Sociocultural Theory and Activity Theory                                                             5
5.0 Review of Literature                                                                                 6
         5.1 Impact of Technology on Teacher Knowledge and Teacher Education Programs                    7
         5.2 Knowledge Construction in Online Communities of Practice                                    8
6.0 Methodological Framework                                                                             8
         6.1 Research Methods                                                                            9
                     6.1.1 Justification for Use of Multiple-Case Study Design                           9
         6.2 The Research Setting of the Online Class                                                    10
         6.3 Sampling Procedure                                                                          11
         6.4 Data Collection                                                                             12
                     6.4.1 Interviews                                                                    13
                     6.4.2 Group Discussion                                                              14
                     6.4.3 Student Artifacts                                                             14
                     6.4.4 Observation of the Online Class                                               15
         6.5 Data Analysis                                                                               16
                     6.5.1 Organizing the Database                                                       16
                     6.5.2 Conducting Preliminary Data Analysis                                          17
                     6.5.3 Developing Codes, Categories and Themes                                       17
                     6.5.4 Using Analytic Frameworks                                                     18
         6.6 Cross-Case Analysis                                                                         19
7.0 Formulating Themes and Writing Up the Case Report                                                    20
8.0 Measures to Establish Trustworthiness                                                                20
9.0 Conclusion                                                                                           22
References                                                                                               23
List of Appendices                                                                                       28
         Appendix A: Research Timeline                                                                   29
         Appendix B: Interview Protocol                                                                  30
         Appendix C: Map of Research Questions to Protocols                                              35
         Appendix D: Online Class Observation Protocol                                                   37
         Appendix E: Data Analysis Frameworks                                                            42




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                                                                                                    Joy Quah
                                                         Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

1.0 Introduction

        Online education has grown substantially with nearly thirty percent of higher education

students taking at least one course online (Allen & Seaman, 2010). This shift to online learning has

become so integral to higher education that is has also impacted teacher education courses, which are

increasingly being conducted online (Norton & Hathaway, 2008; Chen, Chen & Tsai, 2009; Saltmarsh &

Sutherland-Smith, 2010; Wang, Chen, & Levy, 2010).

        In this proposal, I will present my design of a study focusing on a community of ESL teachers

constructing their understanding about language, literacy and technology in a fully-online, participatory

learning environment. Their learning will be mediated by a variety of embedded activities, tools and

social others. I will examine how the elements of learners and tools interact in order to account for a

holistic understanding of learning which takes place (Benson, Lawler & Whitworth, 2008).

        In this paper, I will present my research questions that will guide my study. I will briefly review

the theoretical underpinnings of my study and present research relevant to online teacher education

programs. In my methodology section, I will justify my approaches and methods by supporting them

with scholarly resources.

        I plan to use case study methodology for my study because it facilitates understanding of

processes and relationships in natural settings (Yin, 2009). My investigation will be based upon a

phenomenological approach. Phenomenology is a type of research which is aligned to constructivist

approaches which explore individuals’ own ways of making sense of their lives and experiences (Taber,

2010). Phenomenological studies aim to uncover “patterns of meaning, understanding and definitions of

the situation from a range of people. The major focus is on in-depth understanding of the phenomenon

and related issues” (Grbich, 2007, p.9).




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                                                          Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

        One of the aims of my study is to address a main criticism of phenomenological studies, which is

that they focus almost exclusively on how an individual constructs knowledge without sufficiently taking

into account the activities these experiences are embedded in. Due to the focus on the micro-

experiences and individual action of the participants, phenomenological studies do not fully address

structures that impact participants’ experiences (Grbich, 2007).

2.0 Purpose of the Study

The purposes of this study are:

    •   To investigate language teachers’ experiences of constructing knowledge in an online setting

    •   To investigate how teacher education courses are responding to changing teacher needs

        impacted by technology

    •   To examine embedded activities that mediate participants’ online learning experiences

    •   To examine cultural tools that mediate learning in an online environment

    •   To examine theoretical constructs related to an activity system

3.0 Research Questions

        Activity Theory posits that learning is intrinsically linked to social interaction and the use of

cultural tools (Lund & Rasmussen, 2010). Based on this proposition, and cognizant of issues related to

relevant forms of teacher education courses that address pedagogical use of technology by language

teachers, I have developed the following research questions.

    1. How do activities mediate in knowledge construction within an online community of teachers?

    2. How do cultural tools mediate knowledge construction within an online community of teachers?

    3. What forms of professional development do language teachers find relevant for their needs?




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                                                          Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

4.0 Sociocultural Theory and Activity Theory

         I propose to use Engeström’s Activity Theory (AT) as an analytic lens to examine student

participation in the embedded instances of activity as applied to online environments (Barab, Barnett &

Yamagata-Lynch, 2002; Benson, Lawler & Whitworth, 2008; Stevenson, 2008; Chen, Chen & Tsai, 2009;

Rasmussen & Ludvigsen, 2009; Choi & Kang, 2010; Nazari, 2010). Activity Theory, also sometimes known

as Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), is derived from sociocultural theory (Engeström, 1999;

Yamagata-Lynch, 2003; Kaptelinin & Nardi, 2006; Bakhurst, 2009; Rasmussen & Ludvigsen, 2009; Choi &

Kang, 2010). It is a philosophical and multidisciplinary framework which grew from the work of

Vygotsky, Leontiev, and Luria (Yamagata-Lynch, 2003; Kaptelinin & Nardi, 2006; Choi & Kang, 2010).

Activity theory “emphasizes naturalistic settings and offers a way of thinking about links between what

individuals do and why, the resources they draw upon, and the communities in which they are situated,

providing a perspective of the complexity of relationships in which activities are embedded” (Blackler,

1993, pp. 875–876, cited in Hopwood & Stocks, 2008, p.189).

         Vygotsky, in what is recognized as the first generation of activity theory, posited that learning is

a semiotic process in which individuals construct meaning while they interact with artifacts and social

others in their environment (Yamagata-Lynch, 2003). The interaction between these artifacts,

individuals, and others contribute to the formation of the individual’s mind and knowledge construction

(Wertsch, 1985, cited in Yamagata-Lynch, 2003). In the second generation of activity theory, Leontiev

extended Vygotsky’s ideas by distinguishing between collective and individual activity (Kang & Gyorke,

2008).




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                                                                                                                                 Joy Quah
                                                                                      Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

          The preset generation of activity theory, upon which my study is based, is most closely

associated with Engeström’s work. Engeström’s model, which expands on Vygotsky’s basic triangular

model, is described in terms of relationships between six interacting components which include

subjects, objects, tools, rules, division of labor and community (Kaptelinin & Nardi, 2006; Hopwood &

Stocks, 2008). (See Figure 1).

                                    Mediating Cultural Tools:
                                    Pedagogic literature, core concepts of course,
                                    course activities, learning objects (videos, links
                                    to sites, and other course materials)




          Subject:                                                                Object:                       Outcomes:
          Language teachers in a                                                  Online course                 Enhanced learning
          language, literacy and                                                                                experiences, enhanced
          technology course                                                                                     teacher knowledge




 Rules:                                      Community:                                  Division of Labor:
 Course requirements,                        Other course participants,                  Instructor as mentor, ESL teachers
 assessment guidelines,                      instructor                                  as learners
 assignment rubrics, instructions




                               Figure 1. The online class as an activity system (based on Engeström , 1999; Hopwood & Stocks, 2008).

          “At the heart of the activity system is interaction between the subject (the person or persons

doing the activity), object (what is worked on, what efforts are expended towards), and mediating tools

(resources, concepts, material artifacts, etc.). In activity theory, objects imply some collective quality”

(Hopwood & Stocks, 2008, p. 189). A central tenet in activity theory is that an activity cannot be

pursued by a single individual in isolation because learning is viewed as a social activity (Kaptelinin &

Nardi, 2006).

5.0 Review of Literature

          The themes I will explore in the study are based on online learning, teacher education, social-

construction of knowledge and language teacher knowledge. The literature I will review will therefore

be related to themes mentioned.

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                                                                                                       Joy Quah
                                                            Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

        5.1 Impact of Technology on Teacher Knowledge and Teacher Education Programs

        Shulman (1987) posited that if teacher knowledge were to be categorized, they would include

content knowledge; general pedagogical knowledge; curriculum knowledge; knowledge of learners and

their characteristics; knowledge of educational contexts; and knowledge of educational purposes,

values, and philosophies. With the advent of emergent technologies, the requirements for teacher

knowledge have been extended (Koehler, Mishra & Yahya, 2007). A framework developed by Koehler et

al (2007) illustrates the new areas of teacher knowledge required for practice resulting from the

emergence of technology (See Figure 2).




                           Figure 2. Pedagogical technological content knowledge (Koehler, Mishra & Yahya, 2007, p.742).

        Requirements for more sophisticated teacher knowledge have, in turn, led to a need for more

appropriate forms of teacher education for language teachers (Freeman, 2004; Jones & Youngs, 2006).

Many different parties agree that “traditional methods of technology training for teachers—mainly

workshops and courses, are ill-suited to produce the deep understanding that can assist teachers in

becoming intelligent users of technology for pedagogy” (Koehler et al, 2007, p.741).

        More specifically, in the area of CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning), most of the

teacher training consists of ad-hoc in-service training, conferences and workshops (Wang, Chen & Levy,

2010). Koehler et al (2007) add that “there is more to teacher preparation and faculty development than




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                                                          Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

training teachers how to use tools – it requires appreciation of the complex set of interrelationships

between artifacts, users, tools and practices” (p.742).

         5.2 Knowledge Construction in Online Communities of Practice

         Language teachers need more meaningful experiences in their ongoing professional

development. Koehler et al (2007) add that effective training also needs to incorporate opportunities for

teachers to actively engage in constructing knowledge within a community of peers. According to Avis

(2009), “there are a number of theoretical currents that share Engeström’s interest in socially situated

practice” (p.152). They include Communities of Practice (Lave and Wenger, 1991), and those associated

with technology-supported collaborative learning (Sorensen, Takle & Moser, 2006; Wang, Chen & Levy,

2010. Belonging to a community of practice provides opportunities for teachers to build common

understanding which results in communal artifacts that include shared ideas, tools, activities,

documentation, and procedures (Yamagata-Lynch, 2003, Baran & Calgitay, 2010). Therefore,

establishing communities of practice has become an important focus within teachers’ continuous

professional development (Baran & Calgitay, 2010).

6.0 Methodological Framework

         I will use a qualitative multiple-case study approach to examine language teachers’ experience

of learning in an online environment mediated by tools and social others. In this section, I will discuss

case study methodology as well as multiple-case design and justify their use in my research. I will also

describe and justify my proposed research setting, sampling procedure, data collection methods and

data analysis processes. Lastly, I will outline measures I will take to establish trustworthiness in my

study.




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                                                          Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

        My planned investigation from the proposal to dissertation defense stage will take 10 months.

[Click for Appendix A: Timeline of Process]

        6.1 Research Methods

        My study aims to provide insight into how participants experience leaning that is mediated by

elements of the activity system, such as cultural tools and social others. Since the theoretical

fundaments of my study are based on activity theory, my research fits well into the qualitative paradigm

because this type of research is grounded in constructivist philosophy (Anthony & Jack, 2009).

Qualitative research focuses on how the complexities of the sociocultural world are experienced,

interpreted, and understood in a particular context at a particular point in time (ibid.).

        My study will also be based on qualitative case study methodology because this approach

facilitates the study of a process, program or individual in an in-depth, holistic way that allows for deep

understanding (Merriam, 1998). Merriam adds that case study methodology is used when the focus is

on “process rather than outcomes, in context rather than a specific variable, in discovery rather than

confirmation” (Merriam 1998, p. 19).

                6.1.1 Justification for Use of Multiple-Case Study Design

        Theory building is an important goal in my study. According to Eisenhardt (1989b, cited in

Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007), “building theory from case studies is a research strategy that involves

using one or more cases to create theoretical constructs, propositions and…midrange theory from case-

based, empirical evidence” (p.25).

        The design of this research will be a multiple case study. With multiple case studies, data are

analyzed for insights both within each case and across cases (Merriam, 1998). The use of multiple cases

strengthens the theory building process because the cases serve to replicate, add contrast to, and

extend emerging theory (Yin, 2009). This assertion is supported by Stake (2000), who highlights that

“multiple case study approach can allow for the possibility of stronger interpretation and perhaps better


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                                                                                                  Joy Quah
                                                       Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

theorizing" (p. 437). According to Yin (2009), “multiple case studies are considered more compelling, and

the overall study is therefore regarded as more robust" (p. 46).

        6.2 The Research Setting of the Online Class

        The setting for my investigation will be an online “Language, Literacy and Technology” course

usually conducted as a 12-week teacher education program at a Northeastern university via the BLS

course management system. The course is offered entirely online as part of a graduate program in

education. The enrollment for the course will be approximately 20 students. The syllabus states that the

course is designed for language professionals and educators concerned with the role digital texts play in

student learning. The syllabus adds that “the course explores the important roles digital texts and their

influence on language and literacy development in native, second, and foreign languages”. Its main aim

“is for each participant to become skilled and conversant in the interworking of language, literacy and

technologies”.

        It is impossible to separate the phenomenon being investigated from its context (Merriam,

1998). I chose a case study design to investigate participants’ experiences of this online setting because

“case studies emphasize the rich, real-world context in which the phenomena occur” (Eisenhardt &

Graebner, 2007, p.25). Additionally, context has a very important significance in activity theory (Arnseth,

2008). This online class was selected because it has all the vital elements consistent with the notion of

mediation, where artifacts are embedded in activities which facilitate interaction between learners and

learning objects (Arnseth, 2008).

        In order to mediate learning, the instructor has incorporated semiotic and material artifacts in

the form of course readings, videos and links to relevant websites. A variety of collaborative and

individual activities have also been designed around these cultural tools to facilitate learning. Since

collaborative work is emphasized in this course, students will work in teams of five or six to synthesize

readings into presentations which are viewed and responded to by the whole class. In the process of


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                                                                                                  Joy Quah
                                                       Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

preparing these presentations, students will be required to interact with classmates by discussing their

assigned articles, posting their reading syntheses to the message board, and responding to group

members’ postings. Other collaborative activities will include working with a partner in the course to

design and engage in tele-collaborative activities with language students from a foreign university. All

group and individual projects will be published in designated discussions spaces for the class to respond

to.

        The various activities carried out in the course will help me investigate the theoretical

proposition that in an activity system, “the individual’s conscious goals are coordinated in regard to and

thereby reshaped and changed by the fact that they pursue these goals within certain social and

material arrangements. Thus, object orientedness points to a higher level of organization than the

individual or group. The object provides the activity with a certain direction but it is also changed by the

activity as such” (Arnseth, 2008, p.292). Since the self is an important construct in activity theory

(Kapeltinin & Nardi, 2006), I will examine Individual assignments which include preparing case studies,

analyzing online instructional conversations, writing reflective journals and producing a final written

synthesis piece.

        6.3 Sampling Procedure

        The sampling procedure for my multiple-case study will involve selecting 3 graduate students

enrolled in the course. Their selection will be based on purposeful sampling. According to Patton (1990),

purposeful sampling is a method that is typically used in case study methodology to yield the most

information about the phenomena under study. In order to further refine my selection of cases, I will

use theoretical sampling and critical case sampling. In theoretical sampling, cases are selected because

they are particularly suitable for illuminating and extending relationships and logic among constructs”

(Eisenhardt & Graebner , 2007, p.27).




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                                                                                                    Joy Quah
                                                         Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

         In order to conduct critical case sampling, I will develop criteria that will allow me to select cases

that are particularly important to the understanding mediated activity, yield the most information and

have the greatest impact on the development of knowledge in this area (Patton, 2001; Teddlie &

Tashakkori, 2009).

         The small number of participants I plan to work with is consistent with the characteristics of a

phenomenological study, which focuses on depth rather than generalizability in participants’

experiences (Polit and Beck, 2004). In selecting my participants, I have also used another basic guiding

principle in selecting participants for a phenomenological study. My participants must be able to

articulate what it is like to have lived the experience being investigated (Polit and Beck, 2004; Creswell,

2007).

         Part of my critical sampling procedure will also involve seeking out individuals who have had

differing experiences of the course. The emphasis on diversity is consistent with a phenomenological

study (Polit and Beck, 2004). Although “researchers seek participants who have had the targeted

experiences, they also want to explore diversity of individual experiences” (ibid, p.17). The selection of

informants who view the phenomena from diverse perspectives is also a strategy to limit bias

(Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007). Yin (2009) emphasizes that multiple cases can also be used to represent

contrasting situations, which strengthens rigor of the study.

         6.4 Data Collection

         In case study research, multiple methods of data collection and sources of evidence are used to

explore a phenomenon (Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007; Anthony & Jack, 2009; Yin 2009; Nazari, 2010).

Due to the use of multiple methods of data collection, “case study is known as a triangulated research

strategy” (Nazari, 2010, p.180 ). Multiple sources of data facilitate the “development of converging lines

of inquiry” which adds to the trustworthiness of a study (Yin, 2009, p. 115).




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                                                                                                  Joy Quah
                                                       Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

        In order to establish rigor in my study, I will collect data through a variety of data sources. These

data sources include:

       transcripts of interviews [Appendix B: Interview Protocol]

       transcripts of group discussions

       student artifacts and

       field notes of online class observation [Appendix D: Class Observation Protocol]

        In order to ensure that there is alignment between my research questions and my protocol

items I have mapped out the items in a table [Appendix C: Mapping Interview Questions to Protocol]

                        6.4.1Interviews

        I will conduct interviews as part of the data collection for my multiple case studies. According to

Eisenhardt & Graebner (2007), “interviews are a highly efficient way to gather rich, empirical data,

especially when the phenomenon of interest is highly episodic and infrequent” (p.28). The qualitative

interview is also a way of finding out how participants feel and think about their world and their

experiences” (Rubin & Rubin, 2005, p. 1).

        I will use a semi-structured approach when designing the interview protocol. The advantage of

using a semi-structured interview is that it elicits open-ended responses which allow the participants to

fully express their viewpoints and experiences with as much detailed as possible (Rubin & Rubin, 2005).

Consistent with a semi-structured approach, I will prepare questions as a starting point, but allow the

conversation to flow in directions which are helpful to providing insight (Seidman, 2006). I will ensure

that my questions will be sufficiently flexible to enable me to ask probing questions as a means of

follow-up (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2003; Rubin & Rubin, 2005).

        While the semi-structured approach interview provides flexibility, it also has one main

weakness. It is difficult for researchers to extract similar themes or codes from the interview transcripts

as they would with less open-ended responses (Creswell, 2007).


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                                                                                                   Joy Quah
                                                        Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

        In order to use the interviews as a theory building strategy, I have formulate questions that elicit

responses which add to the understanding of participants’ social construction of reality and how activity

theory operates in this particular example of an activity system. Part of this strategy will include using

projective techniques during the interview to answer one of my research questions, which is “How do

cultural tools mediate knowledge construction within an online community of teachers? In order to

answer this question, I have integrated the use of prompts in the interview in the form of course

materials, individual written assignments and group products.

                         6.4.2 Group Discussion

        “Activity theory…emphasizes the sociocultural matrix within which individuals develop”

(Kaptelinin & Nardi, p. 11). In order to examine sociocultural processes which contribute to knowledge

building, I will collect data from discussion forum transcripts.

        By studying student interaction through online discussions, I plan to trace the development of

knowledge construction in the activity system. The notion of development is a key principle of activity

theory. “Activity theory takes the long view; we cannot understand activity if we do not watch it cycle,

grow, change” (Kaptelinin & Nardi, 2006, p. 11). Through the discussion transcripts, I hope to track the

cycle of growth and change in the process of knowledge construction for the participants in the online

class. Analyzing group discussion transcripts will also enable me to study the “the dialogic nature of

processes of internalization-externalization (which) makes it possible for individuals to transform their

culture through their activity” (Kaptelinin & Nardi, p. 11).

                         6.4.3 Student Artifacts

        Student artifacts will be one of my data sources. These artifacts will include group presentations

in the form of PowerPoint presentations, wikis and other jointly produced products. Within a

sociocultural perspective on learning, the products of students’ contact with tools and people can be

seen as evidence of participation in the social practices of the culture (Alexandersson & Limberg, 2003).


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                                                        Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

Therefore, the development of material resources can be taken as evidence for the development of

ideas and intellectual knowledge (Säljö, 2000, cited in Erstad, 2002).

        Besides group projects, individual projects are an important source of data for my study.

Individual artifacts will include written assignments and reflective journals. In activity theory “the

individual is an important theoretical concept that accounts for interrelated processes of creativity,

resistance, and reflexivity” (Kaptelinin & Nardi, 2006, p.11). Artifacts produced by individuals will allow

me to study knowledge construction processes that take place in their minds. Through artifacts I also

hope to learn more about how individuals in the activity system can “radically restructure cultural

conceptions, transcending culture in unpredictable ways” (Kaptelinin & Nardi, p. 11).

                         6.4.4 Observation of the Online Class

        The online class itself can be understood as a ‘cultural tool’ where students engage with, and

transform ideas and tools in a cultural context (Alexandersson & Limberg, 2003). An important aim of

my case study is to provide insight on how students work on knowledge construction through different

activities in their online learning environment. Therefore, from both sociocultural and

phenomenological perspectives, it is crucial to examine the environment of the online class where the

students’ interact with cultural tools and social others.

        I plan to begin field observations in the online class as soon as it commences. I will log onto the

class at least 3 times weekly to take field notes and observe developments. I will also examine mediating

tools in the environment in the form of pedagogical literature, videos and other resources. This is

because in order to study the culture, “it is necessary to grasp the knowledge and ideas built into the

developments of certain tools or artifacts in the learning environment” (Erstad, 2002, p.429).

Furthermore, “artifacts have the potential of being constructive tools for thought if they are integrated

in a learning environment which promotes active student roles in combination with other learning

resources” (Erstad, 2002, p.436).


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                                                                                                   Joy Quah
                                                        Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

        6.5 Data Analysis

        According to Creswell, “data analysis in qualitative research consists of preparing and organizing

the data…for analysis, then reducing the data into themes through a process of coding and condensing

the codes, and finally representing the data in figures, tables or a discussion” (Creswell, 2007, p.148).

This process is non-linear. Creswell has characterized the process as a spiral, while Grbich (2007) has

termed it as an iterative approach.

        Creswell’s data analysis model illustrates the process I intend to undertake in analyzing my data

(See Figure 3)




                                                           Figure 3. Process of data analysis (Creswell, 2009)

                 6.5.1 Organizing the Database

        As I progressively collect my data, I plan to organize them into a case study database (Yin, 2003).

According to Creswell (2007, p. 150) “data management is the first loop in the (data analysis) spiral. At

an early stage in the process, researchers organize their data into computer files. Besides organizing

files, he recommends that researchers convert their files to appropriate text units.

        I will use a chronological order in filing my data. This is consistent with a key principle of activity

theory, which is the notion of examining development over time in a historical frame (Engestrom, 1999).




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                                                       Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

“Activity theory shares the commitment of the cultural-historical school of psychology because of its

commitment to understanding how human activity unfurls...we cannot understand activity if we do not

watch it cycle, grow, change” (Kaptelinin & Nardi, p. 11). Filing the data chronologically will help me to

chart the progression of the participants’ changing views throughout their experience of the course.

                6.5.2 Conducting Preliminary Data Analysis

        As I file and manage my data, I will conduct preliminary data analysis in order to “remain close

to the data” (Grbich, 2007, p.27), and to get a better sense of the growing database (Creswell, 2009).

Preliminary data analysis is particularly relevant to the iterative approach I plan to follow (Grbich, 2007).

During this stage, I will “undertake the collection and summary of major points gained from interviews,

observations or documents in order to examine what is going on in the text in terms of emergent issues

and also issues that need to be followed up” (Grbich, 2007, p.25). At this stage, I can also begin

formulating some basic categories and accumulating emerging issues into potential themes (Cresswell,

2009; Grbich, 2007). Preliminary data analysis will help me to fill in gaps that complete a holistic view of

my research area (Grbich, 2007).

                6.5.3 Developing Codes, Categories and Themes

        By the time I have completed the preliminary data analysis and all the data are in, it is likely that

I will have a fairly clear idea what the database contains in terms of issues that are becoming evident

(Grbich, 2007). Following preliminary analysis, I will undertake the more formal processes of thematic

analysis and coding (Grbich, 2007). Creswell (2009) recommends that researchers develop a list of about

12 tentative codes. He advises against exceeding 25 categories. These categories will be further refined

into five or six themes in the end.

        I will develop codes based on a combination of pre-determined and emerging codes (Patton,

2009). According to Creswell (2009), “code labels emerge from several sources” (p. 153). He encourages

qualitative researchers to look for code segments that can be used to describe information and develop


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                                                       Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

themes. Following Creswell’s recommendations, I plan to classify the categories of codes which

represent:

       information that I expect to find before the study

       surprising information that I did not expect to find

       information that is conceptually interesting or unusual to researchers (and potentially to

        participants and audiences)

        Additionally, Grbich (2007) suggests that codes and themes may also come from previous

relevant research. However, she cautions that in qualitative research, the data should speak for

themselves initially before any predesigned themes are imposed. Charmaz (2006, p.67, cited in Seaman,

2008) concurs with this view and has advised researchers to not “unwittingly start from their own

preconceptions about what a particular experience means or entails” (p.11).

        While I plan to use activity theory to inform my study, Seaman (2008) cautions that “it is

important that the elements of the activity system are used as data sources rather than as pre-given

conceptual categories” (p.67). Besides the literature, my conceptual categories will be drawn from

several frameworks which I will discuss in the next section.

                        6.5.4 Using Analytic Frameworks [Appendix E: Analytic Frameworks]

        My data sources include discussion transcripts, interview transcripts, student artifacts and field

notes from classroom observation. I will analyze these for evidence of knowledge construction through

content analysis (Creswell, 2007). As categories within the data begin to emerge, I will look for patterns

or themes that connect these categories. In order to help me strengthen my theory building process, I

will use several analytic frameworks to help me organize and think about my data.

        There are a number of content analysis schemes to analyze transcripts of online asynchronous

discussion (Dewever, Schellens, Valcke, & Vankeer, 2006). I will use Gunawardena’s (1997) Interaction

Analysis Model to analyze my group discussion transcripts. It is a well-established content analysis


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                                                      Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

framework which is based on five phases of a discussion to determine the amount of knowledge

constructed within a discussion. This framework is appropriate for my study because the theoretical

underpinnings for the instrument are based on social constructivist principles. More specifically, the

framework enables the examination of an activity system because it focuses on the processes of

negotiating meaning and coming to an understanding by discussing and contributing knowledge, thus

resulting in the shared construction of knowledge (Gunawardena, et at, 1997). Since my research

questions focuses on social construction of knowledge, their scheme accurately fits my purpose.

        In order to analyze my interview transcripts, classroom observation field notes and student

artifacts for evidence knowledge construction, I will use content analysis frameworks by Koehler et al,

(2007) and Shulman, 1987).

        My decision to use established frameworks is based on Rourke and Andersons’ (2003) assertion

that instead of developing new coding schemes, researchers should use schemes that have been

developed and used in previous research. Gall et al (1996, cited Rourke & Anderson, 2003) also support

the assertion that researchers should consider employing a coding system that has been used in

previous research because “using well-defined procedural tools will help (researchers) make inferences

and interpretations that are theoretically and empirically defensible” (p.15). They add that researchers

who use established tools “contribute to the accumulating validity of an existing procedure to compare

their results with a growing catalog of normative data” (p.16).

                6.6 Cross-case Analysis

        “A qualitative, inductive, multiple case study seeks to build abstractions across cases” (Creswell,

2002, pp. 194-195). This allows the reader to develop an understanding of the case within the larger

context (Creswell, 2002). Since my study is based on a multiple case study approach, the next step of

my data analysis process would be conducting cross-case analysis (Merriam, 1998). In the within-case

analysis, each case is first treated as a comprehensive case in and of itself (Merriam, 1998). For each


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                                                       Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

individual case, I will analyze observations, interviews, and documents to develop a description of the

case. The analysis of each case will comprise description and thematic development (Creswell, 2007).

        I will use categories and themes that emerge during the within-case analysis and analyze them

across cases to determine "naturalistic generalizations" (Creswell, 2007, p. 163) concerning the field of

the activity system. These naturalistic generalizations across cases will help me address the main

question of my study: What can I learn from these experiences of the teachers in this online class to

inform the field of Activity Theory?

7.0 Formulating Themes and Writing Up the Case Report

                After conducting the cross-case analyses, I plan to further reduce the data by identifying

five to seven general themes, as suggested by Creswell (2007) and Grbich (2007). I will discuss my

emergent themes and compare them to literature on activity theory, online teacher development,

teacher knowledge and socially mediated learning within community of practice. I will highlight areas of

convergence and differences (Seidman, 2006). Yin (2009) stresses that the final product of the analysis

should address all evidence, include rival interpretations, highlight the most significant aspects of the

study and utilize the researcher’s prior expert knowledge.

        Yin (2009 has proposed several structures which the final report can take. I will probably utilize a

combined chronological and theory building structure. The chronological structure seems to lend itself

well to presenting a historical account of development, which is consistent with activity theory. The

theory-building structure is aligned with my aim of using my case study to contribute to understanding

of how cultural tools and social interaction mediate learning in an online environment.

8.0 Measures to Establish Trustworthiness

        In order to lend credibility to the findings of my study, I will incorporate a variety of measures to

establish trustworthiness (Tinkler, 2004).




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                                                         Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

        The first procedure I will use is "long-term observation" (Merriam, 1998, p. 204). During my

research, I will maintain consistent contact with my participants as they go through the semester. I will

also constantly log-on to the course to observe the developments there. Spending prolong amounts of

time in the field will lend credibility to my perceptions of this experience (Merriam, 1998).

        Another important validity procedure I will use is triangulation (Creswell, 2007, Yin, 2009).

Merriam (1998) defines triangulation as "using multiple investigators, multiple sources of data, or

multiple methods to confirm the emerging findings" (p. 204). I will use methodological triangulation

(Creswell & Miller, 2000) by collecting multiple forms of data. I will use the process of triangulation to

identify convergence in the data in order to confirm or disconfirm emerging categories and themes (Yin,

2009). I will also use multiple cases instead of a single case to strengthen my theory-building process

(Yin, 2009; Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007).

        Another method I will use to establish creditability is researcher reflexivity (Harrison,

MacGibbon & Morton, 2001; Pillow, 2003, Tinkler, 2004). Since my perceptions of the research process

will play a major part in the findings of the study, I will attend to the idea of subjectivity (Tinkler, 2004).

In order to ensure clear and unbiased representation, I will send my preliminary analysis to my

participants to check for accuracy in portrayal (Harrison, MacGibbon & Morton, 2001; Pillow, 2003). I

will incorporate researcher reflexivity by constantly questioning my own assumptions and maintaining

this awareness when adding contextual data to field notes, observations transcriptions, and interview

transcriptions, and also when writing researcher journal entries (Harrison, MacGibbon & Morton; 2001

Pillow, 2003; Tinkler, 2004).




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                                                       Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

9.0 Conclusion

        Since my investigation focuses on the social construction of knowledge in an online class for

language teachers, I began my proposal by presenting the theoretical underpinnings upon which this

study is based. I proceeded to provide an overview of case study methodology that will be used to

conduct this study. I then justified my choice of this method, and described data collection, analysis

procedures I intend to use in my investigation. I finally outlined the measures I will take to establish

credibility in my investigation.




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Yamagata-Lynch, L. (2003). Using activity theory as an analytic lens for examining technology
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                                                                                             Joy Quah
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                                         List of Appendices

Appendix A
Research Timeline

Appendix B
Interview Protocol

Appendix C
Map of Research questions to protocols

Appendix D
Online Class Observation Protocol

Appendix E
Data Analysis Frameworks




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                                                                                                 Appendix A
Timeline of Research Process [Back to write-up]

According to Yin (2009), a case study is basically conducted according to the following sequence:

       Determine and define the research questions
       Select the cases and determine data gathering and analysis techniques
       Prepare to collect the data
       Collect data in the field
       Evaluate and analyze the data
       Prepare the report

I have constructed my research timeline based on Yin’s suggested sequence, taking into account logistic
considerations and IRB approval processes.


Processes                            Sep   Oct    Nov     Dec    Jan   Feb    Mac   Apr    May    June   July
   1. Commence planning with          X
       cooperating course
       instructor
   2. Prepare research proposal       X      X
   3. Conduct literature search       X      X     X        X     X

    4. Determine data gathering              X
        and analysis techniques
    5. Prepare proposal               X      X
    6. Submit proposal to IRB                      X        X
        (including wait time)
    7. Select cases                                               X
    8. Prepare data collection        X      X
        instruments
    9. Refine data collection                                     X
        instruments
    10. Collect data in the field                                 X      X     X      X     X

    11. Interviews                                                                          X
    12. Evaluate and analyze the                                         X     X      X     X
        data
    13. Prepare the report                                                                  X      X      X


                                                                                          [Back to write-up]




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                                                                                                   Appendix B

                                Interview Protocol [Back to write-up]


Title of study:
Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction in an Online Language, Literacy and
Technology Course
Interviewer:              _____________________________________
Interviewee
(use pseudonym):          _____________________________________
Date of interview:        _____________________________________
Place:                    _____________________________________
Time:                     _____________________________________
Duration:                 60 to 70 minutes
Documents Obtained:
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
Instructions for Interviewer:
Below are instructions for the interviewer to follow so that standard procedures are used from one
interview to another.
Resources to bring to the interview for projective technique:
        Modules 1 to 7 course readings, videos, weblinks and other resources
        Group PPT presentations
        Transcripts of group discussions
        Individual projects – analysis of instructional conversation, case study of an individual’s digital
         text use, final paper (cultural historian whose specialization is early 21st century literacy),
         retrospective analyses.




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VIDEO TAPING INSTRUCTIONS
       Inform participant that you will be video-recording our conversation.
       Assure participants that all comments will remain confidential, and that in the written report all
        comments will not contain any reference to individuals.


PREAMBLE/CONSENT FORM INSTRUCTIONS


Hand the participant the consent form. Assure the participant of confidentiality:

I would like to assure you that, only researchers on the project will be privy to the recordings which will
be eventually deleted after they are transcribed. In addition, please sign a form devised to meet my
human subject requirements. Essentially, this document states that: (1) all information will be held
confidential, (2) your participation is voluntary and you may stop at any time if you feel uncomfortable,
and (3) I do not intend to inflict any harm.

Thank you for your agreeing to participate.

I have planned this interview to last no longer than one hour. During this time, I have several questions
that I would like to cover. If time begins to run short, it may be necessary to interrupt you in order to
push ahead and complete this line of questioning.

Introduction

I would like to speak with you today because you have been identified as someone who has a great deal
to share about teaching, online learning, and assessment in this class. My research project as a whole
focuses on the improvement of online teaching and learning activity for in-service teachers, with
particular interest in understanding interaction between different elements in the course. I am also
interested in how teacher education courses help teachers to learn more effectively

My study does not aim to evaluate your techniques or experiences. Rather, I am trying to learn more
about online teaching and learning, hopefully learn more about what is in online environments that help
for in-service language teachers develop knowledge.

Ice breakers
Are there aspects of your teaching that you particularly enjoy?

A. SECTION B: PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE:
What was your basic training in?
What do you do now?
Can you walk me through what you do in your job?
Why did you decide to do your PhD?
Why did you take this particular course?




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SECTION B: EXPERIENCE OF THE COURSE
Course Activities
Can you walk me through some of the activities in the online course?
What worked for you in that course?
What didn’t work for you?

Can you describe you experience of the following activities? What were you learning through them?
       •       Collaborating with partner on EHU activity (probe)
       •       Collaborating on the wiki (probe)
       •       Preparing the group presentation (probe)
       •       Analyzing instructional conversations (probe)
       •       Preparing a case study of digital use (probe)

Collaborative Activities
Were collaborative activities a significant or peripheral part of the course?
Can you walk me through some of the collaborative activities? How did you feel about these group
activities? Were there any experiences that were particularly good or particularly difficult? What were
you learning from these collaborative activities?

Group Discussions
Can you walk me through some of the procedures of the discussions? Would you say these discussions
were a significant or peripheral part of the course?
What were the discussions about?
To what extent did these discussions help you learn? What were you learning from these discussions?

Here are some of the discussions that were carried out (list discussions).
What did you learn from (Specify discussion)?

Course Resources
What were some resources used in the course, like course readings, videos, website links, document
templates, etc.?
Can you walk me through some of the ways the resources were used during the course?
Would you say these resources were fundamental or peripheral to the course? To what extent were
these articles helping in your discussions?
To what extent were these articles (specify readings) helping in activity? (Specify activity)
Could the course activities have been conducted without the course readings?
Could the course activities have been conducted without these videos?

Technological Tools
What were some forms of technology you used in the course? To what extent were these tools helpful?




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Professional Development:
Can you describe your experiences of different forms of professional development since you began
working as a teacher?
When you enrolled for this course, did you have any particular expectations of what you would like to
learn in the course?
In what way is this course similar or different to your other prior experiences of professional
development?
How have you developed as a result of this course?
Would teachers in schools benefit from attending a course like this one? In what ways would they
benefit?
Would a course like this need to be restructured to better meet teachers’ needs? Can this be conducted
as-is? If not, based on your experience, what suggestions would you have for making this course more
relevant for teachers?

Relevance
Was the course professionally meaningful?
How was it meaningful/not meaningful to you?
Did you consciously or subconsciously apply some of the things you learnt in this course at work?

SECTION C:

Other Insights
Are there any insights, issues or concerns which we have not discussed, but which you think will add to my
understanding of your online learning experience?

SECTION D:
POST INTERVIEW COMMENTS OR LEADS TO FOLLOW UP:

                    Follow-up Issues                                             Comments




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                                                                Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction


SECTION E:
DEBRIEFING

Thank you very much for coming this morning (afternoon). I really appreciate your time your time and
effort and your comments have been very helpful.
I would like to remind you that I have taken the following measures to ensure confidentiality:
(1) Your comments will be pooled with group comments; and
(2) I will not place any identifying information on data collection instruments. (Such identifiers include
name, social security number, student identification number, specific birth data, telephone number,
address, etc.)

Again, thank you for participating. (TURN VIDEO-RECORDER OFF.)

                                                                                                         Interview adapted from:
      http://www.engr.washington.edu/caee/APS_Process_Procedures/Appendix_3-A_APS_Structured_Interview_Protocol_Example_Ext.pdf


                                                                                                         [Back to write-up]




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                                                                                                         Appendix C
               Mapping Research Questions to Interview Protocol [Back to write-up]


     Research Questions                                   Questions in Interview Protocol
1.   How do activities        Course Activities
     mediate in knowledge     Can you walk me through some of the activities in the online course?
     construction within an   What worked for you in that course?
     online community of      What didn’t work for you?
     teachers?
                              Can you describe you experience of the following activities? What were you learning
                              through them?
                                   Collaborating with partner on EHU activity (probe)
                                   Collaborating on the wiki (probe)
                                   Preparing the group presentation (probe)
                                   Analyzing instructional conversations (probe)
                                   Preparing a case study of digital use (probe)

                              Collaborative Activities
                              Were collaborative activities a significant or peripheral part of the course?
                              Can you walk me through some of the collaborative activities? How did you feel about
                              these group activities? Were there any experiences that were particularly good or
                              particularly difficult? What were you learning from these collaborative activities?
                              Group Discussions
                              Were discussions part of your course activities? Can you walk me through some of the
                              procedures of the discussions? Would you say these discussions were a significant or
                              peripheral part of the course?
                              What were the discussions about?
                              To what extent did these discussions help you learn? What were you learning from these
                              discussions?

                              Here are some of the discussions that were carried out (list discussions).
                              What did you learn from (Specify discussion)?

2.   How do cultural tools    Course Resources
     mediate in knowledge     What were some resources used in the course, like course readings, videos, website links,
     construction within an   document templates, etc.?
     online community of      Can you walk me through some of the ways the resources were used during the course?
     teachers?                Would you say these resources were fundamental or peripheral to the course? To what
                              extent were these articles helping in your discussions?

                              To what extent were these articles (specify readings) helping in activity? (specify activity)
                              Could the course activities have been conducted without the course readings?
                              Could the course activities have been conducted without these videos?

                              Technological Tools
                              What were some forms of technology you used in the course? To what extent were these
                              tools helpful?

                              Development:
                              How have you developed as a result of this course?


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                                                          Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

     Research Questions                                     Questions in Interview Protocol
3.   What forms of            Can you describe your experiences of different forms of professional development since
     professional             you began working as a teacher?
     development do FL        What led you to this course?
     teachers find relevant   Did you have any particular expectations of what you would like to learn in the course?
     to their needs?          In what way is this course similar or different to your other prior experiences of
                              professional development?
                              Would teachers in schools benefit from attending a course like this one? In what ways
                              would they benefit?
                              Would a course like this need to be restructured to better meet teachers’ needs? Can this
                              be conducted as-is?
                              If not, based on your experience, what suggestions would you have for making this course
                              more relevant for teachers?
                              Relevance
                              Was the course professionally meaningful?
                              How was it meaningful/not meaningful to you?
                              Did you consciously or subconsciously apply some of the things you learnt in this course at
                              work?

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                                                                                                  Joy Quah
                                                       Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

                                                                                               Appendix D


                     General Online Course Observation Protocol [Back to write-up]

Observer:       ____________________________
Course:         ____________________________

Session             M1          M2            M3         M4         M5          M6          M7
Date

Purpose of Observation:
    This protocol provides a systematic basis for online observation and interpretation to create a
       standardized record that promotes greater reliability among different observers.
    Another goal of the observation is to improve the researcher’s own understanding of how
       activities and tools in the online environment supports student learning.
    The observer accesses an online course site not to evaluate, but to create a dialogue about the
       theories, best practices and students’ experiences of online teacher development programs.

The instructional design focus of online instruction must be to engage learners purposefully and
strategically in integrated interactions with content, activities, peers, and with the instructor ultimately
facilitating the learning process
                                       (Koszalka, 2001; Koszalka & Bianco, 2001; Marra & Jonassen, 2001).

Observation Format:

The form is a combination of checklist, rating sheet and written analysis.

General Observation: [For first 2 sessions]

1. Course Site Management.
     Are course policies for online learning, attendance and participation clearly posted?
     Are assignments and due dates presented?
     Is the online website organized in a way that is conducive to learning?

Module Observation [For all observation sessions]

2. Instructional Coherence.
      Is the lesson under observation coherent in itself, with a clear focus which is clearly presented
         and reinforced by the instructor? How?
      Does the instructor provide/elicit enough depth and detail to adequately consider the subject?
         Is the learning unit part of a coherent learning process? Is the pacing of the learning unit
         appropriate to the course and to the students?
      Are topics/activities sequenced logically?
      What evidence is there that the learning unit fits in with a series of lessons designed to help
         students achieve the objectives of the course?



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                                                                                                   Joy Quah
                                                        Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction




4. Teaching Strategies.

    a. What teaching strategies or premises about
         teaching does the instructor rely on?
Activity:
__Individual
__Small group
__Whole class
__Student Presentation
__Teacher Presentation

Primary nature of student activity:
__Passive and receiving
__Producing and creating

       How is the subject of the learning unit
        related to the course objectives?
       How effectively do the instructor’s teaching
        strategies help students achieve the course
        objectives?
       How does the instructor’s presentation of
        material, including discussion, questioning,
        class and group activities, support learning
        objectives?
       Is critical thinking emphasized? (Challenging
        students to understand complex ideas,
        analyze, compare/contrast, evaluate
        arguments carefully considering a variety of
        perspectives, draw conclusions)
       Is there good use of examples/explanation
        to clarify points, including those questioned
        by students?
       Are student questions encouraged?
       Is there opportunity for students to interact
        together discover, discuss, apply or practice
        content points?
    




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                                                                                               Joy Quah
                                                    Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction




Pedagogies

             Elements for Observation                                   Comments
Authentic tasks
Do the learning activities involve tasks and
contexts that reflect the way in which the
knowledge will be used in real life settings


Opportunities for collaboration
Does the environment encourage and require
students to collaborate to create products that
could not be produced individually?

Learner-Centred environments
Is there is a focus on activities that provide
degrees of freedom, decision-making reflection
and self-regulation?

Engaging learners
The learning activities challenge learners and
provide some form of encouragement and
motivation to support the engagement

Meaningful assessments
Are authentic and integrated assessment used to
evaluate students’ achievement?

Instructional Resources:

Resources in quality learning materials demonstrate the following”
Accessibility
    Are resources organized in ways that make them easily accessed and located?
    Are resources separate from learning tasks?
    Are organizational strategies intuitive and clear?
    Are resources accessible in a non-linear format?

Currency
     Is the age of resources appropriate to the subject matter?
     Are resources current and based on regular literature reviews by lecturer?
     Ares seminal works included, regardless of age?
     Are primary resources used?




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                                                                                                  Joy Quah
                                                       Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction


Richness in Resources
     Are a variety of instructional resources used?
     Do resources reflect a rich variety of perspectives?
     Do resources represent a variety of views (including conflicting views) to allow students the
       opportunity to assess the merit of arguments?
     Do resources provide for a range of perspectives?
     Are different forms of media used to enrich data sources?

Purposeful Use of Media and Tools
    Is media suitable used for the purpose intended?
    Is a variety of media is used where appropriate?
    Are web tools and other course site tools used effectively?

4. Subject Mastery.
Is the subject matter and level of analysis being asked of the students of a degree of difficulty suitable to
the course?
Is the material presented relevant to the purpose of the course?

5. Instructor and Students Interaction
Are interactions between the instructor and students respectful, positive, and educationally productive?
Is it clear that both instructor and students are prepared for the class?
What evidence is there of interest, enthusiasm, and engagement in online activities on the side of the of
the students?
Does the instructor motivate students and encourage student learning in
appropriate ways?
Does the instructor respond appropriately to student behaviors and concerns?

General observations:




Course Documentation

           List of Documents Collected:                                     Comments




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                                                                                                             Joy Quah
                                                                  Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction


Protocol Adapted from:
http://www.kbcc.cuny.edu/sub-administration/sub-academic_affairs/Documents/observation_form.pdf

Hosie, P., Schibeci, R., & Backhaus, A. (2005). A framework and checklists for evaluating online learning in higher education.
Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 30(5), 539-553. doi:10.1080/02602930500187097

                                                                                                            [Back to write-up]




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                                                                                                     Joy Quah
                                                          Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

                                                                                                       Appendix E
Proposed Data Analysis Frameworks [Back to write-up]

Interaction Analysis Model (Gunawardena et al, 1997)

5 Stages of Knowledge Construction:

1 Sharing and comparing of information
        observations, opinions, statements of agreement, examples, clarifications, and identifications of
        problems

2 Discovery and exploration of dissonance
        Identifying inconsistencies among ideas, concepts, or statements

3 Negotiation of meaning and/or co-construction of knowledge
       negotiation, identifications of areas of agreement, and proposing new co-constructions on topics
       where conflict exists

4 Testing and modification of proposed synthesis
        co-construction - co-constructed statements are tested against existing cognitive schema,
        experiences, and literature

5 Agreement and application of newly-constructed meaning
       summarizing agreements, applications of new knowledge, and metacognitive statements
       revealing new knowledge

Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework (Shulman, 1987)

       content knowledge
       general pedagogical knowledge
       broad principles and strategies of classroom management and organization
       curriculum knowledge
       grasp of the materials and programs that serve as "tools of the trade" for teachers;
       pedagogical content knowledge
       content and pedagogy that is uniquely the province of teachers, their own special form of professional
        understanding;
       knowledge of learners and their characteristics
       knowledge of educational contexts
       the workings of the group or classroom, the governance and financing of school districts, to the character
        of communities and cultures; and
       knowledge of educational ends
       purposes, and values, and their philosophical and historical grounds.




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                                                                                                Joy Quah
                                                     Engaging Language Teachers in Knowledge Construction

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework (Koehler, Mishra & Yahya, 2007)

Content (C)
       is the subject matter that is to be learned/taught. FL/social studies/algebra/computer
       science/art history

Technology (T)
       includes standard technologies (books, chalk, blackboard) as well as more advanced
       technologies (Internet, digital video, multi-modal resources)

Pedagogy (P)
      includes the process and practice or methods of teaching, values, techniques, and assessment
      strategies

T + C =Technological Content Knowledge (TC)
        Understanding technology and content are reciprocally related

T + P = Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TP)
         Understanding existence, components and capabilities of various technologies applied in
         teaching & learning

T + P + C = Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK)
         Understanding the dynamic, transactional relationship between these three knowledge
         components

                                                                                     [Back to write-up]




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