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Citizens, Society and the State
           Social Cleavages
 Multinational Identities
 Social Class distinctions
 Protestant/ Catholic split in Ireland
      Multinational Identities
 United Kingdom: England, Wales, Scotland
  and Northern Ireland.
 Great Britain: England, Wales and
 England
      Social Class Distinctions
 Distinctions between the rich and poor
  have always been important in Britain,
  with the biggest distinction today being
  between the middle and working class.
 They are not always divided by income,
  but psychologically and subjectively.
        Social Class continued…
   Elite Education:
    – “Public Schools” were originally used to train
      boys for “public life” in the military, civil
      service or politics.
    – They were very expensive and not “public” at
    – The elite boarding schools and the middle
      class attends “private” grammar schools
      where students wear uniforms, but do not live
        Social Class continued…
   Oxford and Cambridge Universities:
    – Most important portal to the elite classes is
      through Oxford and Cambridge.
    – Nearly half of all Conservative members of
      Parliament went to Oxford.
           Ethnic Minorities
 Indian – 23%
 Pakistani – 16%
 Afro-Caribbean – 12.2%
 Black African – 10.5%
 According to the 2001 census, only about
  7.1% of the British population is of non-
  European origin with most coming from
  countries that were formerly British
     Political Beliefs and Values
 Civic culture (political culture) in Britain
  was characterized by trust, deference to
  authority and competence, pragmatism
  and harmony.
 British citizens reflect good qualities for
  democratic participation:
    – High percentage of people voting in elections
    – Acceptance of authority, accept rules of game
    – Tolerance for different points of view
       Political Values and Beliefs
   Social and economic changes during the
    1970s (oil prices) altered these
    characteristics so that today British
    citizens are less supportive of the
    collective consensus and more inclined to
    values associated with a free market
Manifestations of changing political
       beliefs and values…
 Decreasing support for labor unions (strife
  between the Conservative Party
  (Thatcherism) and unions, unions being
  considered “bullies” to the government
  and general population)
 Increased violence regarding Northern
  Ireland (Bloody Sunday-British troops
  killed thirteen Catholics in January 1972)
    Bloody Sunday Continued…
 Derry, Northern Ireland (1-30-72) in which
  26 civil rights protesters were shot by
  members of the 1st Battalion of the British
  Parachute Regiment during a Northern
  Ireland Civil Rights Association march on
  the Bogside area of the city.
 13 people, 7 of whom were teenagers,
  died immediately.
 Two protesters were injured when they
  were run down by army vehicles.
 Many witnesses testify that all those who
  were shot were unarmed.
 Five of those wounded were shot in the
 You Tube video – U2 “Sunday Bloody
 Thatcherism (the Conservative Party
  controlled British parliament from ’79-’97;
  plan was later modified by John Major,
  Margaret Thatcher set forth a Revolution
  towards a free market economy.
 She rejected collectivism and its emphasis
  on the redistribution of resources from
  rich to poor and government responsibility
  for full employment.
Continued…Last slide, I promise
 New Labour
 Tony Blair led the Labour Party as Prime
  Minister from 1997-2007.
 Loosened the ties on Labor Unions
 Thatcherism on the far right, Liberals
  (Labour) on the far left, Tony Blair
  brought about a Third Way, which was in
  the middle.

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