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									  Intelligence: Theories

EDU 330: Educational Psychology
         Daniel Moos
    Intelligence: Introduction (I)
What comes to mind when you hear
         Intelligence: Introduction (II)

How is intelligence studied?
 Factor Analysis:
     Statistical analysis used to measure a latent variable
      (i.e. can’t directly measure the variable)
     Results identify underlying manifest variables (i.e.
      variables that can be directly measured)
         Intelligence: Introduction (III)

Example of Factor Analysis: How is athletic ability measured at NHL

                         Athletic Ability

     Strength                 Speed                    Agility
Intelligence: Factor Models (I)
     Charles Spearman (1927)
         Two factors
(1)   g factor  domain-general and homogeneous (i.e. intellectual
      functioning relatively homogenous across a number of different
(2)   Specific factor  Specific factors that are pertinent to specific
      task (but…g factor is what most interested Spearman)

                                   g factor
  Dimension                  Description               Example
Linguistic           Ability to use language

Logical             Reasoning, numbers, symbols

Musical             Sensitivity to pitch, tone

Spatial              perceive the visual-spatial
                     world accurately

Kinesthetic          Ability to use body coordinated
Interpersonal        Understanding of social

Intrapersonal        Understanding of self

Naturalistic         Recognize similarities/diff in
                     physical world
                 REAL-LIFE CONTEXT
Linguistic      Ability to use language
                                                  Identify THREE
Logical                                           specific examples of
                Reasoning, numbers, symbols
                                                  how you might
Musical         Sensitivity to pitch, tone
                                                  address different
                                                  “intelligences” within
Spatial                                           your class? In other
                Perceive words accurately
                                                  words, how might you
Kinesthetic     Ability to use body coordinated   design
                movements                         activities/lessons, etc
Interpersonal   Understanding of social           to meet the needs of
                interactions                      students with diverse
Intrapersonal   Understanding of self             set of intelligences?

Naturalistic    Recognize similarities/diff in
                physical world


   Analytical                 Creative                Practical
 (componential)             (experiential)           (contextual)

*Prior knowledge         *Novelty problems        *Adaptation
For: solving problems,   Unique situations        Adapt to environment
learn new information,   *Automation              *Shaping
making judgments,                                 Change environment
                         Apply learned material
evaluating, problem
                         to novel situation       *Selection
                                                  Select new environment
    Intelligence: Thought Question
   Parents at an elementary school back-to-school
    night want to know why their child is not ability
    grouped in every content area. They feel that
    their child is being held back. How would you
    answer their question?
   On separate (but possibly related to note), to
    what extent do you believe intelligence is
    “nature” or “nurture”?
       (1: Nature… 10: Nurture)
Intelligence: Nature or Nurture?

   Foster parent-child                                .20
     The relationship between intelligence scores for
      a child and foster parent is mildly positive
   Parent-child                                       .50
   Siblings reared together                           .49
   Fraternal twins (two eggs)                         .53
   Identical twins (one egg splitting) reared apart: .75
   Identical twins reared together                   .87
    Note: Data from 1963
    Intelligence: IQ Tests (I)
   Mental Age: Represents number passed by average child of
    same age
         Example: If a child passed a number of items equal to the number
          passed by the average 15-year old, that child would have a mental
          age of 15 (regardless of the child’s chronological age)
   Intelligence Quotient:
      (mental age ÷ chronological age) x 100
       Example: A 10 year-old with a mental age of 10 =
      (10/10) x 100 = 100
       Example: A 21 year-old with a mental age of 21 =
      (21/21) x 100 = 100
       Example: A 10 year-old with a mental age of 9 =
      (9/10) x 100 = 90
       Example: A 10 year-old with a mental age of 11 =
      (11/10) x 100 = 110
      Intelligence: IQ Tests (II)
      Issues with IQ Tests
(1)    Does mental age = intelligence?
      (1)         Example: 7-year old and 10-year old have same mental age;
                  comparable intelligence?
      (2)         Example: Two children with IQ of 120
            (1)     5 year-old (mental age of 6)
            (2)     10 year-old (mental age of 12)
(2)    IQ tests are standardized
      (1)         May not accurately measure intelligence among minority
                  children, ELL (test administration may bias results)
        Intelligence: Ability grouping (I)

   Ability grouping: Placing students of similar abilities
    into groups, and attempting to match instruction to
    needs of the groups (Lou, Abrami, & Spence, 2000)
   Elementary:
       Between-class grouping: Divides students at a certain grade
        into levels (e.g., high, average, low)
       Within-class grouping: Divides students in a class into
        subgroups based on reading or math scores
       Joplin plan: Regroups across grade levels
   MS, HS:
       Tracking: Places students in different classes or curricula on
        basis of achievement
        Intelligence: Ability grouping (II)

   What are some pros and cons of ability
       Pros: Teachers can adjust methods,
        instructional pace and materials to better meet
        needs of learner
       Cons: Logistical problems, improper
        placement, stigmatization, negative effects of
        homogeneous groups (as opposed to
        heterogeneous groups)
    Intelligence: Socioeconomic status (I)

   Socioeconomic status (SES): Combination of
    parents’ income, occupation, and level of education
    that describes relative standing in society
       Powerful predictor in student achievement, particularly test
        scores, grades, suspension rate, and dropout rates (Macionis,
       Why do think that SES is such a powerful predictor?
   Intelligence: Socioeconomic status (II)
SES influences learning in at 3 ways
Note: The below describes group differences; individuals within a
  group vary widely
                          High SES (>160,000)           Low SES (<25,000)
    Basic needs &       -Well nourished, stable      -Sometimes lack proper
     experiences        homes                        nourishment
                        -Access to ed. activities    -Homelessness, lack
                        outside home                 access to learning
                                                     experiences outside of
 Parental involvement   -Highly involved,            -Low involvement in
                        involvement in               extracurricular activities
                        extracurricular activities
  Attitudes & values    -Parents                     -Parents value
                        value/emphasize              conformity
                        autonomy                     -Lower expectations
                        -High expectations

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