Human Systems The Circulatory System by ewghwehws

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									The Human Organism:
Introduction to Human Body Systems

             PART 2



                      TPJ 3M
                      Nicole Klement
Human Organ Systems

1.   Skeletal      7.  Excretory
2.   Muscular      8. Reproductive

3.   Circulatory   9. Nervous

4.   Immune        10. Endocrine

5.   Respiratory   11. Integumentary

6.   Digestive
History of
The Circulatory System

 Once thought to be
 the origin of emotions
 since it beat faster when a person
 was scared or excited,
 we now know that that is not the
 heart’s function.
Function of
The Human Circulatory System

1. Transportation of oxygen and
   carbon dioxide
2. Distribution of nutrients and
   transport of wastes
3. Maintenance of body
   temperature
4. Circulation of hormones
Structures of
The Circulatory system
1.  BLOOD
fluid in which materials are transported

2. BLOOD VESSELS
Veins and arteries act as spaces throughout the body in which the fluid
    moves

     -no cell in the body is further away than two cells from a blood vessel
     that carries nutrients and oxygen
     -there are 96 000 km of blood vessels in your body to sustain your
     100 trillion cells

3. A PUMP
The heart pushes the fluid through the blood vessels or spaces
      - the heart is about as large as the size of your fist and has a mass of 30g
      - the heart beats about 72 beats/minute from the beginning of life until death
      - during an average lifetime, the heart pumps enough blood to fill two large
          ocean tankers
Fact
          Your heart beats 60-
           70 times per minute.
           Each time it pumps 60
           ml of blood.

           How many
           milliliters are
           pumped in 24
           hours?
Answer

5184000 ml

          OR

5184 liter bottles
Organs of
The circulatory system

                    1.   Veins
                    2.   Arteries
                    3.   Capillaries
                    4.   (Blood)
                    5.   Heart
Veins
           Veins carry blood back
            to the heart.
           Veins have valves
           2 major veins carry
            return blood from
            your body to your
            heart: the superior
            vena cava returns
            blood from your head
            and the inferior vena
            cava from your lower
            body
Arteries
              Carry blood away
               from your heart
              Have thick, elastic
               walls made of
               tissue and smooth
               muscle
Capillaries
                 Microscopic blood
                  vessels.
                 Walls are only one
                  cell thick
                 Bloodshot eyes
                 Nutrients and
                  oxygen diffuse
                  from body cells
                  into capillaries
Blood
           Carries oxygen
            from lungs to body
           Takes carbon
            dioxide away
           Carries waste
            products to
            kidneys
           Transports
            nutrients
           Cells in blood fight
            infections
Blood
           Made up of plasma
            (55%), mostly
            water.
           Platelets ;help
            with clotting
           Red blood cells:
            made at rate of 2-
            3 million per
            second.
           White: help fight
            bacteria, viruses,
            etc
Blood Types
                 4 types
                 A, B, AB, O
                 Types A, B, AB
                  have antigens
                  coating their
                  surface. Rh factor
                 Wrong type of
                  blood will kill you
                 Type “O” is
                  universal
Fact
          First blood
           transfusion was in
           early 1800”s.
          French physician
           Jean Baptiste
           Denis successfully
           used sheep’s
           blood. His second
           patient died.
Heart
           Made of cardiac
            muscle tissue
           Has 4 compartments
            called chambers: two
            upper are atriums,
            two lower are
            ventricles.
           Heart has arteries just
            and veins just like any
            other muscle
 Diagram of Human Heart

                                  Aorta

Superior vena cava
                                  Pulmonary artery

                                     Left atrium
 Right atrium
                                      Mitral Valve
Tricuspid Valve

                                          Left Ventricle
Right Ventricle



                  Anterior view
Blood flow through
The Cardiovascular System


   Pulmonary circulation is the flow of
    blood through the heart, to the lungs, and
    back to the heart.
   Systemic circulation happens when
    Oxygen rich blood moving to all tissues
    and organs of the body
   Coronary circulation is the flow of blood
    to and from the tissues of the heart.
Cardiac Muscle


    Also called myocardium
        is found only in the heart
    More mitochondria than skeletal
     muscle (about 35% occupations)
Electrical Impulses & the Heart


   Myocardium (heart muscle) has its
   own built in electrochemical
   activator

 Called a pacemaker

   The pacemaker produces a heart
   beat independent of the Central
   Nervous System (we don’t need to
   think about it)
Atherosclerosis
                     Fatty deposits
                      build up on arterial
                      walls. Eating fatty
                      foods high in
                      cholesterol and
                      saturated fats can
                      cause these
                      deposits to form.
                     Not all cholesterol
                      is bad, and is
                      essential for
                      health.
Heart
           When these
            arteries are
            blocked, it starves
            the heart of
            oxygen and
            nutrients, resulting
            in a heart attack
Help for the
Circulatory System

   defibrillators
   pacemakers
   heart transplant
   artificial heart - 1st artificial heart: 1982,
    Jarvik-7, patient lived 112 days
   Ottawa researchers close to production of
    artificial heart HeartSaverVAD (ventricular
    assist device)
BLOOD PRESSURE
       &
CARDIAC OUTPUT
Blood pressure
                    The force of the blood
                     against the walls of your
                     blood vessels.

                 Measured in two numbers:
                 1. Systolic is the first
                    number and measures
                    your heart pumping.
                 2. Diastolic is the second
                    number and measures
                    pressure that occurs as
                    the ventricles fill with
                    blood before they contract
                    again.
Systolic Pressure
 Also  referred to as systole
 It is the highest pressure recorded
  in the heart (usually ~ 120 mmHg
  at rest)
 It is the work phase of the heart
  when blood pumped out to your
  body
Diastolic Pressure
 Also  referred to as diastole
 It is the lowest pressure recorded in
  the heart (usually ~ 80 mmHg at
  rest)
 It is the rest phase of the heart
  when blood is filling into the
  ventricles
Measuring Blood Pressure
Blood pressure: the force of the blood on the
  walls of the arteries when the ventricles of the
  heart contract. Blood pressure is measured in
  millimetres of mercury or mm Hg.
Measuring blood pressure
 - cuff on and tightened to pressure greater than
  120 mm Hg (about 160)
 - cuff pressure gradually reduced until
  stethoscope can detect blood passing through
  (systole value)
 - reduction in pressure continued until sound
  disappears (diastole)
Classification of Blood Pressure
for adults over 18

								
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