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Instructor: Peter Paolucci
July 22, 2012
www107 Mid-Week Assignment
1. Explain what a domain is, and how domains are defined and organized.
A: Domain is what users enter on browsers to access a website, it is also your internet identity or your unique online brand.
Your customers will then remember and use this address to find your website, your products or your services. When your
customer type MyCompany.com into a web browser or send email to someone at MyCompany.com, the Domain Name
System (DNS) translates MyCompany.com into the Internet Protocol (IP) numbers used by the Internet to locate
destinations and connects them to MyCompany website.
Each domain is defined by suffix on the website name, (e.g. .com, .org, .ca, .net) that indicates which top level domain
(TLD) it belongs to. The lists of domain names and IP addresses are distributed throughout the Internet in a hierarchy of
“ICANN, (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), is a nonprofit organization that has assumed
the responsibility for IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management and
root server system management functions previously performed under U.S. Government contract.” 2
“A domain name is an identification label that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority, or control in the
Internet, based on the Domain Name System (DNS).”1
2. Name two TLDs that were a surprise to you because you never knew they existed. Impress me with what you have found.
A: TLDs means top-level domain. One of the two TLDs that were a surprised to me was .xn--0zwm56d simplified Chinese
(Han script) and .xn--g6w251d traditional Chinese (Han script). I noticed that they were still in proposed stages, but it
will open-up a broader range of businesses around the globe.
“There are also some proposed top-level domains. These proposals are centered on creating an independent Internet
identity for linguistic and cultural communities. They are mostly inspired by the success of the cat domain created for
websites in the Catalan language or about the Catalan culture.” 3
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3. a) What are whois serves and what information can they provide? b) why might this information helpful for your client.
A: “The WHOIS system originated as a method for system administrators to obtain contact information for IP address
assignments or domain name administrators. The use of the data in the WHOIS system has evolved into a variety of uses,
• Supporting the security and stability of the Internet by providing contact points for network operators and administra-
tors, including ISPs, and certified computer incident response teams;
• Determining the registration status of domain names;
• Assisting law enforcement authorities in investigations for enforcing national and international laws, including, for ex-
ample, countering terrorism-related criminal offenses and in supporting international cooperation procedures. In some
countries, specialized non-governmental entities may be involved in this work;
• Assisting in the combating against abusive uses of Information communication technology, such as illegal and other acts
motivated by racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, and related intolerance, hatred, violence, all forms of child
abuse, including pedophilia and child pornography, the trafficking in, and exploitation of, human beings.
• Facilitating inquiries and subsequent steps to conduct trademark clearances and to help counter intellectual property
infringement, misuse and theft in accordance with applicable national laws and international treaties;
• Contributing to user confidence in the Internet as a reliable and efficient means of information and communication and
as an important tool for promoting digital inclusion, e-commerce and other legitimate uses by helping users identify
persons or entities responsible for content and services online; and
• Assisting businesses, other organizations and users in combating fraud, complying with relevant laws and safeguarding
the interests of the public.” 4
! This link will be helpful for my future use: http://www.math.utah.edu/whois.html
Your #3a is way too much information. Keep the context in mind; you need this
information to deal with your own clients. All you need to say is WhoIs helps me find
owners of other websites that my client might want to purchase or owners that my client
might want to contact.
It will be very helpful for them, because in the future, they may need to maintain their website, understanding how and
what they are protected. Or if they may come across some disputes issues over the domain names and what are the laws.
4. a) How much would a domain cost? (ex: www.mybusiness.ca)
b) Can you buy them on behalf of your client?
c) If so, from whom?
A: a) Domains vary by price. One of my friend’s site was hosted by Godaddy.com, surprisingly, he got it for around $12/yr.
According to what www.mybusiness.ca shows, Netfirms.ca offers $6.95
http://www.blacksun.ca/domain.html is also a good source
b) Yes, I can buy them on behalf of my client.
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c) I can get it from places like GoDaddy.com
5. Why should your client have their own domain (www.mybusiness.ca) instead of (for example)
A: If the public knows the name of your company & you can get the name of the company in the domain then it's easier for
users to know the domain name and get access to your company right away, instead of going through different channels.
It is also easier for them to use the search engine and find you. A domain name has to be meaningful and to be
easy-to-remember for an Internet address.
For market branding, having your own domain provides a more professional image. It will also indicate that your company
is well-structured, well-thought out, and not a home-based company.
If, you have difficulties in obtaining your own domain name, and wanted your client to use your company names to
search, domain forwarding is another option, but of course you have to pay extra for that service.
This two link is very helpful!!! http://ezinearticles.com/?10-Benefits-Of-Having-Your-Own-Domain-Name&id=671807
It provide a professional appearance.
Easier to recall your website.
Help promote yourself and not just your affiliates.
You can build a contact list with your own capture page.
Give yourself a true web presence.
A “real” email address.
Able to promote multiple products. Investment in your online future.
It is easy to do. Put you into business pyschologically.
6. a) What is a domain registrar? b) What is a NIC?
A: a) “A domain name registrar is an organization or commercial entity, accredited by the Internet Corporation for Assigned
Names and Numbers (ICANN) or by a national country code top-level domain (ccTLD) authority, to manage the
reservation of Internet domain names in accordance with the guidelines of the designated domain name registries and
offer such services to the public.” 5
b) Domain Name Registration — Network Information Center. 6
“A domain name registry, is a database of all domain names registered in a top-level domain. A registry
operator, also called a Network Information Center (NIC), is the part of the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet
that keeps the database of domain names, and generates the zone files which convert domain names to IP addresses.
Each NIC is an organization that manages the registration of Domain names within the top-level domains for which it is
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responsible, controls the policies of domain name allocation, and technically operates its top-level domain. It is
potentially distinct from a domain name registrar.
Domain names are managed under a hierarchy headed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), which manages
the top of the DNS tree by administrating the data in the root nameservers.” 7
You're one of the few people who got 6b ... well done.
7. What is domain forwarding, and how can it help your client?
A: URL redirection, also called URL forwarding and the very similar technique domain redirection also called domain
forwarding, are techniques on the World Wide Web for making a web page available under many URLs.
“Domain forwarding — available only to Yahoo! (That’s what they claim!) Domains and Business Email customers — lets
you point your domain name to another home page or web site location. Forwarding is handy when you have a web site
built elsewhere and you want to give people an easy-to-remember domain name to reach your site.” 8
If, you have difficulties in obtaining your own domain name, and wanted your client to use their company names to
search, domain forwarding is another option, but of course you have to pay extra for that service.
According to my research, there is a lot of hosting company will provide that service. 9
Here's an example. You can forward:
So when people type http://www.widgetdesigns.com/ in their browsers, they'll see
Note: Advanced users may also take advantage of advanced DNS settings
(A records, MX records, and CNAME).
Personally, I prefer not to have domain forwarding. But again, this is just another options, if they are not ready to
Domain name forwarding is very important if your client wants to "corner the market" and
buy (say) www.abc.com, .ca, .net. and .org. You mount one of the on a server and have
the others forwarded to the mounted one. This ensures clients will have a better chance
of remembering your URL and and improves search engine ratings.
8. What is the difference – conceptually and in financial cost – between merely owning a domain, and actually having it hosted
on a server somewhere?
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A: If your client owns their name, they have it forever. But if they have to lease it out from somewhere, not only they have
to pay annually, but they also rely on the leasing terms and availability, sometimes it is hard to foresee the future
reliability of the company where they leased from.
If they own it, they have the full control. You may also encourage your client for a future expansion of their business,
i.e., buy a few blocks of domain names that may be potential their clients’ name. So, the search engine will quickly
locate their website.
Your #8. Actually no, they don't own it forever ... you have to keep paying for it (there
now are 99 year leases). In certain cases a civil court can order that you give up the
domain if it infringes on someone else's rights or legitimate claim to market branding.
9. Describe what steps your client will have to go through to procure a domain.
A: First, you have to help your client to establish/search whether their name that they want is available.
e.g. go through the whois serves process. If their name is unavailable, they may need to go through the domain
forwarding, but of course, they have to paid the extra service.
Excellent links for the helping clients to purchase a domain!!!!
1. Choosing a domain name
2. Finding a name that hasn’t been taken
3. Registering your domain name
4. Applying for Federal trademark protection
Your #9 ... ahh if only there all that easy ...
10.What kinds of legal problems can your client encounter in registering a domain and how domain disputes resolved?
A: “Disputes are normally started with demand letters or cease-and-desist letters. These letters are sent to you from the
trade-mark owner or its lawyers and usually threaten legal action if you do not cease using and/or transfer the domain
name to the trade-mark owner.
Assuming that you do not reach a settlement with the trade-mark owner, domain name disputes are typically resolved in
one of two ways: (i) litigation in court or (ii) arbitration. Depending on the type of dispute, court proceedings may be
brought in the Federal Court of Canada, a provincial superior court or in a U.S. court. Arbitration of a domain name
dispute regarding a .com, .net, .org domain name, among others, would be resolved under the Uniform Domain Name
Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP). Arbitration of a .ca domain name would be resolved under the Canadian Domain Name
Dispute Resolution Policy (CDRP). These policies are described further below. Other types of domain names may have
their own arbitration rules for deciding disputes.
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Canadian Legal Information Institute: with links to the Federal Court of Canada and provincial superior courts' websites
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN): background information regarding the UDRP, including the
text of the UDRP itself Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA): background information regarding the CDRP,
including the text of the text of the CDRP itself Text of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act 11
The WHOIS system may also your client in solving some disputes issues.